Peptidergic influences on proliferation, migration, and placement of neural progenitors in the adult mouse forebrain.
ABSTRACT: Neural progenitor proliferation, differentiation, and migration are continually ongoing processes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the adult brain. There is evidence that peptidergic systems may be involved in the molecular cascades regulating these neurogenic processes, and we examined a possible influence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) systems in cell proliferation and neuroblast formation in the SVZ and RMS and generation of interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). We show that NPY and the Y1 and Y2 receptor (R) proteins are expressed in and surrounding the SVZ and RMS and that Y1R is located on neuroblasts in the anterior RMS. Mice deficient in Y1Rs or Y2Rs have fewer Ki-67-immunoreactive (ir) proliferating precursor cells and doublecortin-ir neuroblasts in the SVZ and RMS than WT mice, and less calbindin-, calretinin-, and tyrosine hydroxylase-ir interneurons in the OB. Mice lacking CCK1Rs have fewer proliferating cells and neuroblasts than normal and a shortage of interneurons in the OB. These findings suggest that both NPY and CCK through their receptors help to regulate the proliferation of precursor cells, the amount of neuroblast cells in the SVZ and RMS, and influence the differentiation of OB interneurons.
Project description:Neurogenesis in the adult brain is largely restricted to the subependymal zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate subgranular zone, and survival of adult-born cells in the OB is influenced by factors including sensory experience. We examined, in mice, whether survival of adult-born cells is also regulated by the rate of precursor proliferation in the SVZ. Precursor proliferation was decreased by depleting the SVZ of dopamine after lesioning dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra compacta with 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, we examined the effect of reduced SVZ proliferation on the generation, migration and survival of neuroblasts and mature adult-born cells in the SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS) and OB. Proliferating cells in the SVZ, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injected 2 hours prior to death or by immunoreactivity against Ki67, were reduced by 47% or 36%, respectively, 7 days after dopamine depletion, and by 29% or 31% 42 days after dopamine depletion, compared to sham-treated animals. Neuroblast generation in the SVZ and their migration along the RMS were not affected, neither 7 nor 42 days after the 6-hydroxydopamine injection, since the number of doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the SVZ and RMS, as well as the number of neuronal nuclei-immunoreactive cells in the OB, were stable compared to control. However, survival analysis 15 days after 6-hydroxydopamine and 6 days after BrdU injections showed that the number of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ was 70% higher. Also, 42 days after 6-hydroxydopamine and 30 days after BrdU injections, we found an 82% increase in co-labeled BrdU+/?-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive cell bodies in the granular cell layer, while double-labeled BrdU+/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies in the glomerular layer increased by 148%. We conclude that the number of OB interneurons following reduced SVZ proliferation is maintained through an increased survival of adult-born precursor cells, neuroblasts and interneurons.
Project description:After birth, stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). This migration is crucial for the proper integration of newborn neurons in a pre-existing synaptic network and is believed to play a key role in infant human brain development. Many regulators of neuroblast migration have been identified; however, still very little is known about the intracellular molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Here, we have investigated the function of drebrin, an actin-binding protein highly expressed in the RMS of the postnatal mammalian brain. Neuroblast migration was monitored both in culture and in brain slices obtained from electroporated mice by time-lapse spinning disk confocal microscopy. Depletion of drebrin using distinct RNAi approaches in early postnatal mice affects neuroblast morphology and impairs neuroblast migration and orientation in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of drebrin also impairs migration along the RMS and affects the distribution of neuroblasts at their final destination, the OB. Drebrin phosphorylation on Ser142 by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been recently shown to regulate F-actin-microtubule coupling in neuronal growth cones. We also investigated the functional significance of this phosphorylation in RMS neuroblasts using in vivo postnatal electroporation of phosphomimetic (S142D) or non-phosphorylatable (S142A) drebrin in the SVZ of mouse pups. Preventing or mimicking phosphorylation of S142 in vivo caused similar effects on neuroblast dynamics, leading to aberrant neuroblast branching. We conclude that drebrin is necessary for efficient migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts and propose that regulated phosphorylation of drebrin on S142 maintains leading process stability for polarized migration along the RMS, thus ensuring proper neurogenesis.
Project description:The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest source of newly generated cells in the adult mammalian brain. SVZ-derived neuroblasts migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB), where they differentiate into mature neurons. Additionally, a small proportion of SVZ-derived cells contribute to the generation of myelinating oligodendrocytes. The production of new cells in the SVZ decreases during aging, affecting the incorporation of new neurons into the OB. However, the age-related changes that occur across the RMS are not fully understood. In this study we evaluate how aging affects the cellular organization of migrating neuroblast chains, the proliferation, and the fate of the newly generated cells in the SVZ-OB system. By using electron microscopy and immunostaining, we found that the RMS path becomes discontinuous and its cytoarchitecture is disorganized in aged mice (24-month-old mice). Subsequently, OB neurogenesis was impaired in the aged brain while the production of oligodendrocytes was not compromised. These findings provide new insight into oligodendrocyte preservation throughout life. Further exploration of this matter could help the development of new strategies to prevent neurological disorders associated with senescence.
Project description:The rodent olfactory bulb (OB) contains two distinct populations of postnatally born interneurons, mainly granule cells (GCs), to support local circuits throughout life. During the early postnatal period (i.e., 2 weeks after birth), GCs are mostly produced locally from progenitor cells in the OB with a proportion of them deriving from proliferating cells in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Afterward, the replenishment of GCs involves differentiated neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) in a process known as adult neurogenesis. Although numerous studies have addressed the role of SVZ-born GCs in olfactory behaviors, the function of GCs produced early postnatally in the OB remains elusive. Our previous study demonstrated that the translational regulator, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 (CPEB4), is a survival factor exclusively for neonate-born but not SVZ/adult-derived GCs, so CPEB4-knockout (KO) mice provide unique leverage to study early postnatal-born GC-regulated olfactory functions. CPEB4-KO mice with hypoplastic OBs showed normal olfactory sensitivity and short-term memory, but impaired ability to spontaneously discriminate two odors. Such olfactory dysfunction was recapitulated in specific ablation of Cpeb4 gene in inhibitory interneurons but not in excitatory projection neurons or SVZ-derived interneurons. The continuous supply of GCs from adult neurogenesis eventually restored the OB size but not the discrimination function in 6-month-old KO mice. Hence, in the early postnatal OB, whose function cannot be replaced by adult-born GCs, construct critical circuits for odor discrimination.
Project description:From the subventricular zone (SVZ), neuronal precursor cells (NPCs), called neuroblasts, migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Ion channels regulate neuronal migration during development, yet their role in migration through the adult RMS is unknown. To address this question, we utilized Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP mice to fluorescently label neuroblasts in the adult. Patch-clamp recordings from neuroblasts reveal K(+) currents that are sensitive to intracellular Ca(2+) levels and blocked by clotrimazole and TRAM-34, inhibitors of intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa3.1) channels. Immunolabeling and electrophysiology show KCa3.1 expression restricted to neuroblasts in the SVZ and RMS, but absent in OB neurons. Time-lapse confocal microscopy in situ showed inhibiting KCa3.1 prolonged the stationary phase of neuroblasts' saltatory migration, reducing migration speed by over 50%. Both migration and KCa3.1 currents could also be inhibited by blocking Ca(2+) influx via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which, together with positive immunostaining for transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1), suggest that TRP channels are an important Ca(2+) source modulating KCa3.1 activity. Finally, injecting TRAM-34 into Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP mice significantly reduced the number of neuroblasts that reached the OB, suggesting an important role for KCa3.1 in vivo. These studies describe a previously unrecognized protein in migration of adult NPCs.
Project description:The adult brain subventricular zone (SVZ) produces neuroblasts that migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB) in a specialized niche. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) regulates proliferation and migration in cancer and is expressed by activated macrophages after brain injury. The function of Gal-3 in the normal brain is unknown, but we serendipitously found that it was expressed by ependymal cells and SVZ astrocytes in uninjured mice. Ependymal cilia establish chemotactic gradients and astrocytes form glial tubes, which combine to aid neuroblast migration. Whole-mount preparations and electron microscopy revealed that both ependymal cilia and SVZ astrocytes were disrupted in Gal3(-/-) mice. Interestingly, far fewer new BrdU(+) neurons were found in the OB of Gal3(-/-) mice, than in wild-type mice 2 weeks after labeling. However, SVZ proliferation and cell death, as well as OB differentiation rates were unaltered. This suggested that decreased migration in vivo was sufficient to decrease the number of new OB neurons. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy in forebrain slices confirmed decreased migration; cells were slower and more exploratory in Gal3(-/-) mice. Gal-3 blocking antibodies decreased migration and dissociated neuroblast cell-cell contacts, whereas recombinant Gal-3 increased migration from explants. Finally, we showed that expression of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was increased in Gal3(-/-) mice. These results suggest that Gal-3 is important in SVZ neuroblast migration, possibly through an EGFR-based mechanism, and reveals a role for this lectin in the uninjured brain.
Project description:Neuronal progenitors capable of long distance migration are produced throughout life in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Migration from the SVZ is carried out along a well-defined pathway called the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Our recent finding of the specific expression of the cytoskeleton linker protein radixin in neuroblasts suggests a functional role for radixin in RMS migration. The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins is capable of regulating migration through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins. The ERM proteins are differentially expressed in the RMS with radixin and moesin localized to neuroblasts, and ezrin expression confined to astrocytes of the glial tubes. Here, we inhibited radixin function using the quinocarmycin analog DX52-1 which resulted in reduced neuroblast migration in vitro, while glial migration remained unaltered. Furthermore, the morphology of neuroblasts was distorted resulting in a rounded shape with no or short polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule positive processes. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the radixin inhibitor resulted in accumulation of neuroblasts in the anterior SVZ. Neuroblast chains were short and intermittently interrupted in the SVZ and considerably disorganized in the RMS. Moreover, we studied the proliferation activity in the RMS after radixin inhibition, since concentrated radixin expression has been demonstrated in the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, which indicates a role of radixin in cell division. Radixin inhibition decreased neuroblast proliferation, whereas the proliferation of other cells in the RMS was not affected. Our results demonstrate a significant role for radixin in neuroblast proliferation and migration.
Project description:The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We here report that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) deficient mice have reduced complexity of the nasal turbinates, decreased sensory innervation of the OB, reduced numbers of olfactory glomeruli and reduced OB-size without alterations in SVZ neurogenesis. Large parts of the RMS were fully preserved in MT1-MMP-deficient mice, but we detected an increase in cell death-levels and a decrease in SVZ-derived neuroblasts in the distal RMS, as compared to controls. BrdU-tracking experiments showed that homing of NPCs specifically to the glomerular layer was reduced in MT1-MMP-deficient mice in contrast to controls while numbers of tracked cells remained equal in other OB-layers throughout all experimental groups. Altogether, our data show the demand for olfactory interneurons in the glomerular layer modulates cell turnover in the RMS, but has no impact on subventricular neurogenesis.
Project description:From an early postnatal period and throughout life there is a continuous production of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons originating from neuronal precursors in the subventricular zone. To reach the OB circuits, immature neuroblasts migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). In the present study, we employed cultured postnatal mouse forebrain slices and used lentiviral vectors to label neuronal precursors with GFP and to manipulate the expression levels of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1. We investigated the role of this Cl- transporter in different stages of postnatal neurogenesis, including neuroblast migration and integration in the OB networks once they have reached the granule cell layer (GCL). We report that NKCC1 activity is necessary for maintaining normal migratory speed. Both pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that NKCC1 maintains high [Cl-]i and regulates the resting membrane potential of migratory neuroblasts whilst its functional expression is strongly reduced at the time cells reach the GCL. As in other developing systems, NKCC1 shapes GABAA-dependent signaling in the RMS neuroblasts. Also, we show that NKCC1 controls the migration of neuroblasts in the RMS. The present study indeed indicates that the latter effect results from a novel action of NKCC1 on the resting membrane potential, which is independent of GABAA-dependent signaling. All in all, our findings show that early stages of the postnatal recruitment of OB interneurons rely on precise, orchestrated mechanisms that depend on multiple actions of NKCC1.
Project description:Neuronal precursors generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB). Although, the mechanisms regulating this migration remain largely unknown. Studies have shown that molecular factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) emanating from the OB, may function as chemoattractants drawing neuroblasts toward their target. To better understand the role of BDNF in RMS migration, we used an acute slice preparation from early postnatal mice to track the tangential migration of GAD65-GFP labeled RMS neuroblasts with confocal time-lapse imaging. By quantifying the cell dynamics using specific directional and motility criteria, our results showed that removal of the OB did not alter the overall directional trajectory of neuroblasts, but did reduce their motility. This suggested that additional guidance factors present locally within the RMS region also contribute to this migration. Here we report that BDNF and its high affinity receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (TrkB), are indeed heterogeneously expressed within the RMS at postnatal day 7. By altering BDNF levels within the entire pathway, we showed that reduced BDNF signaling changes both neuroblast motility and direction, while increased BDNF levels changes only motility. Together these data reveal that during this early postnatal period BDNF plays a complex role in regulating both the motility and direction of RMS flow, and that BDNF comes from sources within the RMS itself, as well as from the olfactory bulb.