Interferon gamma upregulates its own gene expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) exerts a variety of immunoregulatory effects on several cell targets. It is generally assumed that IFN-gamma is specifically produced by T and large granular lymphocytes. In this study, we show that IFN-gamma is constitutively expressed in resting mouse peritoneal macrophages (PM). Treatment of PM with cycloheximide results in a significant accumulation of IFN-gamma mRNA, suggesting that a short-lived IFN-gamma mRNA accumulates when protein synthesis is inhibited. Moreover, treatment of PM with IFN-gamma also results in a clear-cut accumulation of this mRNA. This effect is not observed in murine lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes (which instead produce IFN-gamma after phytohemagglutinin treatment) and in mouse cell lines. The treatment of PM with IFN-gamma also results in secretion of IFN-gamma after 24-48 h. The upregulation of IFN-gamma expression is also found in PM from anti-asialo GM1-treated nude mice. We suggest that the ability of PM to produce this IFN-gamma is indicative of an autocrine mechanism. The macrophage IFN-gamma may play a role in the regulation of cell differentiation and immune response.
Project description:NHE3 is a target of inhibition by proinflammatory cytokines and pathogenic bacteria, an event contributing to diarrhea in infectious and idiopathic colitis. In mice, NHE3 deficiency leads to mild diarrhea, increased intestinal expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma, and distal colitis, suggesting its role in epithelial barrier homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the role of NHE3 in maintaining mucosal integrity.Control or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated, 6- to 8-week-old wild-type (WT) and NHE3(-/-) mice were used for the experiments. Small intestines were dissected for further analysis.NHE3(-/-) mice have elevated numbers of CD8alpha(+) T and natural killer cells in the intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes compartments, representing the source of IFN-gamma. NHE3(-/-) mice display alterations in epithelial gene and protein expression patterns that predispose them to a high susceptibility to DSS, with accelerated mortality resulting from intestinal bleeding, hypovolemic shock, and sepsis, even at a very low DSS concentration. Microarray analysis and intestinal hemorrhage indicate that NHE3 deficiency predisposes mice to DSS-induced small intestinal injury, a segment never reported as affected by DSS, and demonstrate major differences in the colonic response to DSS challenge in WT and NHE3(-/-) mice. In NHE3(-/-) mice, broad-spectrum oral antibiotics or anti-asialo GM1 antibodies reduce the expression of IFN-gamma and iNOS to basal levels and delay but do not prevent severe mortality in response to DSS treatment.These results suggest that NHE3 participates in mucosal responses to epithelial damage, acting as a modifier gene determining the extent of the gut inflammatory responses in the face of intestinal injury.
Project description:Effects of ergosterol peroxide (C28H44O3; Cpd 6A) from Cordyceps cicadae on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cell proliferation were studied in primary human T cells. The results showed that Cpd 6A suppressed T-cell proliferation for about 24 h after stimulation with PHA. Cell cycle analysis indicated that Cpd 6A arrested the cell cycle progression of activated T cells from the G1 transition to the S phase. To localize the point in the cell cycle where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to the G1/S boundary, including the expression of cyclins D2, E, A1, and B1, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and activating protein-1 (AP-1), was examined. Cpd 6A suppressed, in activated T lymphocytes, the production and mRNA expression of cyclin E, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of AP-1 proteins, consisting of c-Fos and c-Jun, in activated T lymphocytes was decreased by Cpd 6A. The kinetic study indicated that the inhibitory effects of Cpd 6A on IL-2 mRNA expressed in T cells might be related to blocking c-Fos protein synthesis. T-cell proliferation after Cpd 6A treatment was partially restored by addition of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma. These suppressant effects of Cpd 6A on T-cell proliferation, activated by PHA, appeared to be mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of early gene transcripts, especially those of cyclin E, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4, and by arresting cell cycle progression in the cells.
Project description:CFA/I pili are representatives of a large family of related pili that mediate the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells. They are assembled via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway and consist of two subunits, CfaB, which makes up the pilus shaft and a single pilus tip-associated subunit, CfaE. The current model of pilus-mediated adherence proposes that CFA/I has two distinct binding activities; the CfaE subunit is responsible for binding to receptors of unknown structure on erythrocyte and intestinal epithelial cell surfaces, while CfaB binds to various glycosphingolipids, including asialo-GM1. In this report, we present two independent lines of evidence that, contrary to the existing model, CfaB does not bind to asialo-GM1 independently of CfaE. Neither purified CfaB subunits nor CfaB assembled into pili bind to asialo-GM1. Instead, we demonstrate that binding activity toward asialo-GM1 resides in CfaE and this is essential for pilus binding to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that the binding activities of CFA/I pili for asialo-GM1, erythrocytes, and intestinal cells are inseparable, require the same amino acid residues in CfaE, and therefore depend on the same or very similar binding mechanisms.
Project description:Elevated titers of serum antibodies against GM1 ganglioside are associated with a variety of autoimmune neuropathies. Much evidence indicates these autoantibodies play a primary role in the disease processes, but the mechanism for their appearance is unclear. We studied the fine specificity of anti-GM1 antibodies of the IgG isotype present in sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), using thin-layer chromatogram-immunostaining of GM1, asialo-GM1 (GA1), GD1b and GM1-derivatives with small modifications on the oligosaccharide moiety. We were able to distinguish populations of antibodies with different fine specificity. Remarkably, individual patients presented only one or two of them, and different patients had different populations. This restriction in the variability of antibody populations suggests that the appearance of the anti-GM1 antibodies is a random process involving restricted populations of lymphocytes. With the origin of disease-associated anti-GM1 antibodies as a context, this finding could provide explanation for the "host susceptibility factor" observed in GBS following enteritis with GM1 oligosaccharide-carrying strains of Campylobacter jejuni.
Project description:Severe halothane (HAL)-induced hepatotoxicity occurs in one in 6000-30,000 patients by an unknown mechanism. Female sex is a risk factor in humans and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that a sex difference in natural killer (NK) cell activity contributes to HAL-induced liver injury. HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-?) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-? knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-? compared with immunoglobulin G-treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-? and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity.
Project description:The effect of neutral (galactocerebroside and asialo-ganglioside GM1) or anionic (sulphatide and gangliosides GM1, GD1a and GT1b) glycosphingolipids on the activity of phospholipase A2 from pig pancreas was studied in mixed monolayers of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine with the glycosphingolipids in different molar fractions at various constant surface pressures. The activity of the enzyme depends on the proportion and type of glycosphingolipid in the interface. Sulphatide activates the enzyme at all proportions, whereas galactocerebroside shows inhibition or activation depending on its proportion in the film. Asialo-ganglioside GM1 and gangliosides GM1, GD1a and GT1b can strongly inhibit the enzyme at relatively low molar fractions in the film in the following order: asialo-ganglioside GM1 less than ganglioside GM1 less than ganglioside GT1b less than ganglioside GD1a. The changes of activity are not due to a direct action of the lipids on the active centre or interfacial recognition region of the enzyme.
Project description:To examine the possibility that cytokines produced in inflamed joint tissues may contribute to the loss of articular cartilage by causing inhibition of synthesis of cartilage-specific matrix macromolecules, we studied the effects of interferon gamma (IFN gamma) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), alone and in combination, on the expression of the genes for types-II, -IX and -XI collagens in cultured human chondrocytes. Chondrocytes isolated from human fetal epiphyseal cartilage by sequential enzymic digestions were cultured in the presence of IFN gamma (30 pM), TNF alpha (15 pM) or a combination of suboptimal concentrations of both cytokines (1.5 pM IFN gamma plus 0.3 pM TNF alpha). IFN gamma caused a maximal decrease of 23.3-32.6% in the biosynthesis of collagen by chondrocytes. TNF alpha was a more potent inhibitor causing a 42.8-45.3% decrease at one-half the concentration of IFN gamma. A synergistic inhibitory effect of 58.2% was observed with the combination of 1.5 pM IFN gamma plus 0.3 pM TNF alpha. Electrophoretic analysis of the biosynthesized proteins showed a co-ordinate decrease in the production of the three cartilage-specific collagen types II, IX and XI. These effects were accompanied by parallel changes in the steady-state levels of their corresponding mRNAs. In vitro transcription assays showed that the collagen inhibitory effects of the cytokines occurred largely at the transcriptional level. Similar effects of the cytokines were observed on biosynthesis of types-II, -IX and -XI collagens and steady-state mRNA levels for type-II collagen by chondrocytes obtained from adult articular cartilage. These observations indicate that IFN gamma and TNF alpha can induce a synergistic inhibition of the synthesis of cartilage-specific collagens by fetal and adult human chondrocytes and suggest that these effects may contribute to the articular cartilage loss that occurs in inflammatory joint diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM: Interleukin (IL) 12 is involved in the mucosal response during intestinal inflammation but its role is not fully understood. The response of human lamina propria T lymphocytes (T-LPL) to IL-12 in terms of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release and proliferation was investigated, exploring whether IL-15 and IL-7 cooperate with IL-12. The role of accessory molecules (CD2 and CD28) was also investigated. METHODS: Unstimulated and phytohaemagglutinin preactivated T-LPL cultures were incubated with or without the initial addition of cytokines, anti-CD2 or anti-CD28 antibodies. IFN-gamma mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein secretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: IFN-gamma mRNA was induced in T-LPLs by IL-12 and IL-15 but not IL-7, whereas IFN-gamma was measured only in IL-12 stimulated T-LPL cultures. IL-12 induced IFN-gamma release was not abrogated by neutralising anti-IL-2 antibody or by cyclosporin A. IL-12 synergised with either anti-CD2 or anti-CD28 antibodies in inducing IFN-gamma synthesis. In preactivated T-LPLs, IL-7 enhanced IFN-gamma release induced by both IL-12 and anti-CD2, whereas IL-15 potentiated only IL-12 induced IFN-gamma synthesis. IL-12 did not induce proliferation of either unstimulated or preactivated T-LPLs and it did not enhance the CD2/CD28 stimulated T-LPL proliferative response. No transcript for IL-12 receptor beta1 subunit was detected in freshly isolated and activated T-LPLs whereas the beta2 subunit mRNA was consistently found in T-LPL samples. CONCLUSIONS: IL-12 induces human T-LPLs to produce and release IFN-gamma, and IL-15 and IL-7 cooperate with IL-12 in expanding the IFN-gamma mucosal response.
Project description:Children and immunocompromised adults are at an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB), but diagnosis is more challenging. Recently developed gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release assays provide increased sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of latent TB, but their use is not FDA approved in immunocompromised or pediatric populations. Both populations have reduced numbers of T cells, which are major producers of IFN-gamma. Interleukin 7 (IL-7), a survival cytokine, stabilizes IFN-gamma message and increases protein production. IL-7 was added to antigen-stimulated lymphocytes to improve IFN-gamma responses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Antigens used were tetanus toxoid (n = 10), p24 (from human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], n = 9), and TB peptides (n = 15). Keyhole limpet hemocyanin was used as a negative control, and phytohemagglutinin was the positive control. IL-7 improved antigen-specific responses to all antigens tested including tetanus toxoid, HIV type 1 p24, and TB peptides (ESAT-6 and CFP-10) with up to a 14-fold increase (mean = 3.8), as measured by ELISA. Increased IFN-gamma responses from controls, HIV-positive patients, and TB patients were statistically significant, with P values of <0.05, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively. ELISPOT assay results confirmed ELISA findings (P values of <0.01, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively), with a strong correlation between the two tests (R(2) = 0.82 to 0.99). Based on average background levels, IL-7 increased detection of IFN-gamma by 39% compared to the level with antigen alone. Increased production of IFN-gamma induced by IL-7 improves sensitivity of ELISA and ELISPOT assays for all antigens tested. Further enhancement of IFN-gamma-based assays might improve TB diagnosis in those populations at highest risk for TB.
Project description:Using transgenic mice that replicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) at high levels in the liver as recipients of HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we showed that the chemokines responsive to gamma-2/IFN-gamma inducible protein ([Crg2]IP-10) and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (Mig) are rapidly and strongly induced in the liver after CTL transfer. The transferred CTLs produce neither chemokine; rather, they activate (via the secretion of IFN-gamma) hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells of the liver to produce (Crg2)IP-10 and Mig. Importantly, blocking these chemokines in vivo reduces the recruitment of host-derived lymphomononuclear cells into the liver and the severity of the liver disease without affecting the IFN-gamma-dependent antiviral potential of the CTLs. The finding that neutralization of these chemokines is associated with maintenance of antiviral effects but diminished tissue damage may be significant for the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of chronic HBV infection.