A structural rationale for SV40 Vp1 temperature-sensitive mutants and their complementation.
ABSTRACT: Two groups of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants, termed ts B and ts C, have mutations in the major capsid protein of SV40, Vp1. These mutants have virion assembly defects at the nonpermissive temperature, but can complement one another when two mutants, one from each group, coinfect a cell. A third group of mutants, termed ts BC, have related phenotypes, but do not complement other mutants. We found that the mutations fall into two structural and functional classes. All ts C and one ts BC mutations map to the region close to the Ca2+ binding sites, and are predicted to disrupt the insertion of the distal part of the C-terminal invading arm (C-arm) into the receiving clamp. They share a severe defect in assembly at the nonpermissive temperature, with few capsid proteins attached to the viral minichromosome. By contrast, all ts B and most ts BC mutations map to a contiguous region including acceptor sites for the proximal part of the C-arm and intrapentamer contacts. These mutants form assembly intermediates that carry substantial capsid proteins on the minichromosome. Thus, accurate virion assembly is prevented by mutations that disrupt interactions between the receiving pentamer and both the proximal and distal parts of the C-arms, with the latter having a greater effect. The distinct spatial localization and assembly defects of the two classes of mutants provide a rationale for their intracistronic complementation and suggest models of capsid assembly.
Project description:Temperature-sensitive (ts) assembly mutants of the tumorigenic virus simian virus 40 (SV40) fail to follow the normal pathway of virion morphogenesis at 40 degrees C. The mutations were previously mapped to the gene coding for the major virion protein VP1 and fall into three groups: tsB, tsBC, and tsC. We have determined the tsB/C mutations by DNA sequence analysis and deduced the corresponding amino acid substitutions. We find that the mutations are global and span 68% of the VP1 gene. They result predominantly in single amino acid substitutions. The B mutations are localized between nucleotides 1667 and 2091, spanning the VP1 amino acid residues 54-195. With the exception of one mutation in tsC260, the C group mutations occur between the nucleotides 2141 and 2262, spanning VP1 residues 212-252. The tsBC substitutions are not localized within a distinct region. We present a model for the VP1 structure. The model correlates the distribution of ts assembly mutations in the SV40 VP1 gene with the VP1 functional domains, deduced form the phenotypes exhibited by the assembly mutants, and the VP1 structural domains, deduced recently from the cryoelectron microscopic studies of the SV40 virions. We summarize the behavior of the SV40 ts mutants and discuss the possible relationship between the ts phenotype and amino acid substitutions.
Project description:Four previously isolated temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of vaccinia virus WR (ts28, ts54, ts61, and ts15) composing a single complementation group have been mapped by marker rescue to the F10 open reading frame located within the genomic HindIII F DNA fragment. Sequencing of the F10 gene from wild-type and mutant viruses revealed single-amino-acid substitutions in the F10 polypeptide responsible for thermolabile growth. Although the ts mutants displayed normal patterns of viral protein synthesis, electron microscopy revealed a profound morphogenetic defect at the nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C). Virion assembly was arrested at an early stage, with scant formation of membrane crescents and no progression to normal spherical immature particles. The F10 gene encodes a 52-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase (S. Lin and S. S. Broyles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:7653-7657, 1994). We expressed a His-tagged version of the wild-type, ts54, and ts61 F10 polypeptides in bacteria and purified these proteins by sequential nickel affinity and phosphocellulose chromatography steps. The wild-type F10 protein kinase activity was characterized in detail by using casein as a phosphate acceptor. Whereas the wild-type and ts61 kinases displayed similar thermal inactivation profiles, the ts54 kinase was thermosensitive in vitro. These findings suggest that protein phosphorylation plays an essential role at an early stage of virion assembly.
Project description:The simian virus 40 (SV40) outer shell is composed of 72 pentamers of VP1. The core of the VP1 monomer is a beta-barrel with jelly-roll topology and extending N- and C-terminal arms. A pentapeptide hinge, KNPYP, tethers the C-arm to the VP1 beta-barrel core. The five C-arms that extend from each pentamer insert into the neighbouring pentamers, tying them together through different types of interactions. In the mature virion, this element adopts either of six conformations according to their location in the capsid. We found that the hinge is conserved among 16 members of the Polyomaviridae, attesting to its importance in capsid assembly and/or structure. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to gain an understanding into the structural requirements of this element: Y299 was changed to A, F, and T, and P300 to A and G. The mutants showed reduction in viability to varying degrees. Unexpectedly, assembly was reduced only to a small extent. However, the data showed that the mutants were highly unstable. The largest effect was observed for mutations of P300, indicating a role of the proline in the virion structure. P300G was more unstable than P300A, indicating a requirement for rigidity of the pentapeptide hinge. Y299T and Y299A were more defective in viability than Y299F, highlighting the importance of an aromatic ring at this position. Structural inspection showed that this aromatic ring contacts C-arms of neighbouring pentamers. Computational modelling predicted loss of stability of the Y mutants in concordance with the experimental results. This study provides insights into the structural details of the pentapeptide hinge that are responsible for capsid stability.
Project description:Recently we generated a panel of hepatitis B virus core gene mutants carrying single insertions or deletions which allowed efficient expression of the core protein in bacteria and self-assembly of capsids. Eleven of these mutations were introduced into a eukaryotic core gene expression vector and characterized by trans complementation of a core-negative HBV genome in cotransfected human hepatoma HuH7 cells. Surprisingly, four mutants (two insertions [EFGA downstream of A11 and LDTASALYR downstream of R39] and two deletions [Y38-R39-E40 and L42]) produced no detectable capsids. The other seven mutants supported capsid formation and pregenome packaging/viral minus- and plus-strand-DNA synthesis but to different levels. Four of these seven mutants (two insertions [GA downstream of A11 and EHCSP downstream of P50] and two deletions [S44 and A80]) allowed virion morphogenesis and secretion. The mutant carrying a deletion of A80 at the tip of the spike protruding from the capsid was hepatitis B virus core antigen negative but wild type with respect to virion formation, indicating that this site might not be crucial for capsid-surface protein interactions during morphogenesis. The other three nucleocapsid-forming mutants (one insertion [LS downstream of S141] and two deletions [T12 and P134]) were strongly blocked in virion formation. The corresponding sites are located in the part of the protein forming the body of the capsid and not in the spike. These mutations may alter sites on the particle which contact surface proteins during envelopment, or they may block the appearance of a signal for the transport or the maturation of the capsid which is linked to viral DNA synthesis and required for envelopment.
Project description:Retrovirus assembly is driven by polymerization of the Gag polyprotein as nascent virions bud from host cells. Gag is then processed proteolytically, releasing the capsid protein (CA) to assemble de novo inside maturing virions. CA has N-terminal and C-terminal domains (NTDs and CTDs, respectively) whose folds are conserved, although their sequences are divergent except in the 20-residue major homology region (MHR) in the CTD. The MHR is thought to play an important role in assembly, and some mutations affecting it, including the F167Y substitution, are lethal. A temperature-sensitive second-site suppressor mutation in the NTD, A38V, restores infectivity. We have used cryoelectron tomography to investigate the morphotypes of this double mutant. Virions produced at the nonpermissive temperature do not assemble capsids, although Gag is processed normally; moreover, they are more variable in size than the wild type and have fewer glycoprotein spikes. At the permissive temperature, virions are similar in size and spike content as in the wild type and capsid assembly is restored, albeit with altered polymorphisms. The mutation F167Y-A38V (referred to as FY/AV in this paper) produces fewer tubular capsids than wild type and more irregular polyhedra, which tend to be larger than in the wild type, containing approximately 30% more CA subunits. It follows that FY/AV CA assembles more efficiently in situ than in the wild type and has a lower critical concentration, reflecting altered nucleation properties. However, its infectivity is lower than that of the wild type, due to a 4-fold-lower budding efficiency. We conclude that the wild-type CA protein sequence represents an evolutionary compromise between competing requirements for optimization of Gag assembly (of the immature virion) and CA assembly (in the maturing virion).
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) serves pivotal roles in the viral life cycle, particularly serving as the basic unit for capsid assembly, and is closely associated with HBV genome replication and progeny virion production. Previous studies have demonstrated that HBc has at least two functional interfaces; two HBc monomers form a homodimer via an intradimer interface, and then 90 or 120 homodimers form an icosahedral capsid via a dimer?dimer interface. In the present study, the role of the HBc dimer?dimer interface in HBV replication was investigated. A panel of residues located at the dimer?dimer interface were identified based on the crystal structure of HBc. Native gel electrophoresis and western blotting revealed that, despite mutations in the dimer?dimer interface, HBc formed a capsid?like structure, whereas mutations at amino acid residues 23?39 completely disrupted capsid assembly. Using denaturing gel electrophoresis, Southern and Northern blotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was demonstrated that none of the mutations in the dimer?dimer interface supported pregenomic RNA encapsidation or DNA replication. In addition, these mutants interacted with the wild-type (WT) HBc monomer and inhibited WT genome replication and virion production in a dose?dependent manner. However, the quantity of covalently closed circular DNA in the nucleus was not affected. The present study highlighted the importance of the HBc dimer?dimer interface for normal capsid function and demonstrated that the HBc dimer?dimer interface may be a novel antiviral target.
Project description:BK virus (BKV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes a persistent infection in the urinary tract of 80% of the human population. Like other polyomaviruses, the major capsid protein of BKV, virion protein 1 (VP1), is critical for host cell receptor recognition and for proper virion assembly. BKV uses a carbohydrate complex containing alpha(2,3)-linked sialic acid attached to glycoprotein and glycolipid motifs as a cellular receptor. To determine the amino acids important for BKV binding to the sialic acid portion of the complex, we generated a series of 17 point mutations in VP1 and scored them for viral growth. The first set of mutants behaved identically to wild-type virus, suggesting that these amino acids were not critical for virus propagation. Another group of VP1 mutants rendered the virus nonviable. These mutations failed to protect viral DNA from DNase I digestion, indicating a role for these domains in capsid assembly and/or packaging of DNA. A third group of VP1 mutations packaged DNA similarly to the wild type but failed to propagate. The initial burst size of these mutations was similar to that of the wild type, indicating that there is no defect in the lytic release of the mutated virions. Binding experiments revealed that a subset of the BKV mutants were unable to attach to their host cells. These motifs are likely important for sialic acid recognition. We next mapped these mutations onto a model of BKV VP1 to provide atomic insight into the role of these sites in the binding of sialic acid to VP1.
Project description:Simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid assembly occurs in the nucleus. All three capsid proteins bind DNA nonspecifically, raising the dilemma of how they attain specificity to the SV40 minichromosome in the presence of a large excess of genomic DNA. The SV40 packaging signal, ses, which is required for assembly, is composed of multiple DNA elements that bind transcription factor Sp1. Our previous studies showed that Sp1 participates in SV40 assembly and that it cooperates in DNA binding with VP2/3. We hypothesized that Sp1 recruits the capsid proteins to the viral minichromosome, conferring upon them specific DNA recognition. Here, we have tested the hypothesis. Computer analysis showed that the combination of six tandem GC boxes at ses is not found at cellular promoters and therefore is unique to SV40. Cooperativity in DNA binding between Sp1 and VP2/3 was not abolished at even a 1,000-fold excess of cellular DNA, providing strong support for the recruitment hypothesis. Sp1 also binds VP1 and cooperates with VP1 in DNA binding. VP1 pentamers (VP1(5)) avidly interact with VP2/3, utilizing the same VP2/3 domain as described for polyomavirus. We conclude that VP1(5)-VP2/3 building blocks are recruited by Sp1 to ses, where they form the nucleation center for capsid assembly. By this mechanism the virus ensures that capsid formation is initiated at a single site around its minichromosome. Sp1 enhances the formation of SV40 pseudovirions in vitro, providing additional support for the model. Analyses of Sp1 and VP3 deletion mutants showed that Sp1 and VP2/3 bind one another and cooperate in DNA binding through their DNA-binding domains, with additional contacts outside these domains. VP1 contacts Sp1 at residues outside the Sp1 DNA-binding domain. These and additional data allowed us to propose a molecular model for the VP1(5)-VP2/3-DNA-Sp1 complex.
Project description:Members of our laboratory previously generated and described a set of avian reovirus (ARV) temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and assigned 11 of them to 7 of the 10 expected recombination groups, named A through G (M. Patrick, R. Duncan, and K. M. Coombs, Virology 284:113-122, 2001). This report presents a more detailed analysis of two of these mutants (tsA12 and tsA146), which were previously assigned to recombination group A. The capacities of tsA12 and tsA146 to replicate at a variety of temperatures were determined. Morphological analyses indicated that cells infected with tsA12 at a nonpermissive temperature produced approximately 100-fold fewer particles than cells infected at a permissive temperature and accumulated core particles. Cells infected with tsA146 at a nonpermissive temperature also produced approximately 100-fold fewer particles, a larger proportion of which were intact virions. We crossed tsA12 with ARV strain 176 to generate reassortant clones and used them to map the temperature-sensitive lesion in tsA12 to the S2 gene. S2 encodes the major core protein sigmaA. Sequence analysis of the tsA12 S2 gene showed a single alteration, a cytosine-to-uracil transition, at nucleotide position 488. This alteration leads to a predicted amino acid change from proline to leucine at amino acid position 158 in the sigmaA protein. An analysis of the core crystal structure of the closely related mammalian reovirus suggested that the Leu(158) substitution in ARV sigmaA lies directly under the outer face of the sigmaA protein. This may cause a perturbation in sigmaA such that outer capsid proteins are incapable of condensing onto nascent cores. Thus, the ARV tsA12 mutant represents a novel assembly-defective orthoreovirus clone that may prove useful for delineating virus assembly.
Project description:The retroviral Gag precursor plays an important role in the assembly of virion particles. The capsid (CA) protein of the Gag molecule makes a major contribution to this process. In the crystal structure of the free CA protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), 11 residues of the C terminus were found to be unstructured, and to date no information exists on the structure of these residues in the context of the Gag precursor molecule. We performed phylogenetic analysis and demonstrated a high degree of conservation of these 11 amino acids. Deletion of this cluster or introduction of various point mutations into these residues resulted in significant impairment of particle infectivity. In this cluster, two putative structural regions were identified, residues that form a hinge region (353-VGGP-356) and those that contribute to an alpha-helix (357-GHKARVL-363). Overall, mutations in these regions resulted in inhibition of virion production, but mutations in the hinge region demonstrated the most significant reduction. Although all the Gag mutants appeared to have normal Gag-Gag and Gag-RNA interactions, the hinge mutants were characterized by abnormal formation of cytoplasmic Gag complexes. Gag proteins with mutations in the hinge region demonstrated normal membrane association but aberrant rod-like membrane structures. More detailed analysis of these structures in one of the mutants demonstrated abnormal trapped Gag assemblies. These data suggest that the conserved CA C terminus is important for HIV-1 virion assembly and release and define a putative target for drug design geared to inhibit the HIV-1 assembly process.