Nodal sampling in pancreaticoduodenectomy: does it change our management?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lymph node involvement in periampullary malignancy is the single most important factor in predicting survival in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The role of nodal sampling in PD has not been well evaluated. This study evaluates the utility of nodal sampling of nodal stations 8 and 12, which are easily dissected early in PD, in overall final nodal status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients underwent PD at a single institution by a one surgeon over a 15 month period. Nodal stations 8 and 12 were sent separately for pathologic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had a final diagnosis of periampullary malignancy. Demographic and pathologic data were collected retrospectively from patient charts. Positive and negative predictive values of nodes 8 and 12 were evaluated. RESULTS: Eighteen of 28 patients with a diagnosis of periampullary malignancy had pathologically negative nodes 8 and 12, and a final nodal status (all peripancreatic lymph nodes) negative for nodal involvement. Nine of 28 patients had a negative nodal sampling result, but a positive final nodal status for metastatic tumor. The remaining four patients had both positive nodal sampling and final nodal status for metastatic tumor. The negative predictive value of negative nodes 8 and 12 was 0.625. CONCLUSION: The negative predictive of a negative node 8 and 12 of 0.625 suggests that the decision to proceed with or abort PD should not be based on intraoperative evaluation of these nodes. Performance of PD should be undertaken if technically feasible, and not based on intraoperative nodal assessment.
Project description:Literature reports increased FDG nodal uptake in HIV-positive patients. Our aim is to identify differences in presentation and characteristics of FDG-avid lymph nodes between HIV-positive and HIV-negative locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients in our clinical setting. We evaluated 250 pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging studies from women screened for a phase III randomised controlled trial investigating modulated electro-hyperthermia as a radiosensitiser (Ethics approval: M120477). The number of nodes; size; maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax); symmetry; and relationship between nodal size and SUVmax uptake, were assessed by region and by HIV status. In total, 1314 nodes with a SUVmax ? 2.5 were visualised. Of 128(51%) HIV-positive participants, 82% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 10 had a CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Overall pattern of presentation and nodal characteristics were similar between HIV-positive and -negative groups and the uniformity in presentation of the nodes draining the cervix strongly suggests these nodes may be attributed to malignancy rather than HIV infection. Novel findings: HIV infection is associated with: >four nodes visualised in the neck, symmetrical inguinal lymph nodes, increased rates of supraclavicular node visualisation; FDG-avid axillary nodes were more common, but not exclusive, in HIV-positive participants. 18F-FDG PET/CT is a reliable staging method for LACC in HIV-positive patients who are not in acute stages of HIV infection, have a CD4 count >200 cells/µL, and/or are on ART and there is a potential risk of underestimating metastatic spread by attributing increased nodal metabolic activity to HIV infection in these patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is standard staging procedure for nodal status in breast cancer, but lacks therapeutic benefit for patients with benign sentinel nodes. For patients with positive sentinel nodes, individualized surgical strategies are applied depending on the extent of nodal involvement. Preoperative prediction of nodal status is thus important for individualizing axillary surgery avoiding unnecessary surgery. We aimed to predict nodal status in clinically node-negative breast cancer and identify candidates for SLNB omission by including patient-related and pathological characteristics into artificial neural network (ANN) models. METHODS:Patients with primary breast cancer were consecutively included between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 in a prospectively maintained pathology database. Clinical- and radiological data were extracted from patient's files and only clinically node-negative patients constituted the final study cohort. ANN-based models for nodal prediction were constructed including 15 risk variables for nodal status. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (HL) were used to assess performance and calibration of three predictive ANN-based models for no lymph node metastasis (N0), metastases in 1-3 lymph nodes (N1) and metastases in ≥ 4 lymph nodes (N2). Linear regression models for nodal prediction were calculated for comparison. RESULTS:Eight hundred patients (N0, n = 514; N1, n = 232; N2, n = 54) were included. Internally validated AUCs for N0 versus N+ was 0.740 (95% CI = 0.723-0.758); median HL was 9.869 (P = 0.274), for N1 versus N0, 0.705 (95% CI = 0.686-0.724; median HL: 7.421; P = 0.492) and for N2 versus N0 and N1, 0.747 (95% CI = 0.728-0.765; median HL: 9.220; P = 0.324). Tumor size and vascular invasion were top-ranked predictors of all three end-points, followed by estrogen receptor status and lobular cancer for prediction of N2. For each end-point, ANN models showed better discriminatory performance than multivariable logistic regression models. Accepting a false negative rate (FNR) of 10% for predicting N0 by the ANN model, SLNB could have been abstained in 27.25% of patients with clinically node-negative axilla. CONCLUSIONS:In this retrospective study, ANN showed promising result as decision-supporting tools for estimating nodal disease. If prospectively validated, patients least likely to have nodal metastasis could be spared SLNB using predictive models. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered in the ISRCTN registry with study ID ISRCTN14341750 . Date of registration 23/11/2018. Retrospectively registered.
Project description:We designed the study to clarify the prognostic significance of perioperative (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for periampullary cancers.This study retrospectively analyzed 244 periampullary cancer patients (pancreatic cancer, 124 patients; bile duct cancer, 63 patients; and ampullary cancer, 57 patients) treated by PD from June 2001 to June 2010 at the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCC2017-0106).A total of 112 (46%) of 244 patients had received transfusion (preoperative, 5%; intraoperative, 17%; and postoperative, 37%). The 5-year survival rate of patients without perioperative transfusion was 36%, whereas that of patients with a transfusion was 25% (P?=?.04). Perioperative transfusion and intraoperative transfusion were found to be independent poor prognostic factors [relative risk (RR): 1.52 and 1.95, respectively]. The independent factors associated with perioperative transfusion were being female, operation time >420?minutes, portal vein (PV) resection, and preoperative serum hemoglobin (Hb)?<?12?mg/dL. As the amount of perioperative transfusion increased, overall survival (OS) decreased.Perioperative transfusion, especially intraoperative transfusion was an independent prognostic factor for survival after PD. Therefore, for patients with periampullary cancer, intraoperative bleeding and operation time should be minimized and preoperative anemia corrected.
Project description:Nodal staging is important in prostate cancer treatment. While surgical lymph node dissection is the classic method of determining whether lymph nodes harbor malignancy, this is a very invasive technique. Current noninvasive approaches to identifying malignant lymph nodes are limited. Conventional imaging methods rely on size and morphology of lymph nodes and have notoriously low sensitivity for detecting malignant nodes. New imaging techniques such as targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) with iron oxide particles are promising for nodal staging of prostate cancer. In this review, the strengths and limitations of imaging techniques for lymph node staging of prostate cancer are discussed.
Project description:Kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is a microtubule motor kinesin involved in mitotic progression and vasculotropism. A novel therapeutic target, it is overexpressed in several cancers [PMID 29904055]. Its significance in prostate cancer (PC) was uncertain. METHODS:89 cases, including tissue microarrays from 70 prostatectomies comprising matched cancer and benign spots, 19 additional prostatectomy tissues, plus 16 prostate cancer metastases (7 nodal and 9 distant sites; 8 had matched primary PC) were stained with rabbit polyclonal KIF3B antibody. Cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was scored: 0 (negative) to 3+ (strong and diffuse). 39 patients had no nodal metastases, 31 had positive lymph nodes, and 19 had nodes not sampled. Gleason grade groups were 1 (9), 2 (28), 3 (39), 4 (1), and 5 (12). 15 cases had cribriform pattern. AJCC stages were 2 (48), 3 (29), unknown (12). RESULTS:KIF3B in PC (mean 1.0) was higher than in benign prostate (mean 0.1, P<0.01, Student t-test). All 7 available nodal metastases of PC were negative. One-third of primary PCs with nodal metastases lost all expression, compared to retained expression in all but one PC without nodal metastasis (P<0.01, chi-square). The former group also had stronger staining (mean 1.0) than metastases (mean 0.3) (P<0.01, Student t-test) and had fewer cases with any positive (>0) expression compared to cases without metastases or with unsampled lymph nodes (P<0.01, chi-square test). Reactivity of paired metastatic tissue and primary PC correlated strongly (Pearson coefficient: +0.7). No significant trends were found by grade group, cribriform status, or stage. CONCLUSIONS:KIF3B is a PC marker. Metastatic cancers showed less KIF3B expression than their primary PC counterparts, and primary cases with positive nodes demonstrated reduced positivity, suggesting use as a prognostic marker. It is possible that KIF3B protein becomes altered prior to metastases, preventing immunohistochemical detection.
Project description:Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a persistent problem after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), especially in the presence of a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas. To reduce the risk of POPF, pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) is an optional reconstruction technique for surgeons after PD. This study presents a new technique of PG for a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas with double-binding continuous hemstitch sutures and evaluates its safety and reliability. From January 2011 to June 2012, 92 cases of patients with periampullary malignancy with a soft pancreas underwent this technique. A modified technique of PG was performed with two continuous hemstitch sutures placed in the mucosal and seromuscular layers of the posterior gastric wall, respectively. Then the morbidity and mortality was calculated. This technique was applied in 92 patients after PD all with soft pancreas. The median time for the anastomosis was 12 min (range, 8-24). Operative mortality was zero, and morbidity was 16.3 % (n?=?15), including hemorrhage (n?=?2), biliary fistula (n?=?2), pulmonary infection (n?=?1), delayed gastric emptying (DGE; n?=?5, 5.4 %), abdominal abscess (n?=?3, one caused by PF), and POPF (n?=?2, 2.2 %). Two patients developed a pancreatic fistula (one type A and one type B) classified according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. The described technique is a simple and safe reconstruction procedure after PD, especially for patients with a soft and fragile pancreas.
Project description:Presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218), as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996-2009). Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET), nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI), extra-nodal extension (ENE), number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE) and perpendicular (PD-ENE) diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT) diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS) or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS). Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value) in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively). To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer.
Project description:VATS lobectomy is an established option for the treatment of early-stage NSCLC. Complete lymph node dissection (CD), systematic sampling (SS) or resecting a specific number of lymph nodes (LNs) and stations are possible intra-operative LN management strategies.All VATS lobectomies from the "Italian VATS Group" prospective database were retrospectively reviewed. The type of surgical approach (CD or SS), number of LN resected (RN), the positive/resected LN ratio (LNR) and the number and types of positive LN stations were recorded. The rates of nodal upstaging were assessed based on different LN management strategies.CD was the most frequent approach (72.3%). Nodal upstaging rates were 6.03% (N0-to-N1), 5.45% (N0-to-N2), and 0.58% (N1-to-N2). There was no difference in N1 or N2 upstaging rates between CD and SS. The number of resected nodes was correlated with both N1 (OR =1.02; CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.03) and N2 (OR =1.02; CI, 1.01-1.05; P=0.001) upstaging. Resecting 12 nodes had the best ability to predict upstaging (6 N1 LN or 7 N2 LN). The finding of two positive LN stations best predicted N2 upstaging [area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) =0.98].Nodal upstaging (and, indirectly, the effectiveness of intra-operative nodal management) cannot be predicted based on the surgical technique (CD or SS). A quantitative assessment of intra-operative LN management may be a more appropriate and measurable approach to justify the extension of LN resection during VATS lobectomy.
Project description:Despite the adequacy of nodal evaluation was gradually improved for colon cancer, the disparity in nodal examination for right colon cancer (RCC) and left colon cancer (LCC) still begs the question of whether 12 nodes is an appropriate threshold for both RCC and LCC. From Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database, we identified 53897 RCC patients and 11822 LCC patients. Compared with LCC patients, RCC patients examined more lymph nodes (18.7 vs 16.3), and more likely to examine ?12 nodes (P<0.001), whereas RCC patients showed lower rates of node positivity (P<0.001). To balance the nodal disparity between RCC and LCC, we revised the 12-node measure based on different tumor locations. With the X-tile, we determined 15 as the optimal node number for RCC and 11 for LCC. To validate the availability of this revised nodal evaluation, the 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) was calculated according to the optimal node number in RCC and LCC patients, Cox's regression model were used to further assess the prognostic value of this revised nodal evaluation. The results showed that 5-year CSSs were significantly improved for RCC patients with ?15 lymph nodes, and also for LCC patients with ?11 lymph nodes (P<0.001). This revised nodal evaluation could also improve the rate of nodal positivity and long-term survival in both RCC and LCC patients compared with 12-node measure. Therefore, the lymph node examination should be discriminately evaluated for RCC and LCC, instead of using 12-node measure to colon cancer as a whole.
Project description:Lymph node (LN) harvest is influenced by several factors, including tumor genetics. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is associated with improved node harvest, but the association to other genetic factors is largely unknown. Research methods included a prospective series of stage I-III colon cancer patients undergoing ex vivo sentinel-node sampling. The presence of MSI, KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13, and BRAF V600E mutations was analyzed. Uni- and multivariate regression models for node sampling were adjusted for clinical, pathological and molecular features. Of 204 patients, 67% had an adequate harvest (? 12 nodes). Adequate harvest was highest in patients whose tumors exhibited MSI (79%; odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.9; P = 0.007) or were located in the proximal colon (73%; 2.8, 1.5-5.3; P = 0.002). In multiple linear regression, MSI was a significant predictor of the total LN count (P = 0.02). Total node count was highest for cancers with MSI and no KRAS/BRAF mutations. The independent association between MSI and a high LN count persisted for stage I and II cancers (P = 0.04). Tumor location in the proximal colon was the only significant predictor of an adequate LN harvest (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9; P = 0.01). An increase in the total number of nodes harvested was not associated with an increase in nodal metastasis. In conclusion, number of nodes harvested is highest for cancers of the proximal colon and with MSI. The nodal harvest associated with MSI is influenced by BRAF and KRAS genotypes, even for cancers of proximal location. Mechanisms behind the molecular diversity and node yield should be further explored.