The surveillance mechanism of the spindle position checkpoint in yeast.
ABSTRACT: The spindle position checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae delays mitotic exit until the spindle has moved into the mother-bud neck, ensuring that each daughter cell inherits a nucleus. The small G protein Tem1p is critical in promoting mitotic exit and is concentrated at the spindle pole destined for the bud. The presumed nucleotide exchange factor for Tem1p, Lte1p, is concentrated in the bud. These findings suggested the hypothesis that movement of the spindle pole through the neck allows Tem1p to interact with Lte1p, promoting GTP loading of Tem1p and mitotic exit. However, we report that deletion of LTE1 had little effect on the timing of mitotic exit. We also examined several mutants in which some cells inappropriately exit mitosis even though the spindle is within the mother. In some of these cells, the spindle pole body did not interact with the bud or the neck before mitotic exit. Thus, some alternative mechanism must exist to coordinate mitotic exit with spindle position. In both wild-type and mutant cells, mitotic exit was preceded by loss of cytoplasmic microtubules from the neck. Thus, the spindle position checkpoint may monitor such interactions.
Project description:In budding yeast, the spindle position checkpoint (SPC) delays mitotic exit until the mitotic spindle moves into the neck between the mother and bud. This checkpoint works by inhibiting the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling cascade initiated and controlled by Tem1, a small GTPase. Tem1 is regulated by a putative guanine exchange factor, Lte1, but the function and regulation of Lte1 remains poorly understood. Here, we identify novel components of the checkpoint that operate upstream of Lte1. We present genetic evidence in agreement with existing biochemical evidence for the molecular mechanism of a pathway that links microtubule-cortex interactions with Lte1 and mitotic exit. Each component of this pathway is required for the spindle position checkpoint to delay mitotic exit until the spindle is positioned correctly.
Project description:For a daughter cell to receive a complete genomic complement, it is essential that the mitotic spindle be positioned accurately within the cell. In budding yeast, a signaling system known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) monitors spindle position and regulates the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a GTPase signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. The protein kinase Kin4 is a central component of the spindle position checkpoint. Kin4 primarily localizes to the mother cell and associates with spindle pole bodies (SPBs) located in the mother cell to inhibit MEN signaling. In contrast, the kinase does not associate with the SPB in the bud. Thus, only when a MEN bearing SPB leaves the mother cell and the spindle is accurately positioned along the mother-bud axis can MEN signaling occur and cell division proceed. Here, we describe a mechanism ensuring that Kin4 only associates with mother cell-located SPBs. The bud-localized MEN regulator Lte1, whose molecular function has long been unclear, prevents Kin4 that escapes into the bud from associating with SPBs in the daughter cell.
Project description:In budding yeast, alignment of the anaphase spindle along the mother-bud axis is crucial for maintaining genome integrity. If the anaphase spindle becomes misaligned in the mother cell compartment, cells arrest in anaphase because the mitotic exit network (MEN), an essential Ras-like GTPase signaling cascade, is inhibited by the spindle position checkpoint (SPoC). Distinct localization patterns of MEN and SPoC components mediate MEN inhibition. Most components of the MEN localize to spindle pole bodies. If the spindle becomes mispositioned in the mother cell compartment, cells arrest in anaphase due to inhibition of the MEN by the mother cell-restricted SPoC kinase Kin4. Here we show that a bud-localized activating signal is necessary for full MEN activation. We identify Lte1 as this signal and show that Lte1 activates the MEN in at least two ways. It inhibits small amounts of Kin4 that are present in the bud via its central domain. An additional MEN-activating function of Lte1 is mediated by its N- and C-terminal GEF domains, which, we propose, directly activate the MEN GTPase Tem1. We conclude that control of the MEN by spindle position is exerted by both negative and positive regulatory elements that control the pathway's GTPase activity.
Project description:Lte1 is a mitotic regulator long envisaged as a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Tem1, the small guanosine triphosphatase governing activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic exit network. We demonstrate that this model requires reevaluation. No GEF activity was detectable in vitro, and mutational analysis of Lte1's putative GEF domain indicated that Lte1 activity relies on interaction with Ras for localization at the bud cortex rather than providing nucleotide exchange. Instead, we found that Lte1 can determine the subcellular localization of Bfa1 at spindle pole bodies (SPBs). Under conditions in which Lte1 is essential, Lte1 promoted the loss of Bfa1 from the maternal SPB. Moreover, in cells with a misaligned spindle, mislocalization of Lte1 in the mother cell promoted loss of Bfa1 from one SPB and allowed bypass of the spindle position checkpoint. We observed that lte1 mutants display aberrant localization of the polarity cap, which is the organizer of the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that Lte1's role in cell polarization underlies its contribution to mitotic regulation.
Project description:How spatial information is translated into a chemical signal is a fundamental problem in all organisms. The spindle position checkpoint is a prime example of this problem. This checkpoint senses spindle position and, in budding yeast, inhibits the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. We find that spindle position is sensed by a system composed of MEN-inhibitory and -activating zones and a sensor that moves between them. The MEN inhibitory zone is located in the mother cell, the MEN-activating zone in the bud, and the spindle pole body (SPB), where the components of the MEN reside, functions as the sensor. Only when an SPB escapes the MEN inhibitor Kin4 in the mother cell and moves into the bud where the MEN activator Lte1 resides can exit from mitosis occur. In this manner, spatial information is sensed and translated into a chemical signal.
Project description:Budding yeast spindle position checkpoint is engaged by misoriented spindles and prevents mitotic exit by inhibiting the G protein Tem1 through the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bub2/Bfa1. Bub2 and Bfa1 are found on both duplicated spindle pole bodies until anaphase onset, when they disappear from the mother-bound spindle pole under unperturbed conditions. In contrast, when spindles are misoriented they remain symmetrically localized at both SPBs. Thus, symmetric localization of Bub2/Bfa1 might lead to inhibition of Tem1, which is also present at SPBs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that a Bub2 version symmetrically localized on both SPBs throughout the cell cycle prevents mitotic exit in mutant backgrounds that partially impair it. This effect is Bfa1 dependent and can be suppressed by high Tem1 levels. Bub2 removal from the mother-bound SPB requires its GAP activity, which in contrast appears to be dispensable for Tem1 inhibition. Moreover, it correlates with the passage of one spindle pole through the bud neck because it needs septin ring formation and bud neck kinases.
Project description:In budding yeast, if the spindle becomes mispositioned, cells prevent exit from mitosis by inhibiting the mitotic exit network (MEN). The MEN is a signaling cascade that localizes to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and activates the phosphatase Cdc14. There are two competing models that explain MEN regulation by spindle position. In the 'zone model', exit from mitosis occurs when a MEN-bearing SPB enters the bud. The 'cMT-bud neck model' posits that cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT)-bud neck interactions prevent MEN activity. Here we find that 1) eliminating cMT- bud neck interactions does not trigger exit from mitosis and 2) loss of these interactions does not precede Cdc14 activation. Furthermore, using binucleate cells, we show that exit from mitosis occurs when one SPB enters the bud despite the presence of a mispositioned spindle. We conclude that exit from mitosis is triggered by a correctly positioned spindle rather than inhibited by improper spindle position.
Project description:The asymmetrically dividing yeast S. cerevisiae assembles a bipolar spindle well after establishing the future site of cell division (i.e., the bud neck) and the division axis (i.e., the mother-bud axis). A surveillance mechanism called spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly positioned relative to the mother-bud axis, thereby ensuring the correct ploidy of the progeny. SPOC relies on the heterodimeric GTPase-activating protein Bub2/Bfa1 that inhibits the small GTPase Tem1, in turn essential for activating the mitotic exit network (MEN) kinase cascade and cytokinesis. The Bub2/Bfa1 GAP and the Tem1 GTPase form a complex at spindle poles that undergoes a remarkable asymmetry during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned, with the complex accumulating on the bud-directed old spindle pole. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. The mechanism driving asymmetry of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 in mitosis is unclear. Furthermore, whether asymmetry is involved in timely mitotic exit is controversial. We investigated the mechanism by which the GAP Bub2/Bfa1 controls GTP hydrolysis on Tem1 and generated a series of mutants leading to constitutive Tem1 activation. These mutants are SPOC-defective and invariably lead to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 at spindle poles, indicating that GTP hydrolysis is essential for asymmetry. Constitutive tethering of Bub2 or Bfa1 to both spindle poles impairs SPOC response but does not impair mitotic exit. Rather, it facilitates mitotic exit of MEN mutants, likely by increasing the residence time of Tem1 at spindle poles where it gets active. Surprisingly, all mutant or chimeric proteins leading to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 lead to increased symmetry at spindle poles of the Kar9 protein that mediates spindle positioning and cause spindle misalignment. Thus, asymmetry of the Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 complex is crucial to control Kar9 distribution and spindle positioning during mitosis.
Project description:The objective of mitosis is to provide a copy of the genome to each progeny of a cell division. This requires the separation of duplicate chromatids by the spindle apparatus and the delivery of one set of chromosomes to each of the daughter cells. In budding yeast, the fidelity of chromosome delivery depends on the spindle position checkpoint, which prolongs mitosis until one end of the anaphase spindle arrives in the bud. Here we tested the hypothesis that the activity of the spindle position checkpoint depends on persistent interactions between cytoplasmic microtubules and the mother-bud neck, the future site of cytokinesis. We used laser ablation to disrupt microtubule interactions with the bud neck, and we found that loss of microtubules from the neck leads to mitotic exit in a majority of checkpoint-activated cells. Our findings suggest that cytoplasmic microtubules are used to monitor the location of the spindle in the dividing cell and, in the event of positioning errors, relay a signal to inhibit mitotic exit until the spindle is appropriately positioned.
Project description:In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the mitotic spindle must be positioned along the mother-bud axis to activate the mitotic exit network (MEN) in anaphase. To examine MEN proteins during mitotic exit, we imaged the MEN activators Tem1p and Cdc15p and the MEN regulator Bub2p in vivo. Quantitative live cell fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the spindle pole body that segregated into the daughter cell (dSPB) signaled mitotic exit upon penetration into the bud. Activation of mitotic exit was associated with an increased abundance of Tem1p-GFP and the localization of Cdc15p-GFP on the dSPB. In contrast, Bub2p-GFP fluorescence intensity decreased in mid-to-late anaphase on the dSPB. Therefore, MEN protein localization fluctuates to switch from Bub2p inhibition of mitotic exit to Cdc15p activation of mitotic exit. The mechanism that elevates Tem1p-GFP abundance in anaphase is specific to dSPB penetration into the bud and Dhc1p and Lte1p promote Tem1p-GFP localization. Finally, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements revealed Tem1p-GFP is dynamic at the dSPB in late anaphase. These data suggest spindle pole penetration into the bud activates mitotic exit, resulting in Tem1p and Cdc15p persistence at the dSPB to initiate the MEN signal cascade.