Prezygotic reproductive isolation between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Matings between different Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species produce sexually sterile hybrids, so individuals should avoid mating with other species. Any mechanism that reduces the frequency of interspecific matings will confer a selective advantage. Here we test the ability of two closely-related Saccharomyces sensu stricto species to select their own species as mates and avoid hybridisation. RESULTS: We set up mate choice tests, using five independently isolated pairs of species, in which individual germinating spores were presented with the opportunity to mate either with a germinating spore of their own species or with a germinating spore of the other species. For all five strain pairs, whether a S. cerevisiae or S. paradoxus occupies the role of "chooser" strain, the level of hybridisation that is observed between the two species is significantly lower than would be expected if mates were selected at random. We also show that, overall, S. cerevisiae exhibited a stronger own-species preference than S. paradoxus. CONCLUSION: Prezygotic reproductive isolation is well known in higher organisms but has been largely overlooked in yeast, an important model microbe. Here we present the first report of prezygotic reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces. Prezygotic reproductive isolation may be important in yeast speciation or yeast species cohesion, and may have evolved to prevent wasted matings between different species. Whilst yeast has long been used as a genetic model system, little is known about yeast in the wild. Our work sheds light on an interesting aspect of yeast natural behaviour: their ability to avoid costly interspecific matings.
Project description:In sexual microbes, mating occurs by fusion of individual cells. This complete fitness investment suggests that cell behaviour could potentially mediate prezygotic isolation between microbial species, a topic about which very little is known. To investigate this possibility, we conducted individual cell mate choice trials and mass-culture mating propensity assays with isolates from sympatric natural populations of the closely related yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Although we found no evidence for active species recognition in mate choice, we observed a marked difference in mating propensity between these two species. We briefly discuss the possibility that this mating propensity difference may contribute to reproductive isolation between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus in nature.
Project description:Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex consist of yeast species, which are not only important in the fermentation industry but are also model systems for genomic and ecological analysis. Here, we present the complete genome assemblies of Saccharomyces jurei, a newly discovered Saccharomyces sensu stricto species from high altitude oaks. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis revealed that S. jurei is more closely related to S. mikatae, than S. cerevisiae, and S. paradoxus The karyotype of S. jurei presents two reciprocal chromosomal translocations between chromosome VI/VII and I/XIII when compared to the S. cerevisiae genome. Interestingly, while the rearrangement I/XIII is unique to S. jurei, the other is in common with S. mikatae strain IFO1815, suggesting shared evolutionary history of this species after the split between S. cerevisiae and S. mikatae The number of Ty elements differed in the new species, with a higher number of Ty elements present in S. jurei than in S. cerevisiae Phenotypically, the S. jurei strain NCYC 3962 has relatively higher fitness than the other strain NCYC 3947T under most of the environmental stress conditions tested and showed remarkably increased fitness in higher concentration of acetic acid compared to the other sensu stricto species. Both strains were found to be better adapted to lower temperatures compared to S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Using the biological species definition, yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces sensu stricto comprise six species and one natural hybrid. Previous work has shown that reproductive isolation between the species is due primarily to sequence divergence acted upon by the mismatch repair system and not due to major gene differences or chromosomal rearrangements. Sequence divergence through mismatch repair has also been shown to cause partial reproductive isolation among populations within a species. We have surveyed sequence variation in populations of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts and measured meiotic sterility in hybrids. This allows us to determine the divergence necessary to produce the reproductive isolation seen among species. Rather than a sharp transition from fertility to sterility, which may have been expected, we find a smooth monotonic relationship between diversity and reproductive isolation, even as far as the well-accepted designations of S. paradoxus and S. cerevisiae as distinct species. Furthermore, we show that one species of Saccharomyces--S. cariocanus--differs from a population of S. paradoxus by four translocations, but not by sequence. There is molecular evidence of recent introgression from S. cerevisiae into the European population of S. paradoxus, supporting the idea that in nature the boundary between these species is fuzzy.
Project description:Background:Recent evidence suggests that horizontal transfer plays a significant role in the evolution of of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotes. Many cases of horizontal TE transfer (HTT) been reported in animals and plants, however surprisingly few examples of HTT have been reported in fungi. Findings:Here I report evidence for a novel HTT event in fungi involving Tsu4 in Saccharomyces paradoxus based on (i) unexpectedly high similarity between Tsu4 elements in S. paradoxus and S. uvarum, (ii) a patchy distribution of Tsu4 in S. paradoxus and general absence from its sister species S. cerevisiae, and (iii) discordance between the phylogenetic history of Tsu4 sequences and species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group. Available data suggests the HTT event likely occurred somewhere in the Nearctic, Neotropic or Indo-Australian part of the S. paradoxus species range, and that a lineage related to S. uvarum or S. eubayanus was the likely donor species. The HTT event has led to massive proliferation of Tsu4 in the South American lineage of S. paradoxus, which exhibits partial reproductive isolation with other strains of this species because of multiple reciprocal translocations. Full-length Tsu4 elements are associated with both breakpoints of one of these reciprocal translocations. Conclusions:This work shows that comprehensive analysis of TE sequences in essentially-complete genome assemblies derived from long-read sequencing provides new opportunities to detect HTT events in fungi and other organisms. This work also provides support for the hypothesis that HTT and subsequent TE proliferation can induce genome rearrangements that contribute to post-zygotic isolation in yeast.
Project description:High-quality, well-annotated genome sequences and standardized laboratory strains fuel experimental and evolutionary research. We present improved genome sequences of three species of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts: S. bayanus var. uvarum (CBS 7001), S. kudriavzevii (IFO 1802(T) and ZP 591), and S. mikatae (IFO 1815(T)), and describe their comparison to the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. The new sequences, derived by assembling millions of short DNA sequence reads together with previously published Sanger shotgun reads, have vastly greater long-range continuity and far fewer gaps than the previously available genome sequences. New gene predictions defined a set of 5261 protein-coding orthologs across the five most commonly studied Saccharomyces yeasts, enabling a re-examination of the tempo and mode of yeast gene evolution and improved inferences of species-specific gains and losses. To facilitate experimental investigations, we generated genetically marked, stable haploid strains for all three of these Saccharomyces species. These nearly complete genome sequences and the collection of genetically marked strains provide a valuable toolset for comparative studies of gene function, metabolism, and evolution, and render Saccharomyces sensu stricto the most experimentally tractable model genus. These resources are freely available and accessible through www.SaccharomycesSensuStricto.org.
Project description:Amyloid propagation requires high levels of sequence specificity so that only molecules with very high sequence identity can form cross-?-sheet structures of sufficient stringency for incorporation into the amyloid fibril. This sequence specificity presents a barrier to the transmission of prions between two species with divergent sequences, termed a species barrier. Here we study the relative effects of protein sequence, seed conformation, and environment on the species barrier strength and specificity for the yeast prion protein Sup35p from three closely related species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group; namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Through in vivo plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major characteristics of the transmission barrier and conformational fidelity are determined by the protein sequence rather than by the cellular environment. In vitro data confirm that the kinetics and structural preferences of aggregation of the S. paradoxus and S. bayanus proteins are influenced by anions in accordance with their positions in the Hofmeister series, as observed previously for S. cerevisiae. However, the specificity of the species barrier is primarily affected by the sequence and the type of anion present during the formation of the initial seed, whereas anions present during the seeded aggregation process typically influence kinetics rather than the specificity of prion conversion. Therefore, our work shows that the protein sequence and the conformation variant (strain) of the prion seed are the primary determinants of cross-species prion specificity both in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Prions are self-perpetuating and, in most cases, aggregation-prone protein isoforms that transmit neurodegenerative diseases in mammals and control heritable traits in yeast. Prion conversion requires a very high level of identity of the interacting protein sequences. Decreased transmission of the prion state between divergent proteins is termed "species barrier" and was thought to occur because of the inability of divergent prion proteins to coaggregate. Species barrier can be overcome in cross-species infections, e.g., from "mad cows" to humans. We studied the counterparts of yeast prion protein Sup35, originated from three different species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group and exhibiting the range of prion domain divergence that overlaps with the range of divergence observed among distant mammalian species. All three proteins were capable of forming a prion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although prions formed by heterologous proteins were usually less stable than the endogenous S. cerevisiae prion. Heterologous Sup35 proteins coaggregated in the S. cerevisiae cells. However, in vivo cross-species prion conversion was decreased and in vitro polymerization was cross-inhibited in at least some heterologous combinations, thus demonstrating the existence of prion species barrier. Moreover, the barrier between the S. cerevisiae protein and its Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces bayanus counterparts was asymmetric both in vivo and in vitro. Our data show that a decreased cross-species prion transmission does not necessarily correlate with a lack of cross-species coaggregation, suggesting that species-specificity of prion transmission is controlled at the level of conformational transition rather than coaggregation.
Project description:Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains.
Project description:Despite the considerable number and taxonomic breadth of past and current genome sequencing projects, many of which necessarily encompass the ribosomal DNA, detailed information on the prevalence and evolutionary significance of sequence variation in this ubiquitous genomic region are severely lacking. Here, we attempt to address this issue in two closely related yet contrasting yeast species, the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. By drawing on existing datasets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, we identify a rich seam of ribosomal DNA sequence variation, characterising 1,068 and 970 polymorphisms in 34 S. cerevisiae and 26 S. paradoxus strains respectively. We discover the two species sets exhibit distinct mutational profiles. Furthermore, we show for the first time that unresolved rDNA sequence variation resulting from imperfect concerted evolution of the ribosomal DNA region follows a U-shaped allele frequency distribution in each species, similar to loci that evolve under non-concerted mechanisms but arising through rather different evolutionary processes. Finally, we link differences between the shapes of these allele frequency distributions to the two species' contrasting population histories.
Project description:In budding yeasts, fermentation in the presence of oxygen evolved around the time of a whole genome duplication (WGD) and is thought to confer dominance in high-sugar environments because ethanol is toxic to many species. Although there are many fermentative yeast species, only Saccharomyces cerevisiae consistently dominates wine fermentations. In this study, we use coculture experiments and intrinsic growth rate assays to examine the relative fitness of non-WGD and WGD yeast species across environments to assess when S. cerevisiae's ability to dominate high-sugar environments arose. We show that S. cerevisiae dominates nearly all other non-WGD and WGD species except for its sibling species S. paradoxus in both grape juice and a high-sugar rich medium. Of the species we tested, S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus have evolved the highest ethanol tolerance and intrinsic growth rate in grape juice. However, the ability of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus to dominate certain species depends on the temperature and the type of high-sugar environment. Our results indicate that dominance of high-sugar environments evolved much more recently than the WGD, most likely just prior to or during the differentiation of Saccharomyces species, and that evolution of multiple traits contributes to S. cerevisiae's ability to dominate wine fermentations.