Autoregulation of pituitary corticotroph SOCS-3 expression: characterization of the murine SOCS-3 promoter.
ABSTRACT: Pituitary corticotroph SOCS-3 is a novel intracellular regulator of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-mediated proopiomelanocortin gene expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion, inhibiting LIF-activated Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling in a negative autoregulatory loop. We now demonstrate in corticotroph AtT-20 cells that LIF-stimulated endogenous SOCS-3 mRNA expression is blocked in stable transfectants of SOCS-3 wild type or in dominant negative STAT-3 mutants, respectively. We characterized approximately 3.8-kb genomic 5' sequence of murine SOCS-3, including approximately 2.9-kb sequence upstream of the transcription start site (+1), which was determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RNase protection assay. Different 5' constructs were cloned into the pGL3Basic vector, and luciferase activity was assayed in transiently transfected ACTH-secreting corticotroph AtT-20 cells. A STAT-1/STAT-3 binding element, located at nucleotides -72 to -64, was essential for LIF stimulation of SOCS-3 promoter activity. LIF induced 10-fold increased luciferase activity in a wild-type construct spanning -2757 to +929 bases. However, deletion or point mutation of the STAT-1/STAT-3 binding element abrogated LIF action (2- to 3-fold). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay analysis confirmed specific binding of STAT-1 and STAT-3 to this region. These results characterize the genomic 5' region of murine SOCS-3 and identify an important STAT-1/STAT-3 binding element therein. Thus, LIF-stimulated SOCS-3 gene expression is at least in part mediated by STAT-3 and STAT-1. The cytokine inhibitor SOCS-3 acts in a negative loop to autoregulate its own gene expression, thus limiting its accumulation in the corticotroph cell. These results demonstrate a mechanism for corticotroph plasticity with rapid "on" and "off" ACTH induction in response to neuro-immuno-endocrine stimuli, such as LIF.
Project description:SOCS-1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling-1) is a representative of a family of negative regulators of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1 to SOCS-7 and CIS) characterized by a highly conserved C-terminal SOCS box preceded by an SH2 domain. This study comprehensively examined the ability of several SOCS family members to negatively regulate the gp130 signaling pathway. SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibited both interleukin-6 (IL-6)- and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-induced macrophage differentiation of murine monocytic leukemic M1 cells and LIF induction of a Stat3-responsive reporter construct in 293T fibroblasts. Deletion of amino acids 51-78 in the N-terminal region of SOCS-1 prevented inhibition of LIF signaling. The SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 N-terminal regions were functionally interchangeable, but this did not extend to other SOCS family members. Mutation of SH2 domains abrogated the ability of both SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 to inhibit LIF signal transduction. Unlike SOCS-1, SOCS-3 was unable to inhibit JAK kinase activity in vitro, suggesting that SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 act on the JAK-STAT pathway in different ways. Thus, although inhibition of signaling by SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 requires both the SH2 and N-terminal domains, their mechanisms of action appear to be biochemically different.
Project description:Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 (SOCS-1 and SOCS-3) are inhibitors of the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway and function in a negative feedback loop during cytokine signaling. Abl transformation is associated with constitutive activation of JAK/STAT-dependent signaling. However, the mechanism by which Abl oncoproteins bypass SOCS inhibitory regulation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that coexpression of Bcr-Abl with SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 results in tyrosine phosphorylation of these SOCS proteins. Interestingly, SOCS-1 is highly tyrosine phosphorylated in one of five primary chronic myelogenous leukemia samples. Bcr-Abl-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 occurs mainly on Tyr 155 and Tyr 204 residues of SOCS-1 and on Tyr 221 residue of SOCS-3. We observed that phosphorylation of these SOCS proteins was associated with their binding to Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl-dependent phosphorylation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 diminished their inhibitory effects on the activation of JAK and STAT5 and thereby enhanced JAK/STAT5 signaling. Strikingly, disrupting the tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 impaired the expression of Bcl-X(L) protein and sensitized K562 leukemic cells to undergo apoptosis. Moreover, selective mutation of tyrosine phosphorylation sites of SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 significantly blocked Bcr-Abl-mediated tumorigenesis in nude mice and inhibited Bcr-Abl-mediated murine bone marrow transformation. Together, these results reveal a mechanism of how Bcr-Abl may overcome SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibition to constitutively activate the JAK/STAT-dependent signaling, and suggest that Bcr-Abl may critically requires tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 to mediate tumorigenesis when these SOCS proteins are present in cells.
Project description:Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomerulus contributed by mesangial cells is the hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we examined the regulatory signals involved in the high glucose (HG)-induced overproduction of ECM in rat mesangial cells (RMCs). We disclosed excessive fibronectin and collagen IV production, tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 (STAT1/3), and up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) expression in HG-treated RMCs. STAT1/STAT3 binding element was essential for SOCS-3 promoter activity stimulated by HG. HG was capable of promoting the specific DNA binding activities to an oligonucleotide probe containing the SOCS-3 sequence. The selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and dominant negative p85 vector (DN?p85) transfection effectively abolished these HG-induced responses. Moreover, HG markedly increased the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 protein expression, which could be inhibited by LY294002 or transfection of DN?p85. Taken together, these results suggest that HG-induced SOCS-3 upregulation depends upon the presence of STAT-binding element in the SOCS-3 promoter, which is specifically activated by STAT1/3. The PI3K/STAT1/3 signaling pathway mediated HG-triggered ECM accumulation and SOCS-3 upregulation in RMCs.
Project description:Cushing disease (CD) is a life-threatening disorder attributed to excess pituitary tumor-derived adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adrenal steroid secretion caused by pituitary tumors. Whereas CD was first described in 1932, the underlying genetic basis driving tumor growth and ACTH secretion remains unsolved. Here, we show that testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2) is overexpressed in human corticotroph tumors as well as in human and mouse corticotroph tumor cell lines. Forced overexpression of TR4 in both human and murine tumor cells increased proopiomelanocortin transcription, ACTH secretion, cellular proliferation, and tumor invasion rates in vitro. Conversely, knockdown of TR4 expression reversed all phenotypes. Mechanistically, we show that TR4 transcriptionally activates proopiomelanocortin through binding of a direct repeat 1 response element in the promoter, and that this is enhanced by MAPK-mediated TR4 phosphorylation. In vivo, TR4 overexpression promotes murine corticotroph tumor growth as well as enhances ACTH and corticosterone production, whereas TR4 knockdown decreases circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels in mice harboring ACTH-secreting tumors. Our findings directly link TR4 to the etiology of corticotroph tumors, hormone secretion, and cell growth as well as identify it as a potential target in the treatment of CD.
Project description:JAK-STAT signaling mediates the actions of numerous cytokines and growth factors, and its endogenous brake is the family of SOCS proteins. Consistent with their intracellular roles, SOCS proteins have never been identified in the extracellular space. Here we report that alveolar macrophages can secrete SOCS1 and -3 in exosomes and microparticles, respectively, for uptake by alveolar epithelial cells and subsequent inhibition of STAT activation. Secretion is tunable and occurs both in vitro and in vivo. SOCS secretion into lung lining fluid was diminished by cigarette smoking in humans and mice. Secretion and transcellular delivery of vesicular SOCS proteins thus represent a new model for the control of inflammatory signaling, which is subject to dysregulation during states of inflammation.
Project description:The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR or CASR as listed in the MGI Database) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds and signals in response to extracellular calcium and other polycations. It is highly expressed on parathyroid and kidney cells, where it participates in the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis. It is also expressed on many other cell types and is involved in a wide array of biological functions such as cell growth and differentiation, ion transport, and hormone secretion. It has been described to couple to several different G proteins including Galpha(i/0), Galpha(q/11), and Galpha(12/13). Recently, it has also been shown to stimulate cAMP production by coupling to Galpha(s) in immortalized or malignant breast cells. The CaR is expressed on cells in the anterior pituitary and had previously been described to stimulate cAMP production in these cells. In this report, we examined signaling from the CaR in murine pituitary corticotroph-derived, AtT-20 cells. We found that CaR activation led to the stimulation of cAMP production, and PTH-related protein (PTHrP or PTHLH as listed in the MGI Database) and ACTH secretion from these cells. Furthermore, manipulation of cAMP levels was able to modulate PTHrP and ACTH secretion independent of changes in extracellular calcium. Finally, we demonstrated that the CaR couples to Galpha(s) in AtT-20 cells. Therefore, in pituitary corticotroph-like cells, as in breast cancer cells, the CaR utilizes Galpha(s) and activates cAMP production to stimulate hormone secretion.
Project description:The Elongin BC complex was identified initially as a positive regulator of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin A and subsequently as a component of the multiprotein von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor complex, in which it participates in both tumor suppression and negative regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Elongin B is a ubiquitin-like protein, and Elongin C is a Skp1-like protein that binds to a BC-box motif that is present in both Elongin A and VHL and is distinct from the conserved F-box motif recognized by Skp1. In this report, we demonstrate that the Elongin BC complex also binds to a functional BC box present in the SOCS box, a sequence motif identified recently in the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) protein, as well as in a collection of additional proteins belonging to the SOCS, ras, WD-40 repeat, SPRY domain, and ankyrin repeat families. In addition, we present evidence (1) that the Elongin BC complex is a component of a multiprotein SOCS-1 complex that attenuates Jak/STAT signaling by binding to Jak2 and inhibiting Jak2 kinase, and (2) that by interacting with the SOCS box, the Elongin BC complex can increase expression of the SOCS-1 protein by inhibiting its degradation. These results suggest that Elongin BC is a multifunctional regulatory complex capable of controlling multiple pathways in the cell through interaction with a short degenerate sequence motif found in many different proteins.
Project description:Interferon (IFN)-induced Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) pathway is important in controlling immune responses and is negatively response-regulated by the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. However, several viruses have developed various strategies to inhibit this pathway to circumvent the anti-viral immunity of the host. The infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae and a causative agent of epizootics in fish. ISKNV ORF103R encodes a predicted viral SOCS (vSOCS) with high homology to the vertebrate SOCS1, but lacks a SOCS-box domain. Interestingly, vSOCS only exists in the genus Megalocytivirus. ISKNV-vSOCS can block the IFN-?-induced Jak/Stat pathway in HepG2 cells. Over-expression of ISKNV-vSOCS inhibited the activities of IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter; however, the inhibitions by ISKNV-vSOCS were dose-dependent. ISKNV-vSOCS interacted with Jak1 protein and inhibited its tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. ISKNV-vSOCS also impaired the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat3 proteins and suppressed their activations. The point mutations (F18D, S66A, S85A, and R64K) of ISKNV-vSOCS significantly impaired the inhibition of IFN-?-induced ISRE-promoter activation. In conclusion, vSOCS inhibits IFN-?-induced Stat1/Stat3 signaling, suggesting that Megalocytivirus has developed a novel strategy to evade IFN anti-viral immunity via vSOCS protein.
Project description:Cushing's disease is caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma, and the pathogenesis of it has remained obscure. Here, we showed that cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) was markedly elevated in corticotroph tumors. Forced overexpression of CIRP in murine AtT20 pituitary corticotroph cell line increased corticotroph precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription, ACTH secretion and cellular proliferation. In vivo, CIRP overexpression promotes murine corticotroph tumor growth and enhances ACTH production. Mechanistically, we show that CIRP could promote AtT20 cells proliferation by inducing cyclinD1 and decreasing p27 expression via Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Clinically, CIRP overexpression is significantly correlated with Cushing's disease recurrence. CIRP appears to play a critical tumorigenesis function in Cushing's disease and its expression might be a useful biomarker for tumor recurrence.
Project description:Abstract Cushing Disease (CD) is a life-threatening condition with suboptimal medical treatment. To identify drugs that not only inhibit ACTH secretion to attain eucortisolemia but also inhibit tumor growth, we conducted a high throughput screen employing a novel “gain of signal” ACTH AlphaLISA assay. From a kinase inhibitor library containing 430 compounds, we identified the dual PI3K/HDAC inhibitor, CUDC-907, as a potent inhibitor of both in vitro and in vivo corticotroph tumor ACTH secretion and growth. By stepwise comparison of CUDC-907 with mono-functional PI3K and HDAC inhibitors, we demonstrated that CUDC-907 exerts its inhibitory effect on ACTH secretion primarily through its inhibition of HDAC activity at the POMC transcriptional level; while PI3K-mediated inhibition of corticotroph cell viability further contributes to reduced ACTH secretion. We also used RNA-seq to characterize the global transcriptiome changes associated with CUDC-907 treatment. Hierarchical clustering showed that 1432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, p?0.05 and fold-change?1.5) were altered by CUDC-907 treatment in comparison to the vehicle-treated control cells. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of 456 downregulated and 976 upregulated DEGs revealed that the most enriched biological processes were cholesterol biosynthesis (GO:0006695, p=1.977e-17) and the type I interferon signaling pathway (GO: 0060337, p=4.928e-7) respectively. Further analysis demonstrated downregulation of the membrane-bound transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). Downregulation of SREBP-2 by CUDC-907 as well as the several other target enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake pathway including IDI2, NSDHL, MVD, and HMGCR, was confirmed by real-time PCR. To further characterize a role for SREBP-2 in regulation of corticotroph tumor ACTH secretion and proliferation, we employed siRNA targeting endogenous SREBP-2 (SREBP-2 mRNA, Control vs. siRNA 1±0.03 vs. 0.6±0.08, p<0.05), and demonstrated that knockdown of SREBP-2 not only inhibited POMC mRNA expression (POMC mRNA, 1±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.01, p<0.01), and ACTH secretion (ACTH (ng/mL) 29±0.4 vs. 23±0.3, p<0.005), but also suppressed cell proliferation (Relative Proliferation Rate, 1±0.01 vs. 0.7±0.01, p<0.005). This was further confirmed by overexpression of cleaved mature SREBP-2, which led to increased POMC expression and cell proliferation. We demonstrate for the first time the role of the SREBP-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in regulation of corticotroph tumor POMC regulation and growth. Our studies identify SREBP and cholesterol biosynthesis as a therapeutic target in CD.