Loss of the N-linked glycosylation site at position 386 in the HIV envelope V4 region enhances macrophage tropism and is associated with dementia.
ABSTRACT: HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). Mechanisms that enhance HIV macrophage/microglial tropism are not well understood. Here, we identify an HIV Env variant in the V4 region of gp120, Asp 386 (D386), that eliminates an N-linked glycosylation site at position 386, enhances viral replication in macrophages, and is present at a higher frequency in AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) compared with non-HAD patients. D386 enhances HIV entry and replication in macrophages but not in microglia or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, possibly due to differential glycosylation in these cell types. A D386N mutation in the UK1br Env, which restores the N-linked glycan site, reduced neutralization sensitivity to the IgG1b12 (b12) monoclonal antibody, which recognizes a conserved neutralization epitope that overlaps the CD4 binding site. Molecular modeling suggested that loss of the glycan at position 386 increases exposure of the CD4 and b12 binding sites on gp120. Loss of a glycan at 386 was more frequent in Envs from HAD patients (26%; n=185) compared with non-HAD patients (7%; n=99; p<0.001). The most significant association of these Env variants with HAD was in blood or lymphoid tissue rather than brain. These findings suggest that increased exposure of the b12 epitope overlapping the CD4 binding site via elimination of a glycan at position 386 is associated with enhanced HIV macrophage tropism, and provide evidence that determinants of macrophage and microglia tropism are overlapping but distinct.
Project description:Macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues are an important cellular reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection, particularly in the later stages of disease. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains have an enhanced capacity to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we use a panel of primary HIV envelopes from brain and lymphoid tissues to examine the relationship between neutralization sensitivity to reagents targeting the CD4 binding site and virus entry into macrophages. Neutralization assays using pseudotyped viruses showed an association between the capacity of HIV to enter macrophages and increased sensitivity to the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) b12, which recognizes a conserved epitope overlapping the CD4 binding site, but not sensitivity to soluble CD4 (sCD4) or b6, a non-neutralizing CD4 binding site mAb. Furthermore, loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at position 386 in the V4 region of Env enhanced macrophage tropism together with b12 sensitivity, but not neutralization by sCD4, b6, or a broadly neutralizing AIDS patient serum. These findings suggest that exposure of the b12 epitope, rather than exposure of the CD4 binding site per se, enhances HIV macrophage tropism, possibly by exposing a region on the outer domain of gp120 that is initially recognized by CD4. These findings suggest overlap between specific gp120 determinants in or near the b12 epitope and those conferring macrophage tropism.
Project description:Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the ?3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120-CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues.
Project description:HIV-1 R5 viruses vary extensively in their capacity to infect macrophages. R5 viruses that confer efficient infection of macrophages are able to exploit low levels of CD4 for infection and predominate in brain tissue, where macrophages are a major target for infection. HIV-1 R5 founder viruses that are transmitted were reported to be non-macrophage-tropic. Here, we investigated the sensitivities of macrophage-tropic and non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelopes to neutralizing antibodies. We observed striking differences in the sensitivities of Env(+) pseudovirions to soluble CD4 (sCD4) and to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that target the CD4 binding site. Macrophage-tropic R5 Envs were sensitive to sCD4, while non-macrophage-tropic Envs were significantly more resistant. In contrast, all Envs were sensitive to VRC01 regardless of tropism, while MAb b12 conferred an intermediate neutralization pattern where all the macrophage-tropic and about half of the non-macrophage-tropic Envs were sensitive. CD4, b12, and VRC01 share binding specificities on the outer domain of gp120. However, these antibodies differ in their ability to induce conformational changes on the trimeric envelope and in specificity for residues on the V1V2 loop stem and ?20-21 junction that are targets for CD4 in recruiting the bridging sheet. These distinct specificities of CD4, b12, and VRC01 likely explain the observed differences in Env sensitivity to inhibition by these reagents and provide an insight into the envelope mechanisms that control macrophage tropism. We present a model where the efficiency of bridging-sheet recruitment by CD4 is a major determinant of HIV-1 R5 envelope sensitivity to soluble CD4 and macrophage tropism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, which mediates viral attachment to target cells, consists for approximately 50% of sugar, but the role of the individual sugar chains in various aspects of gp120 folding and function is poorly understood. Here we studied the role of the carbohydrate at position 386. We identified a virus variant that had lost the 386 glycan in an evolution study of a mutant virus lacking the disulfide bond at the base of the V4 domain. RESULTS: The 386 carbohydrate was not essential for folding of wt gp120. However, its removal improved folding of a gp120 variant lacking the 385-418 disulfide bond, suggesting that it plays an auxiliary role in protein folding in the presence of this disulfide bond. The 386 carbohydrate was not critical for gp120 binding to dendritic cells (DC) and DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission to T cells. In accordance with previous reports, we found that N386 was involved in binding of the mannose-dependent neutralizing antibody 2G12. Interestingly, in the presence of specific substitutions elsewhere in gp120, removal of N386 did not result in abrogation of 2G12 binding, implying that the contribution of N386 is context dependent. Neutralization by soluble CD4 and the neutralizing CD4 binding site (CD4BS) antibody b12 was significantly enhanced in the absence of the 386 sugar, indicating that this glycan protects the CD4BS against antibodies. CONCLUSION: The carbohydrate at position 386 is not essential for protein folding and function, but is involved in the protection of the CD4BS from antibodies. Removal of this sugar in the context of trimeric Env immunogens may therefore improve the elicitation of neutralizing CD4BS antibodies.
Project description:HIV infects tissue macrophages and brain microglia, which express lower levels of CD4 and CCR5 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. Mechanisms that enhance HIV tropism for macrophages in the CNS and other tissues are not well understood. Here, we identify an HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) variant in the CD4-binding site of gp120, Asn 283 (N283), that is present at a high frequency in brain tissues from AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). N283 increases gp120 affinity for CD4 by decreasing the gp120-CD4 dissociation rate, enhancing the capacity of HIV Envs to use low levels of CD4 for virus entry and increasing viral replication in macrophages and microglia. Structural modeling suggests that the enhanced ability of Envs with N283 to use low levels of CD4 is due to a hydrogen bond formed with Gln 40 of CD4. N283 is significantly more frequent in brain-derived Envs from HAD patients (41%; n=330) compared with non-HAD patients (8%; n=151; P<0.001). These findings suggest that the macrophage-tropic HIV Env variant N283 is associated with brain infection and dementia in vivo, representing an example of a HIV variant associated with a specific AIDS-related complication.
Project description:HIV-1 infects macrophages and microglia in the brain and can cause neurological disorders in infected patients. We and others have shown that brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env) have lower CD4 dependence and higher avidity for CD4 than those from peripheral isolates, and we have also observed increased fusogenicity and reduced sensitivity to the fusion inhibitor T-1249. Due to the genetic differences between brain and spleen env from one individual throughout gp120 and in gp41's heptad repeat 2 (HR2), we investigated the viral determinants for the phenotypic differences by performing functional studies with chimeric and mutant Env.Chimeric Env showed that the V1/V2-C2-V3 region in brain's gp120 determines the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4, as well as macrophage tropism and reduced sensitivity to the small molecule BMS-378806. Changes in brain gp41's HR2 region did not contribute to the increased fusogenicity or to the reduced sensitivity to T-1249, since a T-1249-based peptide containing residues found in brain's but not in spleen's HR2 had similar potency than T-1249 and interacted similarly with an immobilized heptad repeat 1-derived peptide in surface plasmon resonance analysis. However, the increased fusogenicity and reduced T-1249 sensitivity of brain and certain chimeric Env mostly correlated with the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4 determined by brain's V1-V3 region. Remarkably, most but not all of these low CD4-dependent, macrophage tropic envelopes glycoproteins also had increased sensitivity to the novel allosteric entry inhibitor HNG-105. The gp120's C2 region asparagine 283 (N283) has been previously associated with macrophage tropism, brain infection, lower CD4 dependence and higher CD4 affinity. Therefore, we introduced the N283T mutation into an env clone from a brain-derived isolate and into a brain tissue-derived env clone, and the T283N change into a spleen-derived env from the same individual; however, we found that their phenotypes were not affected.We have identified that the V1-V3 region of a brain-derived envelope glycoprotein seems to play a crucial role in determining not only the low CD4 dependence and increased macrophage tropism, but also the augmented fusogenicity and reduced sensitivity to T-1249 and BMS-378806. By contrast, increased sensitivity to HNG-105 mostly correlated with low CD4 dependence and macrophage tropism but was not determined by the presence of the brain's V1-V3 region, confirming that viral determinants of phenotypic changes in brain-derived envelope glycoproteins are likely complex and context-dependent.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains isolated from the central nervous system (CNS) may represent a subgroup that displays a host cell tropism different from those isolated from peripheral blood and lymph nodes. One CNS-derived isolate, HIV-1SF128A, which can be propagated efficiently in primary macrophage culture but not in any T-cell lines, was molecularly cloned and characterized. Recombinant viruses between HIV-1SF128A and the peripheral blood isolate HIV-1SF2 were generated in order to map the viral gene(s) responsible for the macrophage tropism. The env gene sequences of the two isolates are about 91.1% homologous, with variations scattered mainly in the hypervariable regions of gp120. Recombinant viruses that have acquired the HIV-1SF128A env gene display HIV-1SF128A tropism for macrophages. Furthermore, the gp120 variable domains, V1, V2, V4, and V5, the CD4-binding domain, and the gp41 fusion domain are not directly involved in determining macrophage tropism.
Project description:While CCR5 is the principal coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1, not all primary CCR5-using (R5) viruses enter macrophages efficiently. Here, we used functionally-diverse R5 envelope (Env) clones to characterize virus-cell interactions important for efficient CCR5-mediated macrophage entry. The magnitude of macrophage entry by Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses correlated with increased immunoreactivity of CD4-induced gp120 epitopes, increased ability to scavenge low levels of cell-surface CCR5, reduced sensitivity to the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc, and increased dependence on specific residues in the CCR5 ECL2 region. These results are consistent with an altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement. Structural studies revealed potential alterations within the gp120 V3 loop, the gp41 interaction sites at the gp120 C- and N-termini, and within the gp120 CD4 binding site which may directly or indirectly lead to more efficient CCR5-usage. Thus, enhanced gp120-CCR5 interactions may contribute to M-tropism of R5 HIV-1 strains through different structural mechanisms.
Project description:HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), which express lower levels of CD4 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. To investigate mechanisms of HIV neurotropism, full-length env genes were cloned from autopsy brain and lymphoid tissues from 4 AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Characterization of 55 functional Env clones demonstrated that Envs with reduced dependence on CD4 for fusion and viral entry are more frequent in brain compared to lymphoid tissue. Envs that mediated efficient entry into macrophages were frequent in brain but were also present in lymphoid tissue. For most Envs, entry into macrophages correlated with overall fusion activity at all levels of CD4 and CCR5. gp160 nucleotide sequences were compartmentalized in brain versus lymphoid tissue within each patient. Proline at position 308 in the V3 loop of gp120 was associated with brain compartmentalization in 3 patients, but mutagenesis studies suggested that P308 alone does not contribute to reduced CD4 dependence or macrophage-tropism. These results suggest that HIV adaptation to replicate in the CNS selects for Envs with reduced CD4 dependence and increased fusion activity. Macrophage-tropic Envs are frequent in brain but are also present in lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with HAD, and entry into macrophages in the CNS and other tissues is dependent on the ability to use low receptor levels and overall efficiency of fusion.
Project description:We have investigated whether nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp120 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can interfere with HIV-1 neutralization by another anti-gp120 MAb. We used neutralizing (b12) and nonneutralizing (205-42-15, 204-43-1, 205-46-9) MAbs to the epitope cluster overlapping the CD4-binding site (CD4BS) on gp120. All the MAbs, neutralizing or otherwise, cross-competed for binding to monomeric gp120, indicating the close topological proximity of their epitopes. However, the nonneutralizing CD4BS MAbs did not interfere with the neutralization activity of MAb b12. In contrast, in a binding assay using oligomeric Env expressed on the surface of Env-transfected cells, the nonneutralizing MAbs did partially compete with b12 for Env binding. The surface of Env-transfected cells contains two categories of binding site for CD4BS MAbs. One type of site is recognized by both b12 and nonneutralizing CD4BS MAbs; the other is recognized by only b12. Binding assays for Env-gp120 interactions based on the use of monomeric gp120 or Env-transfected cells do not predict the outcome of HIV-1 neutralization assays, and they should therefore be used only with caution when gauging the properties of anti-Env MAbs.