Crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals a new protein family with an RNA recognition motif-like domain.
ABSTRACT: We have determined the crystal structure of hypothetical protein TTHB192 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 at 1.9 A resolution. This protein is a member of the Escherichia coli ygcH sequence family, which contains approximately 15 sequence homologs of bacterial origin. These homologs have a high isoelectric point. The crystal structure reveals that TTHB192 consists of two independently folded domains, and that each domain exhibits a ferredoxin-like fold with a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet packed on one side by alpha-helices. These two tandem domains face each other to generate a beta-sheet platform. TTHB192 displays overall structural similarity to Sex-lethal protein and poly(A)-binding protein fragments. These proteins have RNA binding activity which is supported by a beta-sheet platform formed by two tandem repeats of an RNA recognition motif domain with signature sequence motifs on the beta-sheet surface. Although TTHB192 does not have the same signature sequence motif as the RNA recognition motif domain, the presence of an evolutionarily conserved basic patch on the beta-sheet platform could be functionally relevant for nucleic acid-binding. This report shows that TTHB192 and its sequence homologs adopt an RNA recognition motif-like domain and provides the first testable functional hypothesis for this protein family.
Project description:The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle-regulatory protein suc1, named as the suppressor of cdc2 temperature-sensitive mutations, is essential for cell cycle progression. To understand suc1 structure-function relationships and to help resolve conflicting interpretations of suc1 function based on genetic studies of suc1 and its functional homologs in both lower and higher eukaryotes, we have determined the crystal structure of the beta-interchanged suc1 dimer. Each domain consists of three alpha-helices and a four-stranded beta-sheet, completed by the interchange of terminal beta-strands between the two subunits. This beta-interchanged suc1 dimer, when compared with the beta-hairpin single-domain folds of suc1, reveals a beta-hinge motif formed by the conserved amino acid sequence HVPEPH. This beta-hinge mediates the subunit conformation and assembly of suc1: closing produces the intrasubunit beta-hairpin and single-domain fold, whereas opening leads to the intersubunit beta-strand interchange and interlocked dimer assembly reported here. This conformational switch markedly changes the surface accessibility of sequence-conserved residues available for recognition of cyclin-dependent kinase, suggesting a structural mechanism for beta-hinge-mediated regulation of suc1 biological function. Thus, suc1 belongs to the family of domain-swapping proteins, consisting of intertwined and dimeric protein structures in which the dual assembly modes regulate their function.
Project description:In bacteria, the highly conserved RsmA/CsrA family of RNA-binding proteins functions as global posttranscriptional regulators acting on mRNA translation and stability. Through phenotypic complementation of an rsmA mutant in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we discovered a family member, termed RsmN. Elucidation of the RsmN crystal structure and that of the complex with a hairpin from the sRNA, RsmZ, reveals a uniquely inserted α helix, which redirects the polypeptide chain to form a distinctly different protein fold to the domain-swapped dimeric structure of RsmA homologs. The overall β sheet structure required for RNA recognition is, however, preserved with compensatory sequence and structure differences, allowing the RsmN dimer to target binding motifs in both structured hairpin loops and flexible disordered RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, although RsmN appears unique to P. aeruginosa, homologous proteins with the inserted α helix are more widespread and arose as a consequence of a gene duplication event.
Project description:We have determined the solution structure of ribosomal protein L18 from Thermus thermophilus. L18 is a 12.5 kDa protein of the large subunit of the ribosome and binds to both 5 S and 23 S rRNA. In the uncomplexed state L18 folds to a mixed alpha/beta globular structure with a long disordered N-terminal region. We compared our high-resolution structure with RNA-complexed L18 from Haloarcula marismortui and T. thermophilus to examine RNA-induced as well as species-dependent structural differences. We also identified T. thermophilus S11 as a structural homologue and found that the structures of the RNA-recognition sites are conserved. Important features, for instance a bulge in the RNA-contacting beta-sheet, are conserved in both proteins. We suggest that the L18 fold recognizes a specific RNA motif and that the resulting RNA-protein-recognition module is tolerant to variations in sequence.
Project description:Proteins of the GW182 family interact with Argonaute proteins and are required for miRNA-mediated gene silencing. These proteins contain two structural domains, an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain and an RNA recognition motif (RRM), embedded in regions predicted to be unstructured. The structure of the RRM of Drosophila melanogaster GW182 reveals that this domain adopts an RRM fold, with an additional C-terminal alpha-helix. The helix lies on the beta-sheet surface, generally used by these domains to bind RNA. This, together with the absence of aromatic residues in the conserved RNP1 and RNP2 motifs, and the lack of general affinity for RNA, suggests that the GW182 RRM does not bind RNA. The domain may rather engage in protein interactions through an unusual hydrophobic cleft exposed on the opposite face of the beta-sheet. We further show that the GW182 RRM is dispensable for P-body localization and for interaction of GW182 with Argonaute-1 and miRNAs. Nevertheless, its deletion impairs the silencing activity of GW182 in a miRNA target-specific manner, indicating that this domain contributes to silencing. The conservation of structural and surface residues suggests that the RRM domain adopts a similar fold with a related function in insect and vertebrate GW182 family members.
Project description:Acinus is an abundant nuclear protein involved in apoptosis and splicing. It has been implicated in inducing apoptotic chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation during programmed cell death. Acinus undergoes activation by proteolytic cleavage that produces a truncated p17 form that comprises only the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain. We have determined the crystal structure of the human Acinus RRM domain (AcRRM) at 1.65 Å resolution. It shows a classical four-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet fold with two flanking ?-helices and an additional, non-classical ?-helix at the C-terminus, which harbors the caspase-3 target sequence that is cleaved during Acinus activation. In the structure, the C-terminal ?-helix partially occludes the potential ligand binding surface of the ?-sheet and hypothetically shields it from non-sequence specific interactions with RNA. Based on the comparison with other RRM-RNA complex structures, it is likely that the C-terminal ?-helix changes its conformation with respect to the RRM core in order to enable RNA binding by Acinus.
Project description:The Fox-1 protein regulates alternative splicing of tissue-specific exons by binding to GCAUG elements. Here, we report the solution structure of the Fox-1 RNA binding domain (RBD) in complex with UGCAUGU. The last three nucleotides, UGU, are recognized in a canonical way by the four-stranded beta-sheet of the RBD. In contrast, the first four nucleotides, UGCA, are bound by two loops of the protein in an unprecedented manner. Nucleotides U1, G2, and C3 are wrapped around a single phenylalanine, while G2 and A4 form a base-pair. This novel RNA binding site is independent from the beta-sheet binding interface. Surface plasmon resonance analyses were used to quantify the energetic contributions of electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions to complex formation and support our structural findings. These results demonstrate the unusual molecular mechanism of sequence-specific RNA recognition by Fox-1, which is exceptional in its high affinity for a defined but short sequence element.
Project description:The RBMY (RNA-binding motif gene on Y chromosome) protein encoded by the human Y chromosome is important for normal sperm development. Although its precise molecular RNA targets are unknown at present, it is suggested that human RBMY (hRBMY) participates in splicing in the testis. Using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, we found that RNA stem-loops capped by a C(A)/(U)CAA pentaloop are high-affinity binding targets for hRBMY. Subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance structural determination of the hRBMY RNA recognition motif (RRM) in complex with a high-affinity target showed two distinct modes of RNA recognition. First, the RRM beta-sheet surface binds to the RNA loop in a sequence-specific fashion. Second, the beta2-beta3 loop of the hRBMY inserts into the major groove of the RNA stem. The first binding mode might be conserved in the paralogous protein heterogeneous nuclear RNP G, whereas the second mode of binding is found only in hRBMY. This structural difference could be at the origin of the function of RBMY in spermatogenesis.
Project description:The 1.9 A X-ray structure of a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis is reported. This enzyme, MurG, contains two alpha/beta open sheet domains separated by a deep cleft. Structural analysis suggests that the C-terminal domain contains the UDP-GlcNAc binding site while the N-terminal domain contains the acceptor binding site and likely membrane association site. Combined with sequence data from other MurG homologs, this structure provides insight into the residues that are important in substrate binding and catalysis. We have also noted that a conserved region found in many UDP-sugar transferases maps to a beta/alpha/beta/alpha supersecondary structural motif in the donor binding region of MurG, an observation that may be helpful in glycosyltransferase structure prediction. The identification of a conserved structural motif involved in donor binding in different UDP-sugar transferases also suggests that it may be possible to identify--and perhaps alter--the residues that help determine donor specificity.
Project description:The nuclear protein cyclophilin 33 (Cyp33) is a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline and promotes folding and conformational changes in folded and unfolded proteins. The N-terminal RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domain of Cyp33 has been found to associate with the third plant homeodomain (PHD3) finger of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) proto-oncoprotein and a poly(A) RNA sequence. Here, we report a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of the RRM domain of Cyp33 and describe the molecular mechanism of PHD3 and RNA recognition. The Cyp33 RRM domain folds into a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and two alpha-helices. The RRM domain, but not the catalytic module of Cyp33, binds strongly to PHD3, exhibiting a 2 muM affinity as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. NMR chemical shift perturbation (CSP) analysis and dynamics data reveal that the beta strands and the beta2-beta3 loop of the RRM domain are involved in the interaction with PHD3. Mutations in the PHD3-binding site or deletions in the beta2-beta3 loop lead to a significantly reduced affinity or abrogation of the interaction. The RNA-binding pocket of the Cyp33 RRM domain, mapped on the basis of NMR CSP and mutagenesis, partially overlaps with the PHD3-binding site, and RNA association is abolished in the presence of MLL PHD3. Full-length Cyp33 acts as a negative regulator of MLL-induced transcription and reduces the expression levels of MLL target genes MEIS1 and HOXA9. Together, these in vitro and in vivo data provide insight into the multiple functions of Cyp33 RRM and suggest a Cyp33-dependent mechanism for regulating the transcriptional activity of MLL.
Project description:The serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) has a role in splicing, stability, export and translation of messenger RNA. Here, we present the structure of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) 2 from SF2/ASF, which has an RRM fold with a considerably extended loop 5 region, containing a two-stranded beta-sheet. The loop 5 extension places the previously identified SR protein kinase 1 docking sequence largely within the RRM fold. We show that RRM2 binds to RNA in a new way, by using a tryptophan within a conserved SWQLKD motif that resides on helix alpha1, together with amino acids from strand beta2 and a histidine on loop 5. The linker connecting RRM1 and RRM2 contains arginine residues, which provide a binding site for the mRNA export factor TAP, and when TAP binds to this region it displaces RNA bound to RRM2.