Immunoglobulin switch transcript production in vivo related to the site and time of antigen-specific B cell activation.
ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination is associated with the production and splicing of germline IgCH messenger RNA transcripts. Levels of gamma 1 transcripts in mouse spleen sections were assessed by semiquantitative analysis of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products during primary and secondary antibody responses to chicken gamma globulin (CGG). This was correlated with the appearance of CGG-specific B cells and their growth and differentiation to plasma cells. After primary immunization with CGG, gamma 1 switch transcripts appeared after 4 d, peaked at a median of six times starting levels between 10 and 18 d after immunization, and returned to background levels before secondary immunization at 5 wk. By contrast, after secondary challenge with CGG, a sevenfold increase in transcripts occurs during the first d. The level again doubles by day 3, when it is six times that which is seen at the peak of the primary response. After day 4, there was a gradual decline over the next 2-3 wk. Within 12 h of secondary immunization, antigen-specific memory B cells appeared in the outer I zone and by 24 h entered S phase, presumably as a result of cognate interaction with primed T cells. Over the next few hours, they migrated to the edge of the red pulp, where they grew exponentially until the fourth day, when they synchronously differentiated to become plasma cells. The same pattern was seen for the migration, growth, and differentiation of virgin hapten-specific B cells when CGG-primed mice were challenged with hapten protein. The continued production of transcripts after day 3 indicates that switching also occurs in germinal centers, but in a relatively small proportion of their B cells. The impressive early production of switch transcripts during T cell-dependent antibody responses occurs in cells that are about to undergo massive clonal expansion. It is argued that Ig class switching at this time, which is associated with cognate T cell-B cell interaction in the T zone, has a major impact on the class and subclasses of Ig produced during the response.
Project description:The respective production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a or IgG1 within 5 d of primary immunization with Swiss type mouse mammary tumor virus [MMTV(SW)] or haptenated protein provides a model for the development of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses. The antibody-producing cells arise from cognate T cell B cell interaction, revealed by the respective induction of Cgamma2a and Cgamma1 switch transcript production, on the third day after immunization. T cell proliferation and upregulation of mRNA for interferon gamma in response to MMTV(SW) and interleukin 4 in response to haptenated protein also starts during this day. It follows that there is minimal delay in these responses between T cell priming and the onset of cognate interaction between T and B cells leading to class switching and exponential growth. The Th1 or Th2 profile is at least partially established at the time of the first cognate T cell interaction with B cells in the T zone. The addition of killed Bordetella pertussis to the hapten-protein induces nonhapten-specific IgG2a and IgG1 plasma cells, whereas the anti-hapten response continues to be IgG1 dominated. This indicates that a Th2 response to hapten-protein can proceed in a node where there is substantial Th1 activity.
Project description:Generation of high-affinity Abs in response to Ags/infectious agents is essential for developing long-lasting immune responses. B cell maturation and Ab responses to Ag stimulation require Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) for high-affinity responses. Upon immunization with either the model Ag 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten (NP) conjugated to chicken ? globulin lysine (NP-CGG) or heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular type 14 protein (Pn14), knock-in (KI) mice hypomorphic for mTOR function had a decreased ability to form germinal centers, develop high-affinity anti-NP-specific or anti-Pn14-specific Abs, and perform SHM/CSR. Hypomorphic mTOR mice also had a high mortality (40%) compared with wild-type (WT) (0%) littermates and had lower pneumococcal surface protein A-specific Ab titers when immunized and challenged with live S. pneumoniae infection. Mice with mTOR deleted in their B cell lineage (knockout [KO]) also produced fewer splenic germinal centers and decreased high-affinity Ab responses to NP-CGG than did their WT littermates. CSR rates were lower in mTOR KI and KO mice, and pharmacologic inhibition of mTOR in WT B cells resulted in decreased rates of ex vivo CSR. RNA and protein levels of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a protein essential for SHM and CSR, were lower in B cells from both KI and B cell-specific KO mice, concomitant with increases in phosphorylated AKT and FOXO1. Rescue experiments increasing AID expression in KI B cells restored CSR levels to those in WT B cells. Thus, mTOR plays an important immunoregulatory role in the germinal center, at least partially through AID signaling, in generating high-affinity Abs.
Project description:The development of memory B cells takes place in germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid follicles where antigen-driven lymphocytes undergo somatic hypermutation and affinity selection, presumably under the influence of helper T cells. However, the mechanisms that drive this complex response are not well understood. We explored the relationship between GC formation and the onset of hypermutation in response to the hapten phosphorylcholine (PC) coupled to antigenic proteins in mice bearing different frequencies of CD4+ T cells. PC-reactive GC were identified by staining frozen splenic sections with peanut agglutinin (PNA) and with monoclonal Abs against AB1-2, a dominant idiotope of T15+ anti-PC antibody. The nucleotide sequences of rearranged T15 VH1 genes were determined from polymerase chain reaction amplifications of genomic DNA from microdissected GC B cells. T15+ GC became fully developed by day 6-7 after primary immunization of euthymic mice with either PC-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or PC-chicken gamma globulin (CGG). Yet the VH1 gene segments recovered from the primary GC as late as day 10-14 had low numbers of mutations, in contrast to responses to the haptens nitrophenyl or oxazolone that sustain high levels of hypermutation after GC formation. PC-reactive B cells proliferate in histologically typical GC for considerable periods with no or little somatic hypermutation; the signals for GC formation are independent of those for the activation of hypermutation. We then examined GC 7 d after secondary immunization with PC-KLH in euthymic mice, in nu/nu mice reconstituted with limited numbers of normal CD4+ cells before priming (CD4(+)-nu/nu) and in nu/nu mice. All of these animals develop T15+ GC after antigen priming, however, the patterns of V gene mutations in the secondary GC reflected the levels of CD4+ cells present during the primary response. VDJ sequences from secondary GC of euthymic mice were heavily mutated, but most of these mutations were shared among all related (identical VDJ joints) sequences suggesting the proliferation of mutated, memory B cells, with little de novo somatic hypermutation. In contrast, the patterns of V gene diversity in secondary GC from CD4(+)-nu/nu mice suggested that there was ongoing mutation and clonal diversification during the first week after rechallenge. The secondary GC from T cell-deficient, nu/nu mice showed little evidence for mutational and/or recombinational diversity of T15+ B cells. We conclude that the participation of CD4+ helper cells is required for full activation of the mutator in GC and takes place in a dose-dependent fashion.
Project description:In healthy mammals, maturation of B cells expressing heavy (H) chain immunoglobulin (Ig) without light (L) chain is prevented by chaperone association of the H chain in the endoplasmic reticulum. Camelids are an exception, expressing homodimeric IgGs, an antibody type that to date has not been found in mice or humans. In camelids, immunization with viral epitopes generates high affinity H chain-only antibodies, which, because of their smaller size, recognize clefts and protrusions not readily distinguished by typical antibodies. Developmental processes leading to H chain antibody expression are unknown. We show that L(-/-) (kappa(-/-)lambda(-/-)-deficient) mice, in which conventional B cell development is blocked at the immature B cell stage, produce diverse H chain-only antibodies in serum. The generation of H chain-only IgG is caused by the loss of constant (C) gamma exon 1, which is accomplished by genomic alterations in C(H)1-circumventing chaperone association. These mutations can be attributed to errors in class switch recombination, which facilitate the generation of H chain-only Ig-secreting plasma cells. Surprisingly, transcripts with a similar deletion can be found in normal mice. Thus, naturally occurring H chain transcripts without C(H)1 (V(H)DJ(H)-hinge-C(H)2-C(H)3) are selected for and lead to the formation of fully functional and diverse H chain-only antibodies in L(-/-) animals.
Project description:Induction of switch recombination to the gamma 1 and epsilon immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain loci was examined in B cells preactivated with anti-Ig (B lymphoblasts). In B lymphoblasts cultured with interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5 induced the accumulation of S micro-S gamma 1 rearrangements, but not epsilon recombination. Thus, IL-5 facilitates switch recombination directed to the gamma 1 heavy chain locus by IL-4, but additional signals are required to drive rearrangements to epsilon. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the presence of IL-4, induced the accumulation of both S micro-S gamma 1 and S micro-S epsilon rearrangements, and cells treated with LPS exhibited 40-50-fold more S micro-S gamma 1 rearrangements than cells cultured with IL-5. Induction of switch recombination was not always associated with secretion of the respective Ig isotype, since concentrations of IL-4 that were sufficient to direct switch recombination to gamma 1 and epsilon in blasts treated with LPS failed to elicit secretion of IgG1 and IgE. These results demonstrate differential requirements for switch recombination to the gamma 1 and epsilon loci, as well as independent regulation of Ig gene rearrangement and secretion of each isotype.
Project description:Cell surface Fc receptor for IgM antibody (Fc?R) is the most recently identified member among FcRs. We determined the cellular distribution of mouse Fc?R and the functional consequences of Fcmr disruption. Surface Fc?R expression was restricted to B-lineage cells, from immature B to plasma cells, except for a transient down-modulation during germinal center reactions. Fcmr ablation had no significant effect on overall B- and T-cell development, but led to a reduction of marginal zone B cells and an increase in splenic B1 B cells. Preimmune serum IgM in mutant mice was significantly elevated as were natural autoantibodies. When immunized with live attenuated pneumococci, mutant mice mounted robust antibody responses against phosphorylcholine, but not protein, determinants compared with wild-type mice. By contrast, upon immunization with a hapten-carrier conjugate, nitrophenyl-coupled chicken ?-globulin (NP-CGG), the mutant mice had a diminished primary IgG1 response to both NP and CGG. These findings suggest that Fc?R has an important role in IgM homeostasis and regulation of humoral immune responses.
Project description:NF-kappa B has been demonstrated to play critical roles in multiple aspects of immune responses including Ig H chain isotype switching. To better define the specific roles the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B plays in mu-->gamma 3 switch recombination (SR), we systematically evaluated p50-deficient B cells for activities that are strongly correlated with SR. B cell activation with LPS plus anti-IgD-dextran plus IL-5 plus IL-4 plus TGF-beta produced normal levels of proliferation and gamma3 germline transcripts in p50-deficient B cells, but mu-->gamma 3 SR was impaired. In vitro binding studies previously showed that NF-kappa B p50 homodimer binds the switch nuclear B-site protein (SNIP) of the S gamma 3 tandem repeat. Ligation-mediated PCR in vivo footprint analysis demonstrates that the region spanning the SNIP and switch nuclear A-site protein (SNAP) binding sites of the S gamma 3 region are contacted by protein in normal resting splenic B cells. B cells that are homozygous for the targeted disruption of the gene encoding p50 (-/-) show strong aberrant footprints, whereas heterozygous cells (+/-) reveal a partial effect in S gamma 3 DNA. These studies provide evidence of nucleoprotein interactions at switch DNA in vivo and suggest a direct interaction of p50 with S gamma 3 DNA that is strongly correlated with SR competence.
Project description:T cell help in humoral immunity includes interactions of B cells with activated extrafollicular CD4+ and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Each can promote antibody responses but Tfh cells play critical roles during germinal center (GC) reactions. After restimulation of their antigen receptor (TCR) by B cells, helper T cells act on B cells via CD40 ligand and secreted cytokines that guide Ig class switching. Hypoxia is a normal feature of GC, raising questions about molecular mechanisms governing the relationship between hypoxia response mechanisms and T cell help to antibody responses. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are prominent among mechanisms that mediate cellular responses to limited oxygen but also are induced by lymphocyte activation. We now show that loss of HIF-1α or of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α in CD4+ T cells compromised essential functions in help during antibody responses. HIF-1α depletion from CD4+ T cells reduced frequencies of antigen-specific GC B cells, Tfh cells, and overall antigen-specific Ab after immunization with sheep red blood cells. Compound deficiency of HIF-1α and HIF-2α led to humoral defects after hapten-carrier immunization. Further, HIF promoted CD40L expression while restraining the FoxP3-positive CD4+ cells in the CXCR5+ follicular regulatory population. Glycolysis increases T helper cytokine expression, and HIF promoted glycolysis in T helper cells via TCR or cytokine stimulation, as well as their production of cytokines that direct antibody class switching. Indeed, IFN-γ elaboration by HIF-deficient in vivo-generated Tfh cells was impaired. Collectively, the results indicate that HIF transcription factors are vital components of the mechanisms of help during humoral responses.
Project description:Mucosal immunoglobulin (Ig)A dominance has been proposed to be associated with preferential class switch recombination (CSR) to the IgA heavy chain constant region, Calpha. Here, we report that B cell activation in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) upon stimulation with the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) coupled to chicken gamma globulin caused an anti-NP memory response dominated by high affinity IgA antibodies. In the response, however, NP-specific IgG(+) B cells expanded and sustained their number as a major population in germinal centers (GCs), supporting the view that CSR to IgG heavy chain constant region, Cgamma, operated efficiently in NALT. Both IgG(+) and IgA(+) GC B cells accumulated somatic mutations, indicative of affinity maturation to a similar extent, suggesting that both types of cell were equally selected by antigen. Despite the selection in GCs, high affinity NP-specific B cells were barely detected in the IgG memory compartment, whereas such cells dominated the IgA memory compartment. Taken together with the analysis of the V(H) gene clonotype in GC and memory B cells, we propose that NALT is equipped with a unique machinery providing IgA-specific enrichment of high affinity cells into the memory compartment, facilitating immunity with high affinity and noninflammatory secretory antibodies.
Project description:More than half of patients with X-linked lympho-proliferative disease, which is caused by a defect in the intracellular adapter protein SH2D1A, suffer from an extreme susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. One-third of these patients, however, develop dysgammaglobulenemia without an episode of severe mononucleosis. Here we show that in SH2D1A(-/-) mice, both primary and secondary responses of all Ig subclasses are severely impaired in response to specific antigens. Because germinal centers were absent in SH2D1A(-/-) mice upon primary immunization, and because SH2D1A was detectable in wt germinal center B cells, we examined whether SH2D1A(-/-) B cell functions were impaired. Using the adoptive cotransfer of B lymphocytes from hapten-primed SH2D1A(-/-) mice with CD4(+) T cells from primed wt mice into irradiated wt mice provided evidence that signal transduction events controlled by SH2D1A are essential for B cell activities resulting in antigen specific IgG production. Defects in naive SH2D1A(-/-) B cells became evident upon cotransfer with non-primed wt CD4(+) cells into Rag2(-/-) recipients. Thus, both defective T and B cells exist in the absence of SH2D1A, which may explain the progressive dysgammaglobulinemia in a subset of X-linked lympho-proliferative disease patients without involvement of Epstein-Barr virus.