Genetic analysis of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2001 to 2006.
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus has the ability to overcome immunity from previous infections through the acquisition of genetic changes. Thus, understanding the evolution of the viruses in humans is important for the surveillance and the selection of vaccine strains. A total of 30 influenza A/H3N2 viruses and 35 influenza A/H1N1 viruses that were collected in Vietnam from 2001 to 2006 were used to analyze the evolution of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix protein (M) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of individual gene segments revealed that the HA and the NA genes of the influenza A viruses evolved in a sequential way. However, the evolutionary pattern of the M gene proved to be nonlinear and was not linked with that of the HA and NA genes. Genetic drift in HA1 segments, especially in the antigenic sites of A/H3N2 viruses, occurred more frequently in A/H3N2 viruses than it did in A/H1N1 viruses. Two reassortants, one influenza A/H3N2 strain and one A/H1N1 strain, were found on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of the three genes. While both genetic mutation and reassortment contributed to their evolution, the frequency of genetic changes and reassortment events differs between the two subtypes. As influenza viruses circulate throughout the year, we emphasize the importance of surveillance in tropical and subtropical zones, where the emergence of new strains may be detected earlier than it is in temperate zones.
Project description:The evolution and population dynamics of human influenza in Taiwan is a microcosm of the viruses circulating worldwide, which has not yet been studied in detail. We collected 343 representative full genome sequences of human influenza A viruses isolated in Taiwan between 1979 and 2009. Phylogenetic and antigenic data analysis revealed that H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulated in Taiwan, although they were characterized by different temporal dynamics and degrees of genetic diversity. Moreover, influenza A viruses of both subtypes underwent internal gene reassortment involving all eight segments of the viral genome, some of which also occurred during non-epidemic periods. The patterns of gene reassortment were different in the two subtypes. The internal genes of H1N1 viruses moved as a unit, separately from the co-evolving HA and NA genes. On the other hand, the HA and NA genes of H3N2 viruses tended to segregate consistently with different sets of internal gene segments. In particular, as reassortment occurred, H3HA always segregated as a group with the PB1, PA and M genes, while N2NA consistently segregated with PB2 and NP. Finally, the analysis showed that new phylogenetic lineages and antigenic variants emerging in summer were likely to be the progenitors of the epidemic strains in the following season. The synchronized seasonal patterns and high genetic diversity of influenza A viruses observed in Taiwan make possible to capture the evolutionary dynamic and epidemiological rules governing antigenic drift and reassortment and may serve as a "warning" system that recapitulates the global epidemic.
Project description:Novel H3N2 influenza viruses (H3N2v) containing seven genome segments from swine lineage triple-reassortant H3N2 viruses and a 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) matrix protein segment (pM) were isolated from 12 humans in the United States between August and December 2011. To understand the evolution of these novel H3N2 viruses in swine and humans, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of 674 M sequences and 388 HA and NA sequences from influenza viruses isolated from North American swine during 2009-2011, as well as HA, NA, and M sequences from eight H3N2v viruses isolated from humans. We identified 34 swine influenza viruses (termed rH3N2p) with the same combination of H3, N2, and pM segments as the H3N2v viruses isolated from humans. Notably, these rH3N2p viruses were generated in swine via reassortment events between H3N2 viruses and the pM segment approximately 4 to 10 times since 2009. The pM segment has also reassorted with multiple distinct lineages of H1 virus, especially H1? viruses. Importantly, the N2 segment of all H3N2v viruses isolated from humans is derived from a genetically distinct N2 lineage that has circulated in swine since being acquired by reassortment with seasonal human H3N2 viruses in 2001-2002, rather than from the N2 that is associated with the 1998 H3N2 swine lineage. The identification of this N2 variant may have implications for influenza vaccine design and the potential pandemic threat of H3N2v to human age groups with differing levels of prior exposure and immunity.
Project description:European H1N2 swine influenza viruses (EU H1N2SIVs) arose from multiple reassortment events among human H1N1, human H3N2, and avian influenza viruses. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics of 53 Italian H1N2 strains by comparing them with EU H1N2 SIVs. Hemagglutinin (HA) phylogeny revealed Italian strains fell into four groups: Group A and B (41 strains) had a human H1 similar to EU H1N2SIVs, which probably originated in 1986. However Group B (38 strains) formed a subgroup that had a two-amino acid deletion at positions 146/147 in HA. Group C (11 strains) contained an avian H1 that probably originated in 1996, and Group D (1 strain) had an H1 characteristic of the 2009 pandemic strain. Neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny suggested a series of genomic reassortments had occurred. Group A had an N2 that originated from human H3N2 in the late 1970s. Group B had different human N2 that most likely arose from a reassortment with the more recent human H3N2 virus, which probably occurred in 2000. Group C had an avian-like H1 combined with an N2 gene from one of EU H1N2SIVs, EU H3N2SIVs or Human H3N2. Group D was part of the EU H3N2SIVs clade. Although selection pressure for HA and NA was low, several positively selected sites were identified in both proteins, some of which were antigenic, suggesting selection influenced the evolution of SIV. The data highlight different evolutionary trends between European viruses and currently circulating Italian B strains and show the establishment of reassortant strains involving human viruses in Italian pigs.
Project description:Each year, influenza viruses cause epidemics by evading pre-existing humoral immunity through mutations in the major glycoproteins: the haemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). In 2004, the antigenic evolution of HA of human influenza A (H3N2) viruses was mapped (Smith et al., Science 305, 371-376, 2004) from its introduction in humans in 1968 until 2003. The current study focused on the genetic evolution of NA and compared it with HA using the dataset of Smith and colleagues, updated to the epidemic of the 2009/2010 season. Phylogenetic trees and genetic maps were constructed to visualize the genetic evolution of NA and HA. The results revealed multiple reassortment events over the years. Overall rates of evolutionary change were lower for NA than for HA1 at the nucleotide level. Selection pressures were estimated, revealing an abundance of negatively selected sites and sparse positively selected sites. The differences found between the evolution of NA and HA1 warrant further analysis of the evolution of NA at the phenotypic level, as has been done previously for HA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus encodes for eleven proteins, of which HA, NA, NS1 and PB1-F2 have been implicated in viral pathogenicity and virulence. Thus, in addition to the HA and NA gene segments, monitoring diversity of NS1 and PB1-F2 is also important. METHODS: 55 out of 166 circulating influenza A strains (31 H1N1 and 24 H3N2) were randomly picked during 2007-2009 and NS and PB1-F2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with reference to the prototype strains, concurrent vaccine strains and other reference strains isolated world wide. RESULTS: Comparative analysis of both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, revealed presence of NS gene with A/PR/8/34(H1N1)-like mutations (H4N, Q21R, A22V, K44R, N53D, C59R, V60A, F103S and M106I) in both RNA-binding and effector domain of NS1 protein, and G63E, the HPAI-H5N1-like mutation in NEP/NS2 of five A/H1N1 strains of 2007 and 2009. NS1 of other A/H1N1 strains clustered with concurrent A/H1N1 vaccine strains. Of 31 A/H1N1 strains, five had PB1-F2 similar to the H3N2 strains; six had non-functional PB1-F2 protein (11 amino acids) similar to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strains and rest 20 strains had 57 amino acids PB1-F2 protein, similar to concurrent A/H1N1 vaccine strain. Interestingly, three A/H1N1 strains with H3N2-like PB1-F2 protein carried primitive PR8-like NS gene. Full gene sequencing of PB1 gene confirmed presence of H3N2-like PB1 gene in these A/H1N1 strains. CONCLUSION: Overall the study highlights reassortment event involving gene segments other than HA and NA in the co-circulating A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains and their importance in complexity of influenza virus genetics. In contrast, NS and PB1-F2 genes of all A/H3N2 eastern India strains were highly conserved and homologous to the concurrent A/H3N2 vaccine strains suggesting that these gene segments of H3N2 viruses are evolutionarily more stable compared to H1N1 viruses.
Project description:Reassortment of gene segments between coinfecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitates viral diversification and has a significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. Since 1977, human IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes have cocirculated with relatively few documented cases of reassortment. We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. Results of heterologous coinfections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following coinfection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control. High genotype diversity was observed among progeny of both coinfections; however, diversity was more limited following heterologous coinfection. Pairwise analysis of genotype patterns revealed that homologous reassortment was random while heterologous reassortment was characterized by specific biases. pH1N1/H3N2 reassortant genotypes produced under single-cycle coinfection conditions showed a strong preference for homologous PB2-PA combinations and general preferences for the H3N2 NA, pH1N1 M, and H3N2 PB2 except when paired with the pH1N1 PA or NP. Multicycle coinfection results corroborated these findings and revealed an additional preference for the H3N2 HA. Segment compatibility was further investigated by measuring chimeric polymerase activity and growth of selected reassortants in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In guinea pigs inoculated with a mixture of viruses, parental H3N2 viruses dominated but reassortants also infected and transmitted to cage mates. Taken together, our results indicate that strong intrinsic barriers to reassortment between seasonal H3N2 and pH1N1 viruses are few but that the reassortants formed are attenuated relative to parental strains.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> The genome of IAV is relatively simple, comprising eight RNA segments, each of which typically encodes one or two proteins. Each viral protein carries out multiple functions in coordination with other viral components and the machinery of the cell. When two IAVs coinfect a cell, they can exchange genes through reassortment. The resultant progeny viruses often suffer fitness defects due to suboptimal interactions among divergent viral components. The genetic diversity generated through reassortment can facilitate the emergence of novel outbreak strains. Thus, it is important to understand the efficiency of reassortment and the factors that limit its potential. The research described here offers new tools for studying reassortment between two strains of interest and applies those tools to viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 lineages, which currently cocirculate in humans and therefore have the potential to give rise to novel epidemic strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the complete genome constellation of seasonal influenza A viruses from different countries is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the evolution and migration of strains. Few complete genome sequences of influenza A viruses from Europe are publicly available at the present time and there have been few longitudinal genome studies of human influenza A viruses. We have studied the evolution of circulating human H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006, we analysed 234 Danish human influenza A viruses and characterised 24 complete genomes. RESULTS: H3N2 was the prevalent strain in Denmark during the study period, but H1N1 dominated the 2000-2001 season. H1N2 viruses were first observed in Denmark in 2002-2003. After years of little genetic change in the H1N1 viruses the 2005-2006 season presented H1N1 of greater variability than before. This indicates that H1N1 viruses are evolving and that H1N1 soon is likely to be the prevalent strain again. Generally, the influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) of H3N2 viruses formed seasonal phylogenetic clusters. Different lineages co-circulating within the same season were also observed. The evolution has been stochastic, influenced by small "jumps" in genetic distance rather than constant drift, especially with the introduction of the Fujian-like viruses in 2002-2003. Also evolutionary stasis-periods were observed which might indicate well fit viruses. The evolution of H3N2 viruses have also been influenced by gene reassortments between lineages from different seasons. None of the influenza genes were influenced by strong positive selection pressure. The antigenic site B in H3N2 HA was the preferred site for genetic change during the study period probably because the site A has been masked by glycosylations. Substitutions at CTL-epitopes in the genes coding for the neuraminidase (NA), polymerase acidic protein (PA), matrix protein 1 (M1), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and especially the nucleoprotein (NP) were observed. The N-linked glycosylation pattern varied during the study period and the H3N2 isolates from 2004 to 2006 were highly glycosylated with ten predicted sequons in HA, the highest amount of glycosylations observed in this study period. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to our knowledge to characterise the evolution of complete genomes of influenza A H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 isolates from Europe over a time period of seven years from 1999 to 2006. More precise knowledge about the circulating strains may have implications for predicting the following season strains and thereby better matching the vaccine composition.
Project description:Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: During the pandemic [Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09] period in 2009-2010, an influenza A (Inf-A) virus with H1N2 subtype (designated as A/Eastern India/N-1289/2009) was detected from a 25 years old male from Mizoram (North-eastern India). OBJECTIVE: To characterize full genome of the H1N2 influenza virus. METHODS: For initial detection of Influenza viruses, amplification of matrix protein (M) gene of Inf-A and B viruses was carried out by real time RT-PCR. Influenza A positive viruses are then further subtyped with HA and NA gene specific primers. Sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis was performed for the H1N2 strain to understand its origin. RESULTS: The outcome of this full genome study revealed a unique reassortment event where the N-1289 virus acquired it's HA gene from a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with swine origin and the other genes from H3N2-like viruses of human origin. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides information on possibility of occurrence of reassortment events during influenza season when infectivity is high and two different subtypes of Inf-A viruses co-circulate in same geographical location.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza surveillance is necessary for detection of emerging variants of epidemiologic and clinical significance. This study describes the epidemiology of influenza types A and B, and molecular characteristics of surface glycoproteins (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA]) of influenza A subtypes: pH1N1 and H3N2 circulated in Arabian Gulf, Levant and North Africa regions during 2009-2017. METHODS:Analysis of phylogenetics and evolution of HA and NA genes was done using full HA and NA sequences (n?=?1229) downloaded from Influenza Research Database (IRD). RESULTS:In total, 130,354 influenza positive cases were reported to WHO during study period. Of these, 50.8% were pH1N1 positive, 15.9% were H3N2 positives and 17.2% were influenza B positive. With few exceptions, all three regions were showing the typical seasonal influenza peak similar to that reported in Northern hemisphere (December-March). However, influenza activity started earlier (October) in both Gulf and North Africa while commenced later during November in Levant countries. The molecular analysis of the HA genes (influenza A subtypes) revealed similar mutations to those reported worldwide. Generally, amino acid substitutions were most frequently found in head domain in H1N1 pandemic viruses, while localized mainly in the stem region in H3N2 viruses. Expectedly, seasons with high pH1N1 influenza activity was associated with a relatively higher number of substitutions in the head domain of the HA in pH1N1 subtype. Furthermore, nucleotide variations were lower at the antigenic sites of pH1N1 viruses compared to H3N2 viruses, which experienced higher variability at the antigenic sites, reflecting the increased immunological pressure because of longer circulation and continuous vaccine changes. Analysis of NA gene of pH1N1 viruses revealed sporadic detections of oseltamivir-resistance mutation, H275Y, in 4% of reported sequences, however, none of NAI resistance mutations were found in the NA of H3N2 viruses. CONCLUSIONS:Molecular characterization of H1N1 and H3N2 viruses over 9?years revealed significant differences with regard to position and function of characterized substitutions. While pH1N1 virus substitutions were mainly found in HA head domain, H3N2 virus substitutions were mostly found in HA stem domain. Additionally, more fixed substitutions were encountered in H3N2 virus compared to larger number of non-fixed substitutions in pH1N1.