The three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein of Shewanella oneidensis complexed with trans-aconitate: insights into its biological function.
ABSTRACT: In bacteria, the dehydration of 2-methylcitrate to yield 2-methylaconitate in the 2-methylcitric acid cycle is catalyzed by a cofactor-less (PrpD) enzyme or by an aconitase-like (AcnD) enzyme. Bacteria that use AcnD also require the function of the PrpF protein, whose function was previously unknown. To gain insights into the function of PrpF, the three-dimensional crystal structure of the PrpF protein from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis was solved at 2.0 A resolution. The protein fold of PrpF is strikingly similar to those of the non-PLP-dependent diaminopimelate epimerase from Haemophilus influenzae, a putative proline racemase from Brucella melitensis, and to a recently deposited structure of a hypothetical protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro studies show that PrpF isomerizes trans-aconitate to cis-aconitate. It is proposed that PrpF catalysis of the cis-trans isomerization proceeds through a base-catalyzed proton abstraction coupled with a rotation about C2-C3 bond of 2-methylaconitate, and that residue Lys73 is critical for PrpF function. The newly identified function of PrpF as a non-PLP-dependent isomerase, together with the fact that PrpD-containing bacteria do not require PrpF, suggest that the isomer of 2-methylaconitate that serves as a substrate of aconitase must have the same stereochemistry as that synthesized by PrpD. From this, it follows that the 2-methylaconitate isomer generated by AcnD is not a substrate of aconitase, and that PrpF is required to generate the correct isomer. As a consequence, the isomerase activity of PrpF may now be viewed as an integral part of the 2-methylcitric acid cycle.
Project description:The 2-methylcitric acid cycle (2-MCC) is a common route of propionate catabolism in microorganisms. In Salmonella enterica, the prpBCDE operon encodes most of the 2-MCC enzymes. In other organisms, e.g., Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, two genes, acnD and prpF replace prpD, which encodes 2-methylcitrate dehydratase. We showed that together, S. oneidensis AcnD and PrpF (SoAcnD, SoPrpF) compensated for the absence of PrpD in a S. enterica prpD strain. We also showed that SoAcnD had 2-methylcitrate dehydratase activity and that PrpF has aconitate isomerase activity. Here we report in vitro evidence that the product of the SoAcnD reaction is an isomer of 2-methyl-cis-aconitate (2-MCA], the product of the SePrpD reaction. We show that the SoPrpF protein isomerizes the product of the AcnD reaction into the PrpD product (2-MCA], a known substrate of the housekeeping aconitase (AcnB]. Given that SoPrpF is an isomerase, that SoAcnD is a dehydratase, and the results from in vivo and in vitro experiments reported here, it is likely that 4-methylaconitate is the product of the AcnD enzyme. Results from in vivo studies using a S. enterica prpD strain show that SoPrpF variants with substitutions of residues K73 or C107 failed to support growth with propionate as the sole source of carbon and energy. High-resolution (1.22 Å) three-dimensional crystal structures of PrpFK73E in complex with trans-aconitate or malonate provide insights into the mechanism of catalysis of the wild-type protein.
Project description:We describe the construction and use of two sets of vectors for the over-expression and purification of protein from Escherichia coli. The set of pTEV plasmids (pTEV3, 4, 5) directs the synthesis of a recombinant protein with a N-terminal hexahistidine (His(6)) tag that is removable by the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. The set of pKLD plasmids (pKLD66, 116) directs the synthesis of a recombinant protein that contains a N-terminal His(6) and maltose-binding protein tag in tandem, which can also be removed with TEV protease. The usefulness of these plasmids is illustrated by the rapid, high-yield purification of the 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (PrpD) protein of Salmonella enterica, and the 2-methylaconitate isomerase (PrpF) protein of Shewanella oneidensis, two enzymes involved in the catabolism of propionate to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitric acid cycle.
Project description:Itaconic acid is an important biomass-derived chemical building block but has also recently been identified as a metabolite produced in mammals, which has antimicrobial activity. The biosynthetic pathway of itaconic acid has been elucidated in the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus terreus and in human macrophages. In both organisms itaconic acid is generated by decarboxylation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate cis-aconitate. Here, we show that the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis uses an alternative pathway and produces itaconic acid via trans-aconitate, the thermodynamically favoured isomer of cis-aconitate. We have identified a gene cluster that contains all genes involved in itaconic acid formation. Trans-aconitate is generated from cis-aconitate by a cytosolic aconitate-?-isomerase (Adi1) that belongs to the PrpF family of proteins involved in bacterial propionate degradation. Decarboxylation of trans-aconitate is catalyzed by a novel enzyme, trans-aconitate decarboxylase (Tad1). Tad1 displays significant sequence similarity with bacterial 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzymes (CMLE). This suggests that U.?maydis has evolved an alternative biosynthetic pathway for itaconate production using the toxic intermediate trans-aconitate. Overexpression of a pathway-specific transcription factor (Ria1) or a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid transporter (Mtt1) resulted in a twofold increase in itaconate yield. Therefore, our findings offer new strategies for biotechnological production of this valuable biomass-derived chemical.
Project description:Homoaconitase enzymes catalyze hydrolyase reactions in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis or the 2-oxosuberate pathway for methanogenic coenzyme B biosynthesis. Despite the homology of this iron-sulfur protein to aconitase, previously studied homoaconitases catalyze only the hydration of cis-homoaconitate to form homoisocitrate rather than the complete isomerization of homocitrate to homoisocitrate. The MJ1003 and MJ1271 proteins from the methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii formed the first homoaconitase shown to catalyze both the dehydration of (R)-homocitrate to form cis-homoaconitate, and its hydration is shown to produce homoisocitrate. This heterotetrameric enzyme also used the analogous longer chain substrates cis-(homo)(2)aconitate, cis-(homo)(3)aconitate, and cis-(homo)(4)aconitate, all with similar specificities. A combination of the homoaconitase with the M. jannaschii homoisocitrate dehydrogenase catalyzed all of the isomerization and oxidative decarboxylation reactions required to form 2-oxoadipate, 2-oxopimelate, and 2-oxosuberate, completing three iterations of the 2-oxoacid elongation pathway. Methanogenic archaeal homoaconitases and fungal homoaconitases evolved in parallel in the aconitase superfamily. The archaeal homoaconitases share a common ancestor with isopropylmalate isomerases, and both enzymes catalyzed the hydration of the minimal substrate maleate to form d-malate. The variation in substrate specificity among these enzymes correlated with the amino acid sequences of a flexible loop in the small subunits.
Project description:It has been known for many years that fluoroacetate and fluorocitrate when metabolized are highly toxic, and that at least one effect of fluorocitrate is to inactivate aconitase. In this paper we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the (-)-erythro diastereomer of 2-fluorocitrate acts as a mechanism based inhibitor of aconitase by first being converted to fluoro-cis-aconitate, followed by addition of hydroxide and with loss of fluoride to form 4-hydroxy-trans-aconitate (HTn), which binds very tightly, but not covalently, to the enzyme. Formation of HTn by these reactions is in accord with the working model for the enzyme mechanism. That HTn is the product of fluorocitrate inhibition is supported by the crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex at 2.05-A resolution, release of fluoride stoichiometric with total enzyme when (-)-erythro-2-fluorocitrate is added, HPLC analysis of the product, slow displacement of HTn by 10(6)-fold excess of isocitrate, and previously published Mössbauer experiments. When (+)-erythro-2-fluorocitrate is added to aconitase, the release of fluoride is stoichiometric with total substrate added, and HPLC analysis of the products indicates the formation of oxalosuccinate, and its derivative alpha-ketoglutarate. This is consistent with the proposed mechanism, as is the formation of HTn from (-)-erythro-2-fluorocitrate. The structure of the inhibited complex reveals that HTn binds like the inhibitor trans-aconitate while providing all the interactions of the natural substrate, isocitrate. The structure exhibits four hydrogen bonds < 2.7 A in length involving HTn, H2O bound to the [4Fe-4S] cluster, Asp-165 and His-167, as well as low temperature factors for these moieties, consistent with the observed very tight binding of the inhibitor.
Project description:In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the activities of IRP1. We demonstrate that Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) treated with PMA, and we study the effects of the S711E (Ser-711-->Glu) mutation on IRP1 functions. A highly purified preparation of recombinant IRP1(S711E) displays negligible IRE-binding and aconitase activities. It appears that the first step in the aconitase reaction (conversion of citrate into the intermediate cis-aconitate) is more severely affected, as recombinant IRP1(S711E) retains approx. 45% of its capacity to catalyse the conversion of cis-aconitate into the end-product isocitrate. When expressed in mammalian cells, IRP1(S711E) completely fails to bind to RNA and to generate isocitrate from citrate. We demonstrate that the apparent inactivation of IRP1(S711E) is not related to mutation-associated protein misfolding or to alterations in its stability. Sequence analysis of IRP1 from all species currently deposited in protein databases shows that Ser-711 and flanking sequences are highly conserved in the evolutionary scale. Our results suggest that Ser-711 is a critical residue for the control of IRP1 activities.
Project description:1. The effects of synthetic fluorocitrate were studied on: (a) the oxidation of citrate and cis-aconitate by rat liver mitochondria; (b) the activity of the aconitate hydratase found in the liver cell sap; (c) the activity of the aconitate hydratase solubilized from liver mitochondria. 2. Fluorocitrate was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxidation of citrate but only a weak inhibitor of oxidation of cis-aconitate: 6.7mum-fluorocitrate (containing 4% of the inhibitory isomer) caused 94% inhibition of the oxidation of citrate (2mm) whereas 1.0mm-fluorocitrate was necessary to provoke the same inhibition when cis-aconitate (2mm) was the substrate. The degree of inhibition varied in relation to the respiratory state of mitochondria when fluorocitrate was added. The inhibition could be partially reversed by cis-aconitate. 3. The aconitate hydratase extracted from the mitochondria was much less inhibited by fluorocitrate than was the mitochondria-bound enzyme, and the aconitate hydratase found in the cell sap was even less sensitive. 0.3mm-Fluorocitrate was required to cause 50% inhibition of the reaction citrate-->cis-aconitate, catalysed by the aconitate hydratase extracted from the mitochondria, and 1.2m-fluorocitrate for the extramitochondrial enzyme. For both enzymes the reaction citrate-->cis-aconitate was 2-3 times more sensitive to fluorocitrate than was the reaction isocitrate-->cis-aconitate. The inhibition was of the competitive type for both reactions.
Project description:In the aconitase superfamily, which includes the archetypical aconitase, homoaconitase, and isopropylmalate isomerase, only aconitase X is not functionally annotated. The corresponding gene (LhpI) was often located within the bacterial gene cluster involved in L-hydroxyproline metabolism. Screening of a library of (hydroxy)proline analogues revealed that this protein catalyzes the dehydration of cis-3-hydroxy-L-proline to ?1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate. Furthermore, electron paramagnetic resonance and site-directed mutagenic analyses suggests the presence of a mononuclear Fe(III) center, which may be coordinated with one glutamate and two cysteine residues. These properties were significantly different from those of other aconitase members, which catalyze the isomerization of ?- to ?-hydroxy acids, and have a [4Fe-4S] cluster-binding site composed of three cysteine residues. Bacteria with the LhpI gene could degrade cis-3-hydroxy-L-proline as the sole carbon source, and LhpI transcription was up-regulated not only by cis-3-hydroxy-L-proline, but also by several isomeric 3- and 4-hydroxyprolines.
Project description:HACN (homoaconitase) is a member of a family of [4Fe-4S] cluster-dependent enzymes that catalyse hydration/dehydration reactions. The best characterized example of this family is the ubiquitous ACN (aconitase), which catalyses the dehydration of citrate to cis-aconitate, and the subsequent hydration of cis-aconitate to isocitrate. HACN is an enzyme from the alpha-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis, and has been identified in higher fungi and several archaea and one thermophilic species of bacteria, Thermus thermophilus. HACN catalyses the hydration of cis-homoaconitate to (2R,3S)-homoisocitrate, but the HACN-catalysed dehydration of (R)-homocitrate to cis-homoaconitate has not been observed in vitro. We have synthesized the substrates and putative substrates for this enzyme, and in the present study report the first steady-state kinetic data for recombinant HACN from T. thermophilus using a (2R,3S)-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase-coupled assay. We have also examined the products of the reaction using HPLC. We do not observe HACN-catalysed 'homocitrate dehydratase' activity; however, we have observed that ACN can catalyse the dehydration of (R)-homocitrate to cis-homoaconitate, but HACN is required for subsequent conversion of cis-homoaconitate into homoisocitrate. This suggests that the in vivo process for conversion of homocitrate into homoisocitrate requires two enzymes, in simile with the propionate utilization pathway from Escherichia coli. Surprisingly, HACN does not show any activity when cis-aconitate is substituted for the substrate, even though other enzymes from the alpha-aminoadipate pathway can accept analogous tricarboxylic acid-cycle substrates. The enzyme shows no apparent feedback inhibition by L-lysine.
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration associated with mutations in the mitochondrial aconitase 2 gene (ACO2) has been recently described as a neurodegenerative disease of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date there is no biomarker for ACO2 deficiency and diagnosis relies on genetic analysis. Here we report global metabolic profiling in eight patients with ACO2 deficiency. Using an LC-MS-based metabolomics platform we have identified several metabolites with affected plasma concentrations including the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites cis-aconitate, isocitrate and alpha-ketoglutarate, as well as phosphoenolpyruvate and hydroxybutyrate. Taken together we report a diagnostic metabolic fingerprint for mitochondrial aconitase 2 deficiency.