Complexes of the enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase with a slow substrate and an inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: Two complexes of the enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a slow substrate and with an inhibitor have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. Both ligands induce an interdomain rearrangement in the enzyme that creates a highly buried active site. Comparisons with enzyme-substrate complexes show that the inhibitor xylose 1-phosphate utilizes many of the previously observed enzyme-ligand interactions. In contrast, analysis of the ribose 1-phosphate complex reveals a combination of new and conserved enzyme-ligand interactions for binding. The ability of PMM/PGM to accommodate these two pentose phosphosugars in its active site may be relevant for future efforts towards inhibitor design.
Project description:Glucokinase phosphorylated a series of C-1 fluorinated ?-d-gluco-heptuloses. These phosphorylated products were discovered to be inhibitors of ?-phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (?PMM/PGM) and ?-phosphoglucomutase (?PGM). Inhibition potency with both mutases inversely correlated to the degree of fluorination. Structural analysis with ?PMM demonstrated the inhibitor binding to the active site, with the phosphate in the phosphate binding site and the anomeric hydroxyl directed to the catalytic site.
Project description:Four orthologous genes (TK1108, TK1404, TK1777, and TK2185) that can be annotated as phosphomannomutase (PMM) genes (COG1109) have been identified in the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. We previously found that TK1777 actually encodes a phosphopentomutase. In order to determine which of the remaining three orthologues encodes a phosphoglucomutase (PGM), we examined the PGM activity in T. kodakaraensis cells and identified the gene responsible for this activity. Heterologous gene expression and purification and characterization of the recombinant protein indicated that TK1108 encoded a protein with high levels of PGM activity (690 U mg(-1)), along with high levels of PMM activity (401 U mg(-1)). Similar analyses of the remaining two orthologues revealed that their protein products exhibited neither PGM nor PMM activity. PGM activity and transcription of TK1108 in T. kodakaraensis were found to be higher in cells grown on starch than in cells grown on pyruvate. Our results clearly indicate that, among the four PMM gene orthologues in T. kodakaraensis, only one gene, TK1108, actually encodes a protein with PGM and PMM activities.
Project description:The enzymes phosphomannomutase (PMM), phospho-N-acetylglucosamine mutase (PAGM) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) reversibly catalyse the transfer of phosphate between the C6 and C1 hydroxyl groups of mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and glucose respectively. Although genes for a candidate PMM and a PAGM enzymes have been found in the Trypanosoma brucei genome, there is, surprisingly, no candidate gene for PGM. The TbPMM and TbPAGM genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the TbPMM enzyme was crystallized and its structure solved at 1.85 Å resolution. Antibodies to the recombinant proteins localized endogenous TbPMM to glycosomes in the bloodstream form of the parasite, while TbPAGM localized to both the cytosol and glycosomes. Both recombinant enzymes were able to interconvert glucose-phosphates, as well as acting on their own definitive substrates. Analysis of sugar nucleotide levels in parasites with TbPMM or TbPAGM knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) suggests that, in vivo, PGM activity is catalysed by both enzymes. This is the first example in any organism of PGM activity being completely replaced in this way and it explains why, uniquely, T. brucei has been able to lose its PGM gene. The RNAi data for TbPMM also showed that this is an essential gene for parasite growth.
Project description:The pgmG gene of Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461, the industrial gellan gum-producing strain, was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a 50,059-Da polypeptide that has phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphomannomutase (PMM) activities and is 37 to 59% identical to other bifunctional proteins with PGM and PMM activities from gram-negative species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgC. Purified PgmG protein showed a marked preference for glucose-1-phosphate (G1P); the catalytic efficiency was about 50-fold higher for G1P than it was for mannose-1-phosphate (M1P). The estimated apparent K(m) values for G1P and M1P were high, 0.33 and 1.27 mM, respectively. The pgmG gene allowed the recovery of alginate biosynthetic ability in a P. aeruginosa mutant with a defective algC gene. This result indicates that PgmG protein can convert mannose-6-phosphate into M1P in the initial steps of alginate biosynthesis and, together with other results, suggests that PgmG may convert glucose-6-phosphate into G1P in the gellan pathway.
Project description:A domain needed for the catalytic efficiency of an enzyme model of simple processivity and domain-domain interactions has been characterized by NMR. This domain 4 from phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) closes upon glucose phosphate and mannose phosphate ligands in the active site, and can modestly reconstitute activity of enzyme truncated to domains 1-3. This enzyme supports biosynthesis of the saccharide-derived virulence factors (rhamnolipids, lipopolysaccharides, and alginate) of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR chemical shift assignments of domain 4 of PMM/PGM suggest preservation and independence of its structure when separated from domains 1-3. The face of domain 4 that packs with domain 3 is perturbed in NMR spectra without disrupting this fold. The perturbed residues overlap both the most highly coevolved positions in the interface and residues lining a cavity at the domain interface.
Project description:Enzymes sample multiple conformations during their catalytic cycles. Chemical shifts from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are hypersensitive to conformational changes and ensembles in solution. Phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) is a ubiquitous four-domain enzyme that catalyzes phosphoryl transfer across phosphohexose substrates. We compared states the enzyme visits during its catalytic cycle. Collective responses of Pseudomonas PMM/PGM to phosphosugar substrates and inhibitor were assessed using NMR-detected titrations. Affinities were estimated from binding isotherms obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). Relationships among phosphosugar-enzyme associations emerge from PCA comparisons of the titrations. COordiNated Chemical Shifts bEhavior (CONCISE) analysis provides novel discrimination of three ligand-bound states of PMM/PGM harboring a mutation that suppresses activity. Enzyme phosphorylation and phosphosugar binding appear to drive the open dephosphorylated enzyme to the free phosphorylated state, and on toward ligand-closed states. Domain 4 appears central to collective responses to substrate and inhibitor binding. Hydrogen exchange reveals that binding of a substrate analogue enhances folding stability of the domains to a uniform level, establishing a globally unified structure. CONCISE and PCA of NMR spectra have discovered novel states of a well-studied enzyme and appear ready to discriminate other enzyme and ligand binding states.
Project description:We report here the identification and characterization of pgm, a gene in Escherichia coli that encodes the enzyme phosphoglucomutase, specifically required for the catalysis of the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. The predicted amino acid sequence of the pgm gene is highly conserved in E. coli, Acetobacter xylinum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rabbits, and humans. pgm deletion mutant strains are deficient in phosphoglucomutase activity.
Project description:The alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily is composed of four related enzymes that catalyze a reversible, intramolecular phosphoryl transfer on their sugar substrates. The enzymes in this superfamily play important and diverse roles in carbohydrate metabolism in organisms from bacteria to humans. Recent structural and mechanistic studies of one member of this superfamily, phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have provided new insights into enzyme mechanism and substrate recognition. Here we use sequence-sequence and sequence-structure comparisons via evolutionary trace analysis to examine 71 members of the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily. These analyses show that key residues in the active site, including many of those involved in substrate contacts in the P. aeruginosa PMM/PGM complexes, are conserved throughout the enzyme family. Several important regions show class-specific differences in sequence that appear to be correlated with differences in substrate specificity exhibited by subgroups of the family. In addition, we describe the translocation of a 20-residue segment containing the catalytic phosphoserine of phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase, which uniquely identifies members of this subgroup.
Project description:A region of pSG30 that complements the pyocin-derived gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) mutants 1291d and 1291e was characterized by DNA sequence analysis and an open reading frame of 1,380 bases was identified that is 89% similar and 56% identical over 452 amino acids to the algC gene product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that encodes phosphomannomutase. Enzymatic analysis of gonococcal crude protein extracts demonstrated that pSG30 encodes phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphomannomutase activity. This activity is absent in 1291d and 1291e but is restored upon introduction of pSG30. PGM encoded by pSG34, a subclone of pSG30, was able to complement Escherichia coli PGM1, a strain deficient in PGM, as determined by bacteriophage C21 plaque formation. A revertant of 1291d that binds monoclonal antibody 2-1-L8 (specific for a 3.6-kDa LOS component) was isolated. The construction of a site-specific deletion of this region in the chromosome of 1291 confirms the role of this open reading frame in LOS biosynthesis.
Project description:The enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an intramolecular phosphoryl transfer across its phosphosugar substrates, which are precursors in the synthesis of exoproducts involved in bacterial virulence. Previous structural studies of PMM/PGM have established a key role for conformational change in its multistep reaction, which requires a dramatic 180° reorientation of the intermediate within the active site. Here hydrogen-deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry and small angle x-ray scattering were used to probe the conformational flexibility of different forms of PMM/PGM in solution, including its active, phosphorylated state and the unphosphorylated state that occurs transiently during the catalytic cycle. In addition, the effects of ligand binding were assessed through use of a substrate analog. We found that both phosphorylation and binding of ligand produce significant effects on deuterium incorporation. Phosphorylation of the conserved catalytic serine has broad effects on residues in multiple domains and is supported by small angle x-ray scattering data showing that the unphosphorylated enzyme is less compact in solution. The effects of ligand binding are generally manifested near the active site cleft and at a domain interface that is a site of conformational change. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of the enzyme may play two critical functional roles: a direct role in the chemical step of phosphoryl transfer and secondly through propagation of structural flexibility. We propose a model whereby increased enzyme flexibility facilitates the reorientation of the reaction intermediate, coupling changes in structural dynamics with the unique catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.