Nanofibrous scaffolds incorporating PDGF-BB microspheres induce chemokine expression and tissue neogenesis in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exerts multiple cellular effects that stimulate wound repair in multiple tissues. However, a major obstacle for its successful clinical application is the delivery system, which ultimately controls the in vivo release rate of PDGF. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (MS) in nanofibrous scaffolds (NFS) have been shown to control the release of rhPDGF-BB in vitro. In order to investigate the effects of rhPDGF-BB release from MS in NFS on gene expression and enhancement of soft tissue engineering, rhPDGF-BB was incorporated into differing molecular weight (MW) polymeric MS. By controlling the MW of the MS over a range of 6.5 KDa-64 KDa, release rates of PDGF can be regulated over periods of weeks to months in vitro. The NFS-MS scaffolds were divided into multiple groups based on MS release characteristics and PDGF concentration ranging from 2.5-25.0 microg and evaluated in vivo in a soft tissue wound repair model in the dorsa of rats. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-implantation, the scaffold implants were harvested followed by assessments of cell penetration, vasculogenesis and tissue neogenesis. Gene expression profiles using cDNA microarrays were performed on the PDGF-releasing NFS. The percentage of tissue invasion into MS-containing NFS at 7 days was higher in the PDGF groups when compared to controls. Blood vessel number in the HMW groups containing either 2.5 or 25 microg PDGF was increased above those of other groups at 7d (p<0.01). Results from cDNA array showed that PDGF strongly enhanced in vivo gene expression of the CXC chemokine family members such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5. Thus, sustained release of rhPDGF-BB, controlled by slow-releasing MS associated with the NFS delivery system, enhanced cell migration and angiogenesis in vivo, and may be related to an induced expression of chemokine-related genes. This approach offers a technology to accurately control growth factor release to promote soft tissue engineering in vivo.
Project description:Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) stimulates repair of healing-impaired chronic wounds such as diabetic ulcers and periodontal lesions. However, limitations in predictability of tissue regeneration occur due, in part, to transient growth factor bioavailability in vivo. Here, we report that gene delivery of PDGF-B stimulates repair of oral implant extraction socket defects. Alveolar ridge defects were created in rats and were treated at the time of titanium implant installation with a collagen matrix containing an adenoviral (Ad) vector encoding PDGF-B (5.5 x 10(8) or 5.5 x 10(9) pfu ml(-1)), Ad encoding luciferase (Ad-Luc; 5.5 x 10(9) pfu ml(-1); control) or recombinant human PDGF-BB protein (rhPDGF-BB, 0.3 mg ml(-1)). Bone repair and osseointegration were measured through backscattered scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical assessments. Furthermore, a panel of local and systemic safety assessments was performed. Results indicated that bone repair was accelerated by Ad-PDGF-B and rhPDGF-BB delivery compared with Ad-Luc, with the high dose of Ad-PDGF-B more effective than the low dose. No significant dissemination of the vector construct or alteration of systemic parameters was noted. In summary, gene delivery of Ad-PDGF-B shows regenerative and safety capabilities for bone tissue engineering and osseointegration in alveolar bone defects comparable with rhPDGF-BB protein delivery in vivo.
Project description:Yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used system for heterologous protein expression. However, post-translational modifications, especially glycosylation, usually impede pharmaceutical application of recombinant proteins because of unexpected alterations in protein structure and function. The aim of this study was to identify glycosylation sites on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) secreted by P. pastoris, and investigate possible effects of O-linked glycans on PDGF-BB functional activity. PDGF-BB secreted by P. pastoris is very heterogeneous and contains multiple isoforms. We demonstrated that PDGF-BB was O-glycosylated during the secretion process and detected putative O-glycosylation sites using glycosylation staining and immunoblotting. By site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution LC/MS analysis, we, for the first time, identified two threonine residues at the C-terminus as the major O-glycosylation sites on rhPDGF-BB produced in P. pastoris. Although O-glycosylation resulted in heterogeneous protein expression, the removal of glycosylation sites did not affect rhPDGF-BB mitogenic activity. In addition, the unglycosylated PDGF-BB?Gly mutant exhibited the immunogenicity comparable to that of the wild-type form. Furthermore, antiserum against PDGF-BB?Gly also recognized glycosylated PDGF-BB, indicating that protein immunogenicity was unaltered by glycosylation. These findings elucidate the effect of glycosylation on PDGF-BB structure and biological activity, and can potentially contribute to the design and production of homogeneously expressed unglycosylated or human-type glycosylated PDGF-BB in P. pastoris for pharmaceutical applications.
Project description:The prognosis for successful treatment of periodontal diseases is generally poor. Current therapeutic strategies often fail to regenerate infected periodontium. Recently an alternative strategy has been developed that combines conventional treatment with the application of recombinant human growth factors (rhGFs). But ambiguities in existed studies on the clinical efficacy of rhGFs do not permit either the identification of the specific growth factors effective for therapeutic interventions or the optimal concentration of them. Neither is it known whether the same rhGF can stimulate regeneration of both soft tissue and bone, or whether different patient populations call for differential use of the growth factors. In order to explore these issues, a meta-analysis was carried out. Particular attention was given to the therapeutic impact of fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF-2) and platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). Our findings indicate that 0.3% rhFGF-2 and 0.3 mg/ml rhPDGF-BB show a greater capacity for periodontal regeneration than other concentrations and superiority to control groups with statistical significance. In the case of patients suffering only from gingival recession, however, the application of rhPDGF-BB produces no significant regenerative advantage. The findings of this study can potentially endow clinicians with guidelines for the appropriate application of these two rhGFs.
Project description:BACKGROUND. Recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) reduces Parkinsonian symptoms and increases dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in several animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Effects of rhPDGF-BB are the result of proliferation of ventricular wall progenitor cells and reversed by blocking mitosis. Based on these restorative effects, we assessed the safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) rhPDGF-BB administration in individuals with PD. METHODS. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/IIa study at two clinical centers in Sweden. Twelve patients with moderate PD received rhPDGF-BB via an implanted drug infusion pump and an investigational i.c.v. catheter. Patients were assigned to a dose cohort (0.2, 1.5, or 5 ?g rhPDGF-BB per day) and then randomized to active treatment or placebo (3:1) for a 12-day treatment period. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability of i.c.v.-delivered rhPDGF-BB. Secondary outcome assessments included several clinical rating scales and changes in DAT binding. The follow-up period was 85 days. RESULTS. All patients completed the study. There were no unresolved adverse events. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients; however, these were unrelated to rhPDGF-BB administration. Secondary outcome parameters did not show dose-dependent changes in clinical rating scales, but there was a positive effect on DAT binding in the right putamen. CONCLUSION. At all doses tested, i.c.v. administration of rhPDGF-BB was well tolerated. Results support further clinical development of rhPDGF-BB for patients with PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00866502. FUNDING. Newron Sweden AB (former NeuroNova AB) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Due to the constraints surrounding autograft bone, surgeons have turned to osteoinductive agents to augment spinal fusion. Reports of complications and questionable efficacy slowed the adoption of these alternatives. Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor B homodimer (rhPDGF-BB) has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved (Augment) to promote fusion in other areas of orthopedics, but its characterization in spine fusion has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize the host response to PDGF-BB in vivo.<h4>Methods</h4>Eighty female Fischer rats underwent L4-5 posterolateral fusion using one of four implant types: (a) iliac crest syngeneic allograft harvested from syngeneic donors, (b) β-TCP/bovine collagen matrix (β-TCP/Col) with sodium acetate buffer, (c) β-TCP/Col with 0.3 mg/mL "low dose," or (d) β-TCP/Col with 3.0 mg/mL "high dose" of rhPDGF-BB. Animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serum cytokine quantification at 4, 7, 10, and 21 days, postoperatively. Tissues were processed for immunofluorescence staining for Ki67 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) to assess neovascularization.<h4>Results</h4>MRI demonstrated no differences in fluid accumulation among the four treatment groups at any of the time points. Serum cytokine analysis showed no clinically significant differences between treatment groups in 20 of the 27 cytokines. Inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-18, MCP-1, MIP-1α, TNF-α were not induced by rhPDGF-BB. Histology showed no differences in cell infiltration, and Ki67 and vWF immunofluorescence staining was similar among groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>rhPDGF-BB delivered with a β-TCP/Col matrix exerts no exaggerated systemic or local host inflammatory response when compared to iliac crest syngeneic allograft bone or the control carrier. rhPDGF-BB mixed with a β-TCP/Col matrix could be a viable and safe biologic alternative to syngeneic allograft in spine fusion. Further studies need to be performed to evaluate efficacy in this setting.
Project description:The best tissue-engineered spinal cord grafts not only match the structural characteristics of the spinal cord but also allow the seed cells to grow and function in situ. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been shown to promote the migration of bone marrow stromal cells; however, cytokines need to be released at a steady rate to maintain a stable concentration in vivo. Therefore, new methods are needed to maintain an optimal concentration of cytokines over an extended period of time to effectively promote seed cell localization, proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, a partition-type tubular scaffold matching the anatomical features of the thoracic 8-10 spinal cord of the rat was fabricated using chitosan and then subsequently loaded with chitosan-encapsulated PDGF-BB microspheres (PDGF-MSs). The PDGF-MS-containing scaffold was then examined in vitro for sustained-release capacity, biocompatibility, and its effect on neural progenitor cells differentiated in vitro from multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells (MUSE-NPCs). We found that pre-freezing for 2 hours at -20°C significantly increased the yield of partition-type tubular scaffolds, and 30 ?L of 25% glutaraldehyde ensured optimal crosslinking of PDGF-MSs. The resulting PDGF-MSs cumulatively released 52% of the PDGF-BB at 4 weeks in vitro without burst release. The PDGF-MS-containing tubular scaffold showed suitable biocompatibility towards MUSE-NPCs and could promote the directional migration and growth of these cells. These findings indicate that the combination of a partition-type tubular scaffold, PDGF-MSs and MUSE-NPCs may be a promising model for the fabrication of tissue-engineered spinal cord grafts.
Project description:Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF) is safe and effective for the treatment of periodontal defects in short-term studies up to 6 months in duration. We now provide results from a 36-month extension study of a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect and long-term stability of PDGF-BB treatment in patients with localized severe periodontal osseous defects.A total of 135 participants were enrolled from six clinical centers for an extension trial. Eighty-three individuals completed the study at 36 months and were included in the analysis. The study investigated the local application of ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffold matrix with or without two different dose levels of PDGF (0.3 or 1.0 mg/mL PDGF-BB) in patients possessing one localized periodontal osseous defect. Composite analysis for clinical and radiographic evidence of treatment success was defined as percentage of cases with clinical attachment level (CAL) ?2.7 mm and linear bone growth (LBG) ?1.1 mm.The participants exceeding this composite outcome benchmark in the 0.3 mg/mL rhPDGF-BB group went from 62.2% at 12 months, 75.9% at 24 months, to 87.0% at 36 months compared with 39.5%, 48.3%, and 53.8%, respectively, in the scaffold control group at these same time points (P <0.05). Although there were no significant increases in CAL and LBG at 36 months among all groups, there were continued increases in CAL gain, LBG, and percentage bone fill over time, suggesting overall stability of the regenerative response.PDGF-BB in a synthetic scaffold matrix promotes long-term stable clinical and radiographic improvements as measured by composite outcomes for CAL gain and LBG for patients possessing localized periodontal defects ( ClinicalTrials.gov no. CT01530126).
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>The use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF) has received Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of periodontal and orthopedic bone defects and dermal wound healing. Many studies have investigated its regenerative potential in a variety of other oral clinical indications. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy, safety, and clinical benefit of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF) use for alveolar bone and/or soft tissue regeneration.<h4>Material and methods</h4>Comprehensive electronic and manual literature searches according to the PRISMA guidelines were performed to identify interventional and observational studies evaluating the regenerative applications of rhPDGF-BB. The primary outcomes were the safety, efficacy, and overall clinical benefit of rhPDGF use in oral regenerative procedures.<h4>Results</h4>Sixty-three human clinical studies (mean ± SD follow-up period of 10.7 ± 3.3 mo) were included in the qualitative analysis. No serious adverse effects were reported in any of the 63 studies, aside from the postoperative complications routinely associated with surgical therapy. Use of rhPDGF was shown to be beneficial when combined with allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts (the latter tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP]) for the treatment of periodontal defects and gingival recession. The use of rhPDGF also led to favorable clinical outcomes when combined with allografts or xenografts for guided bone regeneration (GBR) and alveolar ridge preservation. While favorable clinical results support the use of the combination of rhPDGF plus allograft or xenograft for GBR, ARP, and sinus floor augmentation, current data support the use of rhPDGF and alloplasts (e.g., β-TCP) only in periodontal defects and gingival recession.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Based on the clinical evidence, rhPDGF is safe and provides clinical benefits when used in combination with bone allografts, xenograft, or β-TCP for the treatment of intrabony and furcation periodontal defects and gingival recession or when used with allografts or xenograft for GBR and ARP (PROSPERO CRD42020142446).<h4>Knowledge transfer statement</h4>Clinicians should be aware that rhPDGF is a safe and effective approach for the treatment of intrabony and furcation periodontal defects and gingival recession or when used with allografts or xenograft for bone regeneration and alveolar ridge preservation. With consideration of cost and patient preference, this result could lead to more appropriate therapeutic decisions.
Project description:Dental implants are very successful medical devices, yet implant failures do occur due to biological and mechanical complications. Peri-implantitis is one such biological complication that is primarily caused by bacteria and their products at the implant soft tissue interface. Bacterial infiltration can be prevented by the formation of a reliable soft tissue seal encircling dental implants. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) has significant chemotactic and proliferative effects on various mesenchymal cell types, including fibroblasts, and therefore can be an effective molecule to enhance the peri-implant soft tissue seal. To overcome the limitations of the recombinant protein form of PDGF-BB, such as cost and the need for supraphysiological doses, we have developed and characterized a titanium surface that is rendered bioactive by coating it with polyethylenimine-plasmid DNA (pDNA) nanoplexes in the presence of sucrose. Human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and human primary gingival fibroblasts (GFs) were successfully transfected in culture with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-encoding pDNA or platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGFB)-encoding pDNA loaded into nanoplexes and coated onto titanium disks in a dose-dependent manner. GFs were shown to secrete PDGF-BB for at least 7 days after transfection and displayed both minimal viability loss and increased integrin-α2 expression 4 days posttransfection.