Factor requirements for translation initiation on the Simian picornavirus internal ribosomal entry site.
ABSTRACT: The Simian picornavirus type 9 (SPV9) 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) has been predicted to contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) with structural elements that resemble domains of hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs. In vitro reconstitution of initiation confirmed that this 5' UTR contains an IRES and revealed that it has both functional similarities and differences compared to HP IRESs. Like HP IRESs, the SPV9 IRES bound directly to 40S subunits and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, depended on the conserved domain IIId for ribosomal binding and consequently for function, and additionally required eIF2/initiator tRNA to yield 48S complexes that formed elongation-competent 80S ribosomes in the presence of eIF5, eIF5B, and 60S subunits. Toeprinting analysis revealed that eIF1A stabilized 48S complexes, whereas eIF1 induced conformational changes in the 40S subunit, likely corresponding to partial opening of the entry latch of the mRNA-binding channel, that were exacerbated by eIF3 and suppressed by eIF1A. The SPV9 IRES differed from HP IRESs in that its function was enhanced by eIF4A/eIF4F when the IRES was adjacent to the wild-type coding sequence, but was less affected by these factors or by a dominant negative eIF4A mutant when potentially less structured coding sequences were present. Exceptionally, this IRES promoted binding of initiator tRNA to the initiation codon in the P site of 40S subunits independently of eIF2. Although these 40S/IRES/tRNA complexes could not form active 80S ribosomes, this constitutes a second difference between the SPV9 and HP IRESs. eIF1 destabilized the eIF2-independent ribosomal binding of initiator tRNA.
Project description:Halastavi árva virus (HalV) has a positive-sense RNA genome, with an 827 nt-long 5' UTR and an intergenic region separating two open reading frames. Whereas the encoded proteins are most homologous to Dicistrovirus polyproteins, its 5' UTR is distinct. Here, we report that the HalV 5' UTR comprises small stem-loop domains separated by long single-stranded areas and a large A-rich unstructured region surrounding the initiation codon AUG828, and possesses cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity. In contrast to most viral IRESs, it does not depend on structural integrity and specific interaction of a structured element with a translational component, and is instead determined by the unstructured region flanking AUG828. eIF2, eIF3, eIF1 and eIF1A promote efficient 48S initiation complex formation at AUG828, which is reduced ?5-fold on omission of eIF1 and eIF1A. Initiation involves direct attachment of 43S preinitiation complexes within a short window at or immediately downstream of AUG828. 40S and eIF3 are sufficient for initial binding. After attachment, 43S complexes undergo retrograde scanning, strongly dependent on eIF1 and eIF1A. eIF4A/eIF4G stimulated initiation only at low temperatures or on mutants, in which areas surrounding AUG828 had been replaced by heterologous sequences. However, they strongly promoted initiation at AUG872, yielding a proline-rich oligopeptide.
Project description:During eukaryotic translation initiation, initiator tRNA does not insert fully into the P decoding site on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This conformation (POUT) is compatible with scanning mRNA for the AUG start codon. Base pairing with AUG is thought to promote isomerization to a more stable conformation (PIN) that arrests scanning and promotes dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S subunit. Here, we present a cryoEM reconstruction of a yeast preinitiation complex at 4.0 Å resolution with initiator tRNA in the PIN state, prior to eIF1 release. The structure reveals stabilization of the codon-anticodon duplex by the N-terminal tail of eIF1A, changes in the structure of eIF1 likely instrumental in its subsequent release, and changes in the conformation of eIF2. The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2?, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon.
Project description:Translation of the genomes of several positive-sense RNA viruses follows end-independent initiation on an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the viral mRNA. There are four major IRES groups, and despite major differences in the mechanisms that they use, one unifying characteristic is that each mechanism involves essential non-canonical interactions of the IRES with components of the canonical translational apparatus. Thus the approximately 200nt.-long Type 4 IRESs (epitomized by Cricket paralysis virus) bind directly to the intersubunit space on the ribosomal 40S subunit, followed by joining to a 60S subunit to form active ribosomes by a factor-independent mechanism. The approximately 300nt.-long type 3 IRESs (epitomized by Hepatitis C virus) binds independently to eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, and to the solvent-accessible surface and E-site of the 40S subunit: addition of eIF2-GTP/initiator tRNA is sufficient to form a 48S complex that can join a 60S subunit in an eIF5/eIF5B-mediated reaction to form an active ribosome. Recent cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical analyses have revealed a second general characteristic of the mechanisms of initiation on Type 3 and Type 4 IRESs. Both classes of IRES induce similar conformational changes in the ribosome that influence entry, positioning and fixation of mRNA in the ribosomal decoding channel. HCV-like IRESs also stabilize binding of initiator tRNA in the peptidyl (P) site of the 40S subunit, whereas Type 4 IRESs induce changes in the ribosome that likely promote subsequent steps in the translation process, including subunit joining and elongation.
Project description:The 40S subunit in 48S complexes formed at the initiation codon of mRNA is bound to eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, eIF1, eIF1A, and an eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi(Met) ternary complex and can therefore not join a 60S subunit directly to form an 80S ribosome. We report that eIF5-induced hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP in 48S complexes led to release of eIF2-GDP but not eIF3 or eIF1. eIF5B did not influence factor release in the absence of 60S subunits. Therefore eIF3 and eIF1 dissociate from 40S subunits during, rather than before, the eIF5B-mediated subunit joining event. In the absence of eIF1, eIF5-stimulated hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP occurred at the same rate in 43S pre-initiation and 48S initiation complexes. GTP hydrolysis in 43S complexes assembled with eIF1 was much slower than in 43S or 48S complexes assembled without eIF1. Establishment of codon-anticodon base-pairing in 48S complexes relieved eIF1's inhibition. Thus, in addition to its role in initiation codon selection during 48S complex formation, eIF1 also participates in maintaining the fidelity of the initiation process at a later stage, hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP, by inhibiting premature GTP hydrolysis and by linking establishment of codon-anticodon base-pairing with GTP hydrolysis.
Project description:Protein synthesis in all cells begins with recruitment of the small ribosomal subunit to the initiation codon in a messenger RNA. In some eukaryotic viruses, RNA upstream of the coding region forms an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that directly binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit and enables translation initiation in the absence of many canonical translation initiation factors. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES RNA requires just two initiation factors, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 and eIF3, to form preinitiation 48S ribosomal complexes that subsequently assemble into translation-competent ribosomes. Using an RNA-based affinity purification approach, we show here that HCV IRES RNA facilitates eIF2 function through its interactions with eIF3 and the 40S ribosomal subunit. Although the wild-type IRES assembles normally into 48S and 80S ribosomal complexes in human cell extract, mutant IRES RNAs become trapped at the 48S assembly stage. Trapped 48S complexes formed by IRES mutants with reduced eIF3 binding affinity nonetheless contain eIF3, consistent with inherent eIF3-40S subunit affinity. Intriguingly, however, one of these IRES mutants prevents stable association of both eIF3 and eIF2, preventing initiator tRNA deposition and explaining the block in 80S assembly. In contrast, an IRES mutant unable to induce a conformational change in the 40S subunit, as observed previously by single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, blocks 80S formation at a later stage in assembly. These data suggest that the IRES RNA coordinates interactions of eIF3 and eIF2 on the ribosome required to position the initiator tRNA on the mRNA in the ribosomal peptidyl-tRNA site (P site).
Project description:During eukaryotic translation initiation, the 43S preinitiation complex (43S PIC), consisting of the 40S ribosomal subunit, eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and initiator tRNA scans mRNA to find an appropriate start codon. Key roles in the accuracy of initiation codon selection belong to eIF1 and eIF1A, whereas the mammalian-specific DHX29 helicase substantially contributes to ribosomal scanning of structured mRNAs. Here, we show that DHX29 stimulates the recognition of the AUG codon but not the near-cognate CUG codon regardless of its nucleotide context during ribosomal scanning. The stimulatory effect depends on the contact between DHX29 and eIF1A. The unique DHX29 N-terminal domain binds to the ribosomal site near the mRNA entrance, where it contacts the eIF1A OB domain. UV crosslinking assays revealed that DHX29 may rearrange eIF1A and eIF2? in key nucleotide context positions of ribosomal complexes. Interestingly, DHX29 impedes the 48S initiation complex formation in the absence of eIF1A perhaps due to forming a physical barrier that prevents the 43S PIC from loading onto mRNA. Mutational analysis allowed us to split the mRNA unwinding and codon selection activities of DHX29. Thus, DHX29 is another example of an initiation factor contributing to start codon selection.
Project description:48S initiation complex (48S IC) formation is the first stage in the eukaryotic translation process. According to the canonical mechanism, 40S ribosomal subunit binds to the 5'-end of messenger RNA (mRNA) and scans its 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) to the initiation codon where it forms the 48S IC. Entire process is mediated by initiation factors. Here we show that eIF5 and eIF5B together stimulate 48S IC formation influencing initiation codon selection during ribosomal scanning. Initiation on non-optimal start codons--following structured 5'-UTRs, in bad AUG context, within few nucleotides from 5'-end of mRNA and CUG start codon--is the most affected. eIF5-induced hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP is essential for stimulation. GTP hydrolysis increases the probability that scanning ribosomal complexes will recognize and arrest scanning at a non-optimal initiation codon. Such 48S ICs are less stable owing to dissociation of eIF2*GDP from initiator tRNA, and eIF5B is then required to stabilize the initiator tRNA in the P site of 40S subunit. Alternative model that eIF5 and eIF5B cause 43S pre-initiation complex rearrangement favoring more efficient initiation codon recognition during ribosomal scanning is equally possible. Mutational analysis of eIF1A and eIF5B revealed distinct functions of eIF5B in 48S IC formation and subunit joining.
Project description:Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) messenger RNAs contain related (HCV-like) internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) that promote 5'-end independent initiation of translation, requiring only a subset of the eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) needed for canonical initiation on cellular mRNAs. Initiation on HCV-like IRESs relies on their specific interaction with the 40S subunit, which places the initiation codon into the P site, where it directly base-pairs with eIF2-bound initiator methionyl transfer RNA to form a 48S initiation complex. However, all HCV-like IRESs also specifically interact with eIF3 (refs 2, 5-7, 9-12), but the role of this interaction in IRES-mediated initiation has remained unknown. During canonical initiation, eIF3 binds to the 40S subunit as a component of the 43S pre-initiation complex, and comparison of the ribosomal positions of eIF3 and the HCV IRES revealed that they overlap, so that their rearrangement would be required for formation of ribosomal complexes containing both components. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a 40S ribosomal complex containing eIF3 and the CSFV IRES. Remarkably, although the position and interactions of the CSFV IRES with the 40S subunit in this complex are similar to those of the HCV IRES in the 40S-IRES binary complex, eIF3 is completely displaced from its ribosomal position in the 43S complex, and instead interacts through its ribosome-binding surface exclusively with the apical region of domain III of the IRES. Our results suggest a role for the specific interaction of HCV-like IRESs with eIF3 in preventing ribosomal association of eIF3, which could serve two purposes: relieving the competition between the IRES and eIF3 for a common binding site on the 40S subunit, and reducing formation of 43S complexes, thereby favouring translation of viral mRNAs.
Project description:Recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-GTP-Met-tRNAiMet ternary complex to the 40S ribosome is stimulated by multiple initiation factors in vitro, including eIF3, eIF1, eIF5, and eIF1A. Recruitment of mRNA is thought to require the functions of eIF4F and eIF3, with the latter serving as an adaptor between the ribosome and the 4G subunit of eIF4F. To define the factor requirements for these reactions in vivo, we examined the effects of depleting eIF2, eIF3, eIF5, or eIF4G in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on binding of the ternary complex, other initiation factors, and RPL41A mRNA to native 43S and 48S preinitiation complexes. Depleting eIF2, eIF3, or eIF5 reduced 40S binding of all constituents of the multifactor complex (MFC), comprised of these three factors and eIF1, supporting a mechanism of coupled 40S binding by MFC components. 40S-bound mRNA strongly accumulated in eIF5-depleted cells, even though MFC binding to 40S subunits was reduced by eIF5 depletion. Hence, stimulation of the GTPase activity of the ternary complex, a prerequisite for 60S subunit joining in vitro, is likely the rate-limiting function of eIF5 in vivo. Depleting eIF2 or eIF3 impaired mRNA binding to free 40S subunits, but depleting eIF4G led unexpectedly to accumulation of mRNA on 40S subunits. Thus, it appears that eIF3 and eIF2 are more critically required than eIF4G for stable binding of at least some mRNAs to native preinitiation complexes and that eIF4G has a rate-limiting function at a step downstream of 48S complex assembly in vivo.