Different splice variants of filamin-B affect myogenesis, subcellular distribution, and determine binding to integrin [beta] subunits.
ABSTRACT: Integrins connect the extracellular matrix with the cell interior, and transduce signals through interactions of their cytoplasmic tails with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated a novel splice variant (filamin-Bvar-1) of the filamentous actin cross-linking protein, filamin-B, that interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta1A and beta1D subunits. RT-PCR analysis showed weak, but wide, expression of filamin-Bvar-1 and a similar splice variant of filamin-A (filamin-Avar-1) in human tissues. Furthermore, alternative splice variants of filamin-B and filamin-C, from which the flexible hinge-1 region is deleted (DeltaH1), were induced during in vitro differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We show that both filamin-Avar-1 and filamin-Bvar-1 bind more strongly than their wild-type isoforms to different integrin beta subunits. The mere presence of the high-affinity binding site for beta1A is not sufficient for targeting the filamin-Bvar-1 construct to focal contacts. Interestingly, the simultaneous deletion of the H1 region is required for the localization of filamin-B at the tips of actin stress fibers. When expressed in C2C12 cells, filamin-Bvar-1(DeltaH1) accelerates their differentiation into myotubes. Furthermore, filamin-B variants lacking the H1 region induce the formation of thinner myotubes than those in cells containing variants with this region. These findings suggest that specific combinations of filamin mRNA splicing events modulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the binding affinity for integrins.
Project description:Protein interactions with the integrin beta-subunit cytoplasmic domain (beta-tail) are essential for adhesion-dependent processes, including cell spreading and the connection of integrins with actin filaments at adhesion sites. Talin-1 binds to the conserved membrane-proximal NPxY motif of beta-tails (NPIY in beta1 integrin) promoting the inside-out activation of integrins and providing a linkage between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we characterize the role of interactions between talin-1 and beta-tail downstream of integrin activation, in the context of recombinant integrins containing either the wild type (WT) or the (YA) mutant beta1A tail, with a tyrosine to alanine substitution in the NPIY motif. In addition to inhibiting integrin activation, the YA mutation suppresses cell spreading, integrin signaling, focal adhesion and stress-fiber formation, as well as microtubule assembly. Constitutive activation of the mutant integrin restores these integrin-dependent processes, bringing into question the importance of the NPIY motif downstream of integrin activation. Depletion of talin-1 using TLN1 siRNA demonstrated that talin-1 is required for cell spreading, focal adhesion and stress-fiber formation, as well as microtubule assembly, even when cells are adhered by constitutively activated WT integrins. Depletion of talin-1 does not inhibit these processes when cells are adhered by constitutively activated mutant integrins, suggesting that the binding of an inhibitory protein to the NPIY motif negatively regulates integrin function when talin-1 is depleted. We identified filamin A (FLNa) as this inhibitory protein; it binds to the beta1A tail in an NPIY-dependent manner and inhibition of FLNa expression in talin-1-depleted cells restores integrin function when cells are adhered by constitutively activated WT integrins. FLNa binds FilGAP, which is a negative regulator of Rac activation. Expression of the dominant inhibitory mutant, FilGAP(DeltaGAP), which lacks GAP activity restores spreading in cells adhered by constitutively activated integrins containing the beta1A tail, but not by integrins containing the beta1D tail, which is known to bind poorly to FLNa. Together, these results suggest that the binding of talin-1 to the NPIY motif is required downstream of integrin activation to promote cell spreading by preventing the inappropriate recruitment of FLNa and FilGAP to the beta1A tail. Our studies emphasize the importance of understanding the mechanisms that regulate the differential binding FLNa and talin-1 to the beta1 tail downstream of integrin activation in promoting integrin function.
Project description:The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for the development and integrity of myofibrils, which are the contractile organelles of cross-striated muscle cells. We here used mouse C2C12 myoblast, which were differentiated into myotubes, followed by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to generate contracting myotubes comprising mature Z-discs. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we found significant changes in the relative abundance of 387 proteins in myoblasts versus differentiated myotubes, reflecting the drastic phenotypic conversion of these cells during myogenesis. Interestingly, EPS of differentiated myotubes to induce Z-disc assembly and maturation resulted in increased levels of proteins involved in ATP synthesis, presumably to fulfill the higher energy demand of contracting myotubes. Because an important role of the Z-disc for signal integration and transduction was recently suggested, its precise phosphorylation landscape further warranted in-depth analysis. We therefore established, by global phosphoproteomics of EPS-treated contracting myotubes, a comprehensive site-resolved protein phosphorylation map of the Z-disc and found that it is a phosphorylation hotspot in skeletal myocytes, underscoring its functions in signaling and disease-related processes. In an illustrative fashion, we analyzed the actin-binding multiadaptor protein filamin C (FLNc), which is essential for Z-disc assembly and maintenance, and found that PKC? phosphorylation at distinct serine residues in its hinge 2 region prevents its cleavage at an adjacent tyrosine residue by calpain 1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments indicated that this phosphorylation modulates FLNc dynamics. Moreover, FLNc lacking the cleaved Ig-like domain 24 exhibited remarkably fast kinetics and exceedingly high mobility. Our data set provides research community resource for further identification of kinase-mediated changes in myofibrillar protein interactions, kinetics, and mobility that will greatly advance our understanding of Z-disc dynamics and signaling.
Project description:The beta-subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) enhances the Ca(2+) channel and voltage-sensing functions of the DHPR. In skeletal myotubes, there is additional modulation of DHPR functions imposed by the presence of ryanodine receptor type-1 (RyR1). Here, we examined the participation of the beta-subunit in the expression of L-type Ca(2+) current and charge movements in RyR1 knock-out (KO), beta1 KO, and double beta1/RyR1 KO myotubes generated by mating heterozygous beta1 KO and RyR1 KO mice. Primary myotube cultures of each genotype were transfected with various beta-isoforms and then whole-cell voltage-clamped for measurements of Ca(2+) and gating currents. Overexpression of the endogenous skeletal beta1a isoform resulted in a low-density Ca(2+) current either in RyR1 KO (36 +/- 9 pS/pF) or in beta1/RyR1 KO (34 +/- 7 pS/pF) myotubes. However, the heterologous beta2a variant with a double cysteine motif in the N-terminus (C3, C4), recovered a Ca(2+) current that was entirely wild-type in density in RyR1 KO (195 +/- 16 pS/pF) and was significantly enhanced in double beta1/RyR1 KO (115 +/- 18 pS/pF) myotubes. Other variants tested from the four beta gene families (beta1a, beta1b, beta1c, beta3, and beta4) were unable to enhance Ca(2+) current expression in RyR1 KO myotubes. In contrast, intramembrane charge movements in beta2a-expressing beta1a/RyR1 KO myotubes were significantly lower than in beta1a-expressing beta1a/RyR1 KO myotubes, and the same tendency was observed in the RyR1 KO myotube. Thus, beta2a had a preferential ability to recover Ca(2+) current, whereas beta1a had a preferential ability to rescue charge movements. Elimination of the double cysteine motif (beta2a C3,4S) eliminated the RyR1-independent Ca(2+) current expression. Furthermore, Ca(2+) current enhancement was observed with a beta2a variant lacking the double cysteine motif and fused to the surface membrane glycoprotein CD8. Thus, tethering the beta2a variant to the myotube surface activated the DHPR Ca(2+) current and bypassed the requirement for RyR1. The data suggest that the Ca(2+) current expressed by the native skeletal DHPR complex has an inherently low density due to inhibitory interactions within the DHPR and that the beta1a-subunit is critically involved in process.
Project description:Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), the complex of Cyclin T1 and CDK9, activates the transcription of many viral and eukaryotic genes at the point of mRNA elongation. The activity of P-TEFb has been implicated in the differentiation of a number of cell types, including skeletal muscle. In order to promote transcription, P-TEFb hyperphosphorylates RNA Pol II, thereby increasing its processivity. Our previous work identified histone H1 as a P-TEFb substrate during HIV-1 and immediate-early transcription. Here, we examine the role of P-TEFb phosphorylation of histone H1 during differentiation, using the myoblast cell line C2C12 as a model for skeletal muscle differentiation. We found that H1 phosphorylation is elevated in differentiating C2C12, and this phosphorylation is sensitive to P-TEFb inhibition. H1 phosphorylation was also necessary for the induction of three muscle marker genes that require P-TEFb for expression. Additionally, ChIP experiments demonstrate that H1 dissociates from muscle differentiation marker genes in C2C12 cells under active P-TEFb conditions. We determine that both P-TEFb activity and H1 phosphorylation are necessary for the full differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.
Project description:Chimeras consisting of the homologous skeletal dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) beta1a subunit and the heterologous cardiac/brain beta2a subunit were used to determine which regions of beta1a were responsible for the skeletal-type excitation-contraction (EC) coupling phenotype. Chimeras were transiently transfected in beta1 knockout myotubes and then voltage-clamped with simultaneous measurement of confocal fluo-4 fluorescence. All chimeras expressed a similar density of DHPR charge movements, indicating that the membrane density of DHPR voltage sensors was not a confounding factor in these studies. The data indicates that a beta1a-specific domain present in the carboxyl terminus, namely the D5 region comprising the last 47 residues (beta1a 478-524), is essential for expression of skeletal-type EC coupling. Furthermore, the location of beta1aD5 immediately downstream from conserved domain D4 is also critical. In contrast, chimeras in which beta1aD5 was swapped by the D5 region of beta2a expressed Ca(2+) transients triggered by the Ca(2+) current, or none at all. A hydrophobic heptad repeat is present in domain D5 of beta1a (L478, V485, V492). To determine the role of this motif, residues in the heptad repeat were mutated to alanines. The triple mutant beta1a(L478A/V485A/V492A) recovered weak skeletal-type EC coupling (DeltaF/F(max) = 0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.5 for wild-type beta1a). However, a triple mutant with alanine substitutions at positions out of phase with the heptad repeat, beta1a(S481A/L488A/S495A), was normal (DeltaF/F(max) = 2.1 +/- 0.4). In summary, the presence of the beta1a-specific D5 domain, in its correct position after conserved domain D4, is essential for skeletal-type EC coupling. Furthermore, a heptad repeat in beta1aD5 controls the EC coupling activity. The carboxyl terminal heptad repeat of beta1a might be involved in protein-protein interactions with ryanodine receptor type 1 required for DHPR to ryanodine receptor type 1 signal transmission.
Project description:The actin-binding protein filamin links membrane receptors to the underlying cytoskeleton. The cytoplasmic domains of these membrane receptors have been shown to bind to various filamin immunoglobulin repeats. Notably, among 24 human filamin repeats, repeat 17 was reported to specifically bind to platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibalpha and repeat 21 to integrins. However, a complete sequence alignment of all 24 human filamin repeats reveals that repeats 17 and 21 actually belong to a distinct filamin repeat subgroup (containing repeats 4, 9, 12, 17, 19, 21, and 23) that shares a conserved ligand-binding site. Using isothermal calorimetry and NMR analyses, we show that all repeats in this subgroup can actually bind glycoprotein Ibalpha, integrins, and a cytoskeleton regulator migfilin in similar manners. These data provide a new view on the ligand specificity of the filamin repeats. They also suggest a multiple ligand binding mechanism where similar repeats within a filamin monomer may promote receptor clustering or receptor cross-talking for regulation of the cytoskeleton organization and diverse filamin-mediated cellular activities.
Project description:FilaminC (FLNc) is the muscle-specific member of a family of actin binding proteins. Although it interacts with many proteins involved in muscular dystrophies, its unique role in muscle is poorly understood. To address this, two models were developed. First, FLNc expression was stably reduced in C2C12 myoblasts by RNA interference. While these cells start differentiation normally, they display defects in differentiation and fusion ability and ultimately form multinucleated "myoballs" rather than maintain elongated morphology. Second, a mouse model carrying a deletion of last 8 exons of Flnc was developed. FLNc-deficient mice die shortly after birth, due to respiratory failure, and have severely reduced birth weights, with fewer muscle fibers and primary myotubes, indicating defects in primary myogenesis. They exhibit variation in fiber size, fibers with centrally located nuclei, and some rounded fibers resembling the in vitro phenotype. The similarity of the phenotype of FLNc-deficient mice to the filamin-interacting TRIO null mice was further confirmed by comparing FLNc-deficient C2C12 cells to TRIO-deficient cells. These data provide the first evidence that FLNc has a crucial role in muscle development and maintenance of muscle structural integrity and suggest the presence of a TRIO-FLNc-dependent pathway in maintaining proper myotube structure.
Project description:We investigated the contribution of the carboxyl terminus region of the beta1a subunit of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) to the mechanism of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. cDNA-transfected beta1 KO myotubes were voltage clamped, and Ca(2+) transients were analyzed by confocal fluo-4 fluorescence. A chimera with an amino terminus half of beta2a and a carboxyl terminus half of beta1a (beta2a 1-287/beta1a 325-524) recapitulates skeletal-type EC coupling quantitatively and was used to generate truncated variants lacking 7 to 60 residues from the beta1a-specific carboxyl terminus (Delta7, Delta21, Delta29, Delta35, and Delta60). Ca(2+) transients recovered by the control chimera have a sigmoidal Ca(2+) fluorescence (DeltaF/F) versus voltage curve with saturation at potentials more positive than +30 mV, independent of external Ca(2+) and stimulus duration. In contrast, the amplitude of Ca(2+) transients expressed by the truncated variants varied with the duration of the pulse, and for Delta29, Delta35, and Delta60, also varied with external Ca(2+) concentration. For Delta7 and Delta21, a 50-ms depolarization produced a sigmoidal DeltaF/F versus voltage curve with a lower than control maximum fluorescence. Moreover, for Delta29, Delta35, and Delta60, a 200-ms depolarization increased the maximum fluorescence and changed the shape of the DeltaF/F versus voltage curve, from sigmoidal to bell-shaped, with a maximum at approximately +30 mV. The change in voltage dependence, together with the external Ca(2+) dependence and additional controls with ryanodine, indicated a loss of skeletal-type EC coupling and the emergence of an EC coupling component triggered by the Ca(2+) current. Analyses of d(DeltaF/F)/dt showed that the rate of cytosolic Ca(2+) increase during the Ca(2+) transient was fivefold faster for the control chimera than for the severely truncated variants (Delta29, Delta35, and Delta60) and was consistent with the kinetics of the DHPR Ca(2+) current. In summary, absence of the beta1a-specific carboxyl terminus (last 29 to 60 residues of the control chimera) results in a loss of the fast component of the Ca(2+) transient, bending of the DeltaF/F versus voltage curve, and emergence of EC coupling triggered by the Ca(2+) current. The studies underscore the essential role of the carboxyl terminus region of the DHPR beta1a subunit in fast voltage dependent EC coupling in skeletal myotubes.
Project description:Rat L6, mouse C2C12, and primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSMCs) are commonly used to study biological processes in skeletal muscle, and experimental data on these models are abundant. However, consistently matched experimental data are scarce, and comparisons between the different cell types and adult tissue are problematic. We hypothesized that metabolic differences between these cellular models may be reflected at the mRNA level. Publicly available data sets were used to profile mRNA levels in myotubes and skeletal muscle tissues. L6, C2C12, and HSMC myotubes were assessed for proliferation, glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, mitochondrial activity, and substrate oxidation, as well as the response to in vitro contraction. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that mRNA of genes coding for actin and myosin was enriched in C2C12, whereas L6 myotubes had the highest levels of genes encoding glucose transporters and the five complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Consistently, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidative capacity were greatest in L6 myotubes. Insulin-induced glycogen synthesis was highest in HSMCs, but C2C12 myotubes had higher baseline glucose oxidation. All models responded to electrical pulse stimulation-induced glucose uptake and gene expression but in a slightly different manner. Our analysis reveals a great degree of heterogeneity in the transcriptomic and metabolic profiles of L6, C2C12, or primary human myotubes. Based on these distinct signatures, we provide recommendations for the appropriate use of these models depending on scientific hypotheses and biological relevance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: About 20 % of nemaline myopathies are thus far related to skeletal muscle alpha-actin. Seven actin mutants located in different parts of the actin molecule and linked to different forms of the disease were selected and expressed as EGFP-tagged constructs in differentiated C2C12 mytoubes. Results were compared with phenotypes in patient skeletal muscle fibres and with previous expression studies in fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts/myotubes. RESULTS: Whereas EGFP wt-actin nicely incorporated into endogenous stress fibres and sarcomeric structures, the mutants showed a range of phenotypes, which generally changed upon differentiation. Many mutants appeared delocalized in myoblasts but integrated into endogenous actin structures after 4-6 days of differentiation, demonstrating a poor correlation between the appearance in myotubes and the severity of the disease. However, for some mutants, integration into stress fibres induced aberrant structures in differentiated cells, like thickening or fragmentation of stress fibres. Other mutants almost failed to integrate but formed huge aggregates in the cytoplasm of myotubes. Those did not co-stain with alpha-actinin, a main component of nemaline bodies found in patient muscle. Interestingly, nuclear aggregates as formed by two of the mutants in myoblasts were found less frequently or not at all in differentiated cells. CONCLUSION: Myotubes are a suitable system to study the capacity of a mutant to incorporate into actin structures or to form or induce pathological changes. Some of the phenotypes observed in undifferentiated myoblasts may only be in vitro effects. Other phenotypes, like aberrant stress fibres or rod formation may be more directly correlated with disease phenotypes. Some mutants did not induce any changes in the cellular actin system, indicating the importance of additional studies like functional assays to fully characterize the pathological impact of a mutant.