Domain swapping in the low-similarity isomerase/hydratase superfamily: the crystal structure of rat mitochondrial Delta3, Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase.
ABSTRACT: Two monofunctional Delta(3), Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerases, one in mitochondria (mECI) and the other in both mitochondria and peroxisomes (pECI), belong to the low-similarity isomerase/hydratase superfamily. Both enzymes catalyze the movement of a double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA substrate for re-entry into the beta-oxidation pathway. Mutagenesis has shown that Glu165 of rat mECI is involved in catalysis; however, the putative catalytic residue in yeast pECI, Glu158, is not conserved in mECI. To elucidate whether Glu165 of mECI is correctly positioned for catalysis, the crystal structure of rat mECI has been solved. Crystal packing suggests the enzyme is trimeric, in contrast to other members of the superfamily, which appear crystallographically to be dimers of trimers. The polypeptide fold of mECI, like pECI, belongs to a subset of this superfamily in which the C-terminal domain of a given monomer interacts with its own N-terminal domain. This differs from that of crotonase and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoyl-CoA synthase, whose C-terminal domains are involved in domain swapping with an adjacent monomer. The structure confirms Glu165 as the putative catalytic acid/base, positioned to abstract the pro-R proton from C2 and reprotonate at C4 of the acyl chain. The large tunnel-shaped active site cavity observed in the mECI structure explains the relative substrate promiscuity in acyl-chain length and stereochemistry. Comparison with the crystal structure of pECI suggests the catalytic residues from both enzymes are spatially conserved but not in their primary structures, providing a powerful reminder of how catalytic residues cannot be determined solely by sequence alignments.
Project description:Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the interconversion between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) via an enediol(ate) intermediate. The active-site residue Glu165 serves as the catalytic base during catalysis. It abstracts a proton from C1 carbon of DHAP to form the reaction intermediate and donates a proton to C2 carbon of the intermediate to form product GAP. Our difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies on the yeast TIM (YeTIM)/phosphate complex revealed a C?O stretch band at 1706 cm-1 from the protonated Glu165 carboxyl group at pH 7.5, indicating that the p Ka of the catalytic base is increased by >3.0 pH units upon phosphate binding, and that the Glu165 carboxyl environment in the complex is still hydrophilic in spite of the increased p Ka. Hence, the results show that the binding of the phosphodianion group is part of the activation mechanism which involves the p Ka elevation of the catalytic base Glu165. The deprotonation kinetics of Glu165 in the ?s to ms time range were determined via infrared (IR) T-jump studies on the YeTIM/phosphate and ("heavy enzyme") [U-13C,-15N]YeTIM/phosphate complexes. The slower deprotonation kinetics in the ms time scale is due to phosphate dissociation modulated by the loop motion, which slows down by enzyme mass increase to show a normal heavy enzyme kinetic isotope effect (KIE) ?1.2 (i.e., slower rate in the heavy enzyme). The faster deprotonation kinetics in the tens of ?s time scale is assigned to temperature-induced p Ka decrease, while phosphate is still bound, and it shows an inverse heavy enzyme KIE ?0.89 (faster rate in the heavy enzyme). The IR static and T-jump spectroscopy provides atomic-level resolution of the catalytic mechanism because of its ability to directly observe the bond breaking/forming process.
Project description:Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is a member of the family of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). Unlike the other ACADs, which are soluble homotetramers, VLCAD is a homodimer associated with the mitochondrial membrane. VLCAD also possesses an additional 180 residues in the C terminus that are not present in the other ACADs. We have determined the crystal structure of VLCAD complexed with myristoyl-CoA, obtained by co-crystallization, to 1.91-A resolution. The overall fold of the N-terminal approximately 400 residues of VLCAD is similar to that of the soluble ACADs including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). The novel C-terminal domain forms an alpha-helical bundle that is positioned perpendicular to the two N-terminal helical domains. The fatty acyl moiety of the bound substrate/product is deeply imbedded inside the protein; however, the adenosine pyrophosphate portion of the C14-CoA ligand is disordered because of partial hydrolysis of the thioester bond and high mobility of the CoA moiety. The location of Glu-422 with respect to the C2-C3 of the bound ligand and FAD confirms Glu-422 to be the catalytic base. In MCAD, Gln-95 and Glu-99 form the base of the substrate binding cavity. In VLCAD, these residues are glycines (Gly-175 and Gly-178), allowing the binding channel to extend for an additional 12A and permitting substrate acyl chain lengths as long as 24 carbons to bind. VLCAD deficiency is among the more common defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation and, if left undiagnosed, can be fatal. This structure allows us to gain insight into how a variant VLCAD genotype results in a clinical phenotype.
Project description:Acyl-CoA mutases are a growing class of adenosylcobalamin-dependent radical enzymes that perform challenging carbon skeleton rearrangements in primary and secondary metabolism. Members of this class of enzymes must precisely control substrate positioning to prevent oxidative interception of radical intermediates during catalysis. Our understanding of substrate specificity and catalysis in acyl-CoA mutases, however, is incomplete. Here, we present crystal structures of IcmF, a natural fusion protein variant of isobutyryl-CoA mutase, in complex with the adenosylcobalamin cofactor and four different acyl-CoA substrates. These structures demonstrate how the active site is designed to accommodate the aliphatic acyl chains of each substrate. The structures suggest that a conformational change of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl group from C2'-endo to C3'-endo could contribute to initiation of catalysis. Furthermore, detailed bioinformatic analyses guided by our structural findings identify critical determinants of acyl-CoA mutase substrate specificity and predict new acyl-CoA mutase-catalyzed reactions. These results expand our understanding of the substrate specificity and the catalytic scope of acyl-CoA mutases and could benefit engineering efforts for biotechnological applications ranging from production of biofuels and commercial products to hydrocarbon remediation.
Project description:Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a ?-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety-unusual for a thiolase-are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Glu?117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.
Project description:Natural product biosynthetic pathways are replete with enzymes repurposed for new catalytic functions. In some modular polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways, a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT)-like enzyme with an additional decarboxylation function initiates biosynthesis. Here, we probe two PKS GNAT-like domains for the dual activities of S-acyl transfer from coenzyme A (CoA) to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and decarboxylation. The GphF and CurA GNAT-like domains selectively decarboxylate substrates that yield the anticipated pathway starter units. The GphF enzyme lacks detectable acyl transfer activity, and a crystal structure with an isobutyryl-CoA product analog reveals a partially occluded acyltransfer acceptor site. Further analysis indicates that the CurA GNAT-like domain also catalyzes only decarboxylation, and the initial acyl transfer is catalyzed by an unidentified enzyme. Thus, PKS GNAT-like domains are re-classified as GNAT-like decarboxylases. Two other decarboxylases, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase and EryM, reside on distant nodes of the superfamily, illustrating the adaptability of the GNAT fold.
Project description:RPE65 is the isomerase catalyzing conversion of all-trans-retinyl ester (atRE) into 11-cis-retinol in the retinal visual cycle. Crystal structures of RPE65 and site-directed mutagenesis reveal aspects of its catalytic mechanism, especially retinyl moiety isomerization, but other aspects remain to be determined. To investigate potential interactions between RPE65 and lipid metabolism enzymes, HEK293-F cells were transfected with expression vectors for visual cycle proteins and co-transfected with either fatty acyl:CoA ligases (ACSLs) 1, 3, or 6 or the SLC27A family fatty acyl-CoA synthase FATP2/SLCA27A2 to test their effect on isomerase activity. These experiments showed that RPE65 activity was reduced by co-expression of ACSLs or FATP2. Surprisingly, however, in attempting to relieve the ACSL-mediated inhibition, we discovered that triacsin C, an inhibitor of ACSLs, also potently inhibited RPE65 isomerase activity in cellulo. We found triacsin C to be a competitive inhibitor of RPE65 (IC50 = 500 nm). We confirmed that triacsin C competes directly with atRE by incubating membranes prepared from chicken RPE65-transfected cells with liposomes containing 0-1 ?M atRE. Other inhibitors of ACSLs had modest inhibitory effects compared with triascin C. In conclusion, we have identified an inhibitor of ACSLs as a potent inhibitor of RPE65 that competes with the atRE substrate of RPE65 for binding. Triacsin C, with an alkenyl chain resembling but not identical to either acyl or retinyl chains, may compete with binding of the acyl moiety of atRE via the alkenyl moiety. Its inhibitory effect, however, may reside in its nitrosohydrazone/triazene moiety.
Project description:3-Sulfinopropionyl-coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase (AcdDPN7; EC 22.214.171.124) was identified during investigation of the 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) catabolic pathway in the betaproteobacterium Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T). DTDP is an organic disulfide and a precursor for the synthesis of polythioesters (PTEs) in bacteria, and is of interest for biotechnological PTE production. AcdDPN7 catalyzes sulfur abstraction from 3SP-CoA, a key step during the catabolism of DTDP. Here, the crystal structures of apo AcdDPN7 at 1.89 Å resolution and of its complex with the CoA moiety from the substrate analogue succinyl-CoA at 2.30 Å resolution are presented. The apo structure shows that AcdDPN7 belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily fold and that it is a tetramer, with each subunit containing one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) molecule. The enzyme does not show any dehydrogenase activity. Dehydrogenase activity would require a catalytic base (Glu or Asp residue) at either position 246 or position 366, where a glutamine and a glycine are instead found, respectively, in this desulfinase. The positioning of CoA in the crystal complex enabled the modelling of a substrate complex containing 3SP-CoA. This indicates that Arg84 is a key residue in the desulfination reaction. An Arg84Lys mutant showed a complete loss of enzymatic activity, suggesting that the guanidinium group of the arginine is essential for desulfination. AcdDPN7 is the first desulfinase with an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase fold to be reported, which underlines the versatility of this enzyme scaffold.
Project description:The focus of this paper is the hotdog-fold thioesterase THEM2 from human (hTHEM2; Swiss-Prot entry Q9NPJ3 ). In an earlier communication (Cheng, Z., Song, F., Shan, X., Wei, Z., Wang, Y., Dunaway-Mariano, D., and Gong, W. (2006) Crystal structure of human thioesterase superfamily member 2, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 349, 172-177) we reported the apo crystal structure of hTHEM2. Herein, we report the results of an extensive hTHEM2 substrate screen, the structure determination of hTHEM2 complexed with the inert substrate analogue undecan-2-one-CoA (in which OC-CH(2)-S substitutes for OC-S) and the kinetic analysis of active site mutants. The work described in this paper represents the first reported structure-function based analysis of a human hotdog-fold thioesterase. The catalytic mechanism proposed involves the Asp65/Ser83 assisted attack of a water molecule at the Gly57/Asn50 polarized thioester CO and the Asn50 assisted departure of the thiolate leaving group. Thioesterase activity was observed with acyl-CoAs but not with the human acyl-ACP or with an acyl-Cys peptide. The medium-to-long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs displayed the smallest K(m) values. The substrate specificity profile was analyzed within the context of the liganded enzyme to define the structural determinants of substrate recognition. Based on the results of this structure-function analysis we hypothesize that the physiological role of hTHEM2 involves catalysis of the hydrolysis of cytosolic medium-to-long-chain acyl-CoA thioesters.
Project description:Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; EC 126.96.36.199] catalyzes the first reaction step in mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation. Here, the very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans (cVLCAD) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Interestingly, unlike other very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, cVLCAD was found to form a tetramer by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with in-line static light-scattering, refractive-index and ultraviolet measurements. Purified cVLCAD (12 mg ml(-1)) was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method under conditions containing 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 150 mM sodium chloride, 200 mM magnesium formate and 13% PEG 3350. The crystal has a tetragonal form and a complete diffraction data set was collected and processed to 1.8 A resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 138.6, b = 116.7, c = 115.3 A, alpha = gamma = 90.0, beta = 124.0 degrees . A self-rotation function indicated the existence of one noncrystallographic twofold axis. A preliminary molecular-replacement solution further confirmed the presence of two molecules in one asymmetric unit, which yields a Matthews coefficient V(M) of 2.76 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 55%.
Project description:Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2) is essential for cell proliferation of mammalian cells. It belongs to the hotdog-fold thioesterase superfamily and catalyzes the hydrolysis of the thioester bonds of acyl-CoA in vitro. In this study, THEM2 protein from zebrafish (fTHEM2) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. fTHEM2 crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 10?000 as precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.80?Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=77.1, b=74.4, c=96.6?Å, ?=93.7°.