In vitro capability of faropenem to select for resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.
ABSTRACT: When tested against nine strains of pneumococci and six of Haemophilus influenzae of various resistotypes, faropenem failed to select for resistant mutants after 50 days of consecutive subculture in subinhibitory concentrations. Faropenem also yielded low rates of spontaneous mutations against all organisms of both species. By comparison, resistant clones were obtained with macrolides, ketolides, and quinolones.
Project description:Testing of 12 pneumococcal strains with differing resistotypes [including tet(M) positive] showed that tigecycline, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and ceftriaxone did not select for resistant clones after 50 sequential subcultures. By comparison, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, telithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gemifloxacin did show resistant clones. Tigecycline also yielded a low frequency of resistance in single-step tests compared to all beta-lactams, macrolides/ketolides, and quinolones tested.
Project description:Faropenem demonstrated low MICs (< or = 1 microg/ml) for all penicillin-susceptible and nonsusceptible pneumococci and exhibited very strong abilities to bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), except for PBP2X. The lower faropenem affinity for PBP2X did not affect MICs for any strains tested, and only imipenem had lower MICs, with much lower binding affinities for all PBPs tested, than faropenem.
Project description:Plasmid-carried qnrS1 is derived from Vibrio splendidus chromosomal qnrVS1. qnrVS1 transcripts increased 21- to 34-fold with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin but much less with mitomycin. No LexA binding sites were upstream of qnrS1 or qnrVS1, and similar induction levels were observed in lexA-positive and lexA-negative Escherichia coli strains with native qnrS1 plasmid pMG306 but not with pUC18-cloned qnrS1 or qnrVS1. Thus, qnrS1 induction by quinolones is independent of the SOS system and requires sequence besides that of the structural gene.
Project description:DQ-113 was compared in vitro to sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin for potential to select mutational resistance in multiresistant staphylococci, pneumococci, and enterococci. Its ability to select less-susceptible mutants varied according to species, being lowest with staphylococci, intermediate with pneumococci, and greatest with enterococci.
Project description:Recent clinical studies indicate that meropenem, a ?-lactam antibiotic, is a promising candidate for therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, meropenem is chemically unstable, requires frequent intravenous injection, and must be combined with a ?-lactamase inhibitor (clavulanate) for optimal activity. Here, we report that faropenem, a stable and orally bioavailable ?-lactam, efficiently kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis even in the absence of clavulanate. The target enzymes, L,D-transpeptidases, were inactivated 6- to 22-fold more efficiently by faropenem than by meropenem. Using a real-time assay based on quantitative time-lapse microscopy and microfluidics, we demonstrate the superiority of faropenem to the frontline antituberculosis drug isoniazid in its ability to induce the rapid cytolysis of single cells. Faropenem also showed superior activity against a cryptic subpopulation of nongrowing but metabolically active cells, which may correspond to the viable but nonculturable forms believed to be responsible for relapses following prolonged chemotherapy. These results identify faropenem to be a potential candidate for alternative therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Project description:The implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has led to a decline in vaccine-type disease. However, there is evidence that the epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) carriage and disease can be altered as a consequence of PCV introduction. We explored the epidemiological shifts in NTHi carriage using whole genome sequencing over a 5-year period that included PCV13 replacement of PCV7 in the UK's National Immunization Programme in 2010. Between 2008/09 and 2012/13 (October to March), nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from children <5?years of age. Significantly increased carriage post-PCV13 was observed and lineage-specific associations with Streptococcus pneumoniae were seen before but not after PCV13 introduction. NTHi were characterized into 11 discrete, temporally stable lineages, congruent with current knowledge regarding the clonality of NTHi. The increased carriage could not be linked to the expansion of a particular clone and different co-carriage dynamics were seen before PCV13 implementation when NTHi co-carried with vaccine serotype pneumococci. In summary, PCV13 introduction has been shown to have an indirect effect on NTHi epidemiology and there exists both negative and positive, distinct associations between pneumococci and NTHi. This should be considered when evaluating the impacts of pneumococcal vaccine design and policy.
Project description:Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important cause of hearing loss in children and constitutes a serious health problem globally with a strong association to resource-limited living conditions. Topical antibiotics combined with aural toilet is the first-hand treatment for CSOM but antimicrobial resistance and limited availability to antibiotics are obstacles in some areas. The goal of this study was to define aerobic pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola with the overall aim to provide a background for local treatment recommendations.Samples from ear discharge and the nasopharynx were collected and cultured from 152 patients with ear discharge and perforation of the tympanic membrane. Identification of bacterial species was performed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and pneumococci were serotyped using multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to EUCAST.One hundred eighty-four samples from ear discharge and 151 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and yielded 534 and 289 individual isolates, respectively. In all patients, correspondence rate of isolates from 2 ears in patients with bilateral disease was 27.3% and 9.3% comparing isolates from the nasopharynx and ear discharge, respectively. Proteus spp. (14.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.2%) and Enterococcus spp. (8.8%) were dominating pathogens isolated from ear discharge. A large part of the remaining species belonged to Enterobacteriaceae (23.5%). Pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in approximately 10% of nasopharyngeal samples. Resistance rates to quinolones exceeded 10% among Enterobacteriaceae and was 30.8% in S. aureus, whereas 6.3% of P. aeruginosa were resistant.The infection of the middle ear in CSOM is highly polymicrobial, and isolates found in nasopharynx do not correspond well with those found in ear discharge. Pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola are dominated by gram-negatives including Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, while gram-positive enterococci also are common. Based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing topical quinolones would be the preferred antibiotic therapy of CSOM in Angola. Topical antiseptics such as aluminium acetate, acetic acid or boric acid, however, may be more feasible options due to a possibly emerging antimicrobial resistance.
Project description:Ketolides, the third generation of expanded-spectrum macrolides, have in the last years become a successful weapon in the endless war against macrolide-resistant pathogens. Ketolides are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally produced macrolide erythromycin, displaying not only improved activity against some erythromycin-resistant strains but also increased bactericidal activity as well as inhibitory effects at lower drug concentrations. In this study, we present a series of novel ketolides carrying alkyl-aryl side chains at the C-6 position of the lactone ring and, additionally, one or two fluorine atoms attached either directly to the lactone ring at the C-2 position or indirectly via the C-13 position. According to our genetic and biochemical studies, these novel ketolides occupy the known macrolide binding site at the entrance of the ribosomal tunnel and exhibit lower MIC values against wild-type or mutant strains than erythromycin. In most cases, the ketolides display activities comparable to or better than the clinically used ketolide telithromycin. Chemical protection experiments using Escherichia coli ribosomes bearing U2609C or U754A mutations in 23S rRNA suggest that the alkyl-aryl side chain establishes an interaction with the U2609-A752 base pair, analogous to that observed with telithromycin but unlike the interactions formed by cethromycin. These findings reemphasize the versatility of the alkyl-aryl side chains with respect to species specificity, which will be important for future design of improved antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Insertion sequence (IS) elements are found throughout bacterial genomes and contribute to genome variation by interrupting genes or altering gene expression. Few of the more than 30 IS elements described in Acinetobacter baumannii have been characterized for transposition activity or expression effects. A targeted sequencing method, IS-seq, was developed to efficiently map the locations of new insertion events in A. baumannii genomes and was used to identify novel IS sites following growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress. Serial subculture in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of hydrogen peroxide led to rapid selection of cells carrying an ISAba1 element upstream of the catalase-peroxidase gene katG Several additional sites for the elements ISAba1, ISAba13, ISAba25, ISAba26, and ISAba125 were found at low abundance after serial subculture, indicating that each element is active and contributes to genetic variation that may be subject to selection. Following hydrogen peroxide exposure, rapid changes in gene expression were observed in genes related to iron homeostasis. The IS insertions adjacent to katG resulted in more than 20-fold overexpression of the gene and increased hydrogen peroxide tolerance.IMPORTANCE Insertion sequences (IS) contribute to genomic and phenotypic variation in many bacterial species, but little is known about how transposition rates vary among elements or how selective pressure influences this process. A new method for identifying new insertion locations that arise under experimental growth conditions in the genome, termed IS-seq, was developed and tested with cells grown in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress. Gene expression changes in response to hydrogen peroxide exposure are similar to those observed in other species and include genes that control free iron concentrations. New IS insertions adjacent to a gene encoding a catalase enzyme confirm that IS elements can rapidly contribute to adaptive variation in the presence of selection.
Project description:The treatment of infections caused by bacteria resistant to the vast majority of antibiotics is a challenge worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (APs) make up the front line of defense in those areas exposed to microorganisms, and there is intensive research to explore their use as new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, it is known that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect the expression of numerous bacterial traits. In this work we evaluated whether treatment of bacteria with subinhibitory concentrations of quinolones may alter the sensitivity to APs. A 1-h treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae with 0.25 x the MIC of ciprofloxacin rendered bacteria more sensitive to polymyxins B and E, human neutrophil defensin 1, and beta-defensin 1. Levofloxacin and nalidixic acid at 0.25 x the MICs also increased the sensitivity of K. pneumoniae to polymyxin B, whereas gentamicin and ceftazidime at 0.25 x the MICs did not have such an effect. Ciprofloxacin also increased the sensitivities of K. pneumoniae ciprofloxacin-resistant strains to polymyxin B. Two other pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae, also became more sensitive to polymyxins B and E after treatment with 0.25 x the MIC of ciprofloxacin. Incubation with ciprofloxacin did not alter the expression of the K. pneumoniae loci involved in resistance to APs. A 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine assay showed that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin increased the permeabilities of the K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa outer membranes, while divalent cations antagonized this action. Finally, we demonstrated that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin increased the binding of APs to the outer membrane by using dansylated polymyxin B.