Feedback-regulated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP-1 is required for rapid response to DNA damage in living cells.
ABSTRACT: Genome integrity is constantly threatened by DNA lesions arising from numerous exogenous and endogenous sources. Survival depends on immediate recognition of these lesions and rapid recruitment of repair factors. Using laser microirradiation and live cell microscopy we found that the DNA-damage dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) PARP-1 and PARP-2 are recruited to DNA damage sites, however, with different kinetics and roles. With specific PARP inhibitors and mutations, we could show that the initial recruitment of PARP-1 is mediated by the DNA-binding domain. PARP-1 activation and localized poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis then generates binding sites for a second wave of PARP-1 recruitment and for the rapid accumulation of the loading platform XRCC1 at repair sites. Further PARP-1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation eventually initiates the release of PARP-1. We conclude that feedback regulated recruitment of PARP-1 and concomitant local poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation at DNA lesions amplifies a signal for rapid recruitment of repair factors enabling efficient restoration of genome integrity.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism.
Project description:Chromatin-modifying factors play key roles in transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair. Post-translational modification of these proteins is largely responsible for regulating their activity. The FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, a heterodimer of hSpt16 and SSRP1, is a chromatin structure modulator whose involvement in transcription and DNA replication has been reported. Here we show that nucleosome binding activity of FACT complex is regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. hSpt16, the large subunit of FACT, is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) resulting from physical interaction between these two proteins. The level of hSpt16 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is elevated after genotoxic treatment and coincides with the activation of PARP-1. The enhanced hSpt16 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation level correlates with the dissociation of FACT from chromatin in response to DNA damage. Our findings suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of hSpt16 by PARP-1 play regulatory roles for FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling.
Project description:The WD40-repeat protein DDB2 is essential for efficient recognition and subsequent removal of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, how DDB2 promotes NER in chromatin is poorly understood. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) as a novel DDB2-associated factor. We demonstrate that DDB2 facilitated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of UV-damaged chromatin through the activity of PARP1, resulting in the recruitment of the chromatin-remodeling enzyme ALC1. Depletion of ALC1 rendered cells sensitive to UV and impaired repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. Additionally, DDB2 itself was targeted by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, resulting in increased protein stability and a prolonged chromatin retention time. Our in vitro and in vivo data support a model in which poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DDB2 suppresses DDB2 ubiquitylation and outline a molecular mechanism for PARP1-mediated regulation of NER through DDB2 stabilization and recruitment of the chromatin remodeler ALC1.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation.
Project description:Post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has diverse essential functions in the cellular response to DNA damage as it contributes to avid DNA damage detection and assembly of the cellular repair machinery but extensive modification eventually also induces cell death. While there are 17 human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) genes, there is only one poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene encoding several PARG isoforms located in different subcellular compartments. To investigate the recruitment of PARG isoforms to DNA repair sites we locally introduced DNA damage by laser microirradiation. All PARG isoforms were recruited to DNA damage sites except for a mitochondrial localized PARG fragment. Using PARP knock out cells and PARP inhibitors, we showed that PARG recruitment was only partially dependent on PARP-1 and PAR synthesis, indicating a second, PAR-independent recruitment mechanism. We found that PARG interacts with PCNA, mapped a PCNA binding site and showed that binding to PCNA contributes to PARG recruitment to DNA damage sites. This dual recruitment mode of the only nuclear PARG via the versatile loading platform PCNA and by a PAR dependent mechanism likely contributes to the dynamic regulation of this posttranslational modification and ensures the tight control of the switch between efficient DNA repair and cell death.
Project description:Human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) plays a major role in the base excision repair pathway by removing 8-oxoguanine base lesions generated by reactive oxygen species. Here we report a novel interaction between OGG1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a DNA-damage sensor protein involved in DNA repair and many other cellular processes. We found that OGG1 binds directly to PARP-1 through the N-terminal region of OGG1, and this interaction is enhanced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, OGG1 binds to PARP-1 through its BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain. OGG1 stimulated the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1, whereas decreased poly(ADP-ribose) levels were observed in OGG1(-/-) cells compared with wild-type cells in response to DNA damage. Importantly, activated PARP-1 inhibits OGG1. Although the OGG1 polymorphic variant proteins R229Q and S326C bind to PARP-1, these proteins were defective in activating PARP-1. Furthermore, OGG1(-/-) cells were more sensitive to PARP inhibitors alone or in combination with a DNA-damaging agent. These findings indicate that OGG1 binding to PARP-1 plays a functional role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) has been implicated in various aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and genome stability. Although 17 human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) genes have been identified, a single poly(ADP-ribosyl) glycohydrolase (PARG) mediates PAR degradation. Here we investigated the role of PARG in the replication of human chromosomes. We show that PARG depletion affects cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, leading to replication-coupled H2AX phosphorylation. Furthermore, PARG depletion or inhibition per se slows down individual replication forks similarly to mild chemotherapeutic treatment. Electron microscopic analysis of replication intermediates reveals marked accumulation of reversed forks and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps in unperturbed PARG-defective cells. Intriguingly, while we found no physical evidence for chromosomal breakage, PARG-defective cells displayed both ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia-Rad3-related (ATR) activation, as well as chromatin recruitment of standard double-strand-break-repair factors, such as 53BP1 and RAD51. Overall, these data prove PAR degradation to be essential to promote resumption of replication at endogenous and exogenous lesions, preventing idle recruitment of repair factors to remodeled replication forks. Furthermore, they suggest that fork remodeling and restarting are surprisingly frequent in unperturbed cells and provide a molecular rationale to explore PARG inhibition in cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:Our previous data have shown that in L929 mouse fibroblasts the control of methylation pattern depends in part on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and that ADP-ribose polymers (PARs), both present on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 and/or protein-free, have an inhibitory effect on Dnmt1 activity. Here we show that transient ectopic overexpression of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) induces PAR accumulation, PARP-1, and CTCF poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in the same mouse fibroblasts. The persistence in time of a high PAR level affects the DNA methylation machinery; the DNA methyltransferase activity is inhibited with consequences for the methylation state of genome, which becomes diffusely hypomethylated affecting centromeric minor satellite and B1 DNA repeats. In vitro data show that CTCF is able to activate PARP-1 automodification even in the absence of nicked DNA. Our new finding that CTCF is able per se to activate PARP-1 automodification in vitro is of great interest as so far a burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 has generally been found following introduction of DNA strand breaks. CTCF is unable to inhibit DNMT1 activity, whereas poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 plays this inhibitory role. These data suggest that CTCF is involved in the cross-talk between poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and DNA methylation and underscore the importance of a rapid reversal of PARP activity, as DNA methylation pattern is responsible for an important epigenetic code.
Project description:Insulators mediate inter- and intrachromosomal contacts to regulate enhancer-promoter interactions and establish chromosome domains. The mechanisms by which insulator activity can be regulated to orchestrate changes in the function and three-dimensional arrangement of the genome remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila insulator proteins are poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated and that mutation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) gene impairs their function. This modification is not essential for DNA occupancy of insulator DNA-binding proteins dCTCF and Su(Hw). However, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of K566 in CP190 promotes protein-protein interactions with other insulator proteins, association with the nuclear lamina, and insulator activity in vivo. Consistent with these findings, the nuclear clustering of CP190 complexes is disrupted in Parp mutant cells. Importantly, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation facilitates intrachromosomal interactions between insulator sites measured by 4C. These data suggest that the role of insulators in organizing the three-dimensional architecture of the genome may be modulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins localized to foci of DNA damage. Upon activation by encountering nicked DNA, the PARP-1 mediated trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA binding proteins occurs, facilitating access and accumulation of DNA repair factors. PARP-1 also auto-(ADP-ribosyl)ates its central BRCT-containing domain forming part of an interaction site for the DNA repair scaffolding protein X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1). The co-localization of XRCC1, as well as bound DNA repair factors, to sites of DNA damage is important for cell survival and genomic integrity.Here we present the solution structure and biophysical characterization of the BRCT domain of rat PARP-1. The PARP-1 BRCT domain has the globular ?/? fold characteristic of BRCT domains and has a thermal melting transition of 43.0°C. In contrast to a previous characterization of this domain, we demonstrate that it is monomeric in solution using both gel-filtration chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering. Additionally, we report that the first BRCT domain of XRCC1 does not interact significantly with the PARP-1 BRCT domain in the absence of ADP-ribosylation. Moreover, none of the interactions with other longer PARP-1 constructs which previously had been demonstrated in a pull-down assay of mammalian cell extracts were detected.The PARP-1 BRCT domain has the conserved BRCT fold that is known to be an important protein:protein interaction module in DNA repair and cell signalling pathways. Data indicating no significant protein:protein interactions between PARP-1 and XRCC1 likely results from the absence of poly(ADP-ribose) in one or both binding partners, and further implicates a poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent mechanism for localization of XRCC1 to sites of DNA damage.