SM-protein-controlled ER-associated degradation discriminates between different SNAREs.
ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a specialized activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that is involved in clearing the ER of aberrant proteins and regulating the levels of specific ER-resident proteins. Here we show that the yeast ER-SNARE Ufe1, a syntaxin (Qa-SNARE) involved in ER membrane fusion and retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER, is prone to degradation by an ERAD-like mechanism. Notably, Ufe1 is protected against degradation through binding to Sly1, a known SNARE regulator of the Sec1-Munc18 (SM) protein family. This mechanism is specific for Ufe1, as the stability of another Sly1 partner, the Golgi Qa-SNARE Sed5, is not influenced by Sly1 interaction. Thus, our findings identify Sly1 as a discriminating regulator of SNARE levels and indicate that Sly1-controlled ERAD might regulate the balance between different Qa-SNARE proteins.
Project description:Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins constitute the core of an ancient vesicle fusion machine that diversified into distinct sets that now function in different trafficking steps in eukaryotic cells. Deciphering their precise mode of action has proved challenging. SM proteins are thought to act primarily through one type of SNARE protein, the syntaxins. Despite high structural similarity, however, contrasting binding modes have been found for different SM proteins and syntaxins. Whereas the secretory SM protein Munc18 binds to the ?closed conformation" of syntaxin 1, the ER-Golgi SM protein Sly1 interacts only with the N-peptide of Sed5. Recent findings, however, indicate that SM proteins might interact simultaneously with both syntaxin regions. In search for a common mechanism, we now reinvestigated the Sly1/Sed5 interaction. We found that individual Sed5 adopts a tight closed conformation. Sly1 binds to both the closed conformation and the N-peptide of Sed5, suggesting that this is the original binding mode of SM proteins and syntaxins. In contrast to Munc18, however, Sly1 facilitates SNARE complex formation by loosening the closed conformation of Sed5.
Project description:Extended coiled-coil proteins of the Golgin family play prominent roles in maintaining the structure and function of the Golgi complex. Here we further investigate the Golgin protein Coy1 and document its function in retrograde transport between early Golgi compartments. Cells that lack Coy1 displayed a reduced half-life of the Och1 mannosyltransferase, an established cargo of intra-Golgi retrograde transport. Combining the coy1? mutation with deletions in other putative retrograde Golgins (sgm1? and rud3?) caused strong glycosylation and growth defects and reduced membrane association of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex. In contrast, overexpression of COY1 inhibited the growth of mutant strains deficient in fusion activity at the Golgi (sed5-1 and sly1-ts). To map Coy1 protein interactions, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an association with the Conserved Oliogmeric Golgi (COG) complex and with intra-Golgi SNARE proteins. These physical interactions are direct, as Coy1 was efficiently captured in vitro by Lobe A of the COG complex and the purified SNARE proteins Gos1, Sed5 and Sft1. Thus, our genetic, in vivo, and biochemical data indicate a role for Coy1 in regulating COG complex-dependent fusion of retrograde-directed COPI vesicles.
Project description:The crucial roles of Sec1/Munc18 (SM)-like proteins in membrane fusion have been evidenced in genetic and biochemical studies. SM proteins interact directly with SNAREs and contribute to SNARE pairing by a yet unclear mechanism. Here, we show that the SM protein, Sly1, interacts directly with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) tethering complex. The Sly1-COG interaction is mediated by the Cog4 subunit, which also interacts with Syntaxin 5 through a different binding site. We provide evidence that disruption of Cog4-Sly1 interaction impairs pairing of SNAREs involved in intra-Golgi transport thereby markedly attenuating Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. These results highlight the mechanism by which SM proteins link tethering to SNAREpin assembly.
Project description:Trans-QabcR-SNARE pairing on opposing membranes is crucial for eukaryotic membrane fusion, but how selective pairs of Qabc- and R-SNARE proteins regulate membrane fusion specificity remains elusive. Here, we studied 14 purified full-length SNAREs that function in yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi, intra-Golgi, endosomal, and vacuolar transport by comprehensively testing cis-QabcR-SNARE assembly and fusogenicity of reconstituted SNARE proteoliposomes. Strikingly, the cognate ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi SNARE-complex assemblies were highly stringent, whereas endosomal and vacuolar SNAREs assembled rather promiscuously into the non-cognate mixed complexes. However, these patterns of cis-SNARE assemblies cannot solely explain their potency to be fusogenic via trans-SNARE pairing: Only the vacuolar 3Q-SNARE combination is fusogenic in the absence of additional components; endosomal SNARE-dependent fusogenicity requires membrane-tethering factors; and ER-Golgi SNAREs can be fusogenic by synergistic actions of tethering factors and the cognate Sec1/Munc18-family protein Sly1p. Thus, our findings uncover multiple and distinct strategies of SNAREs to directly mediate fusion specificity.
Project description:Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are essential for membrane fusion in transport between the yeast ER and Golgi compartments. Subcellular fractionation experiments demonstrate that the ER/Golgi SNAREs Bos1p, Sec22p, Bet1p, Sed5p, and the Rab protein, Ypt1p, are distributed similarly but localize primarily with Golgi membranes. All of these SNARE proteins are efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and suggest a dynamic cycling of SNARE machinery between ER and Golgi compartments. Ypt1p is not efficiently packaged into vesicles under these conditions. To determine in which membranes protein function is required, temperature-sensitive alleles of BOS1, BET1, SED5, SLY1, and YPT1 that prevent ER/Golgi transport in vitro at restrictive temperatures were used to selectively inactivate these gene products on vesicles or on Golgi membranes. Vesicles bearing mutations in Bet1p or Bos1p inhibit fusion with wild-type acceptor membranes, but acceptor membranes containing these mutations are fully functional. In contrast, vesicles bearing mutations in Sed5p, Sly1p, or Ypt1p are functional, whereas acceptor membranes containing these mutations block fusion. Thus, this set of SNARE proteins is symmetrically distributed between vesicle and acceptor compartments, but they function asymmetrically such that Bet1p and Bos1p are required on vesicles and Sed5p activity is required on acceptor membranes. We propose the asymmetry in SNARE protein function is maintained by an asymmetric distribution and requirement for the Ypt1p GTPase in this fusion event. When a transmembrane-anchored form of Ypt1p is used to restrict this GTPase to the acceptor compartment, vesicles depleted of Ypt1p remain competent for fusion.
Project description:Autophagy is a degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells in which aging proteins and organelles are sequestered into double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, which fuse with vacuoles to hydrolyze cargo. The key step in autophagy is the formation of autophagosomes, which requires different kinds of vesicles, including COPII vesicles and Atg9-containing vesicles, to transport lipid double-membranes to the phagophore assembly site (PAS). In yeast, the cis-Golgi localized t-SNARE protein Sed5 plays a role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi and intra-Golgi vesicular transport. We report that during autophagy, sed5-1 mutant cells could not properly transport Atg8 to the PAS, resulting in multiple Atg8 dots being dispersed into the cytoplasm. Some dots were trapped in the Golgi apparatus. Sed5 regulates the antero-grade trafficking of Atg9-containing vesicles to the PAS by participating in the localization of Atg23 and Atg27 to the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of SFT1 or SFT2 (suppressor of sed5 ts) rescued the autophagy defects in sed5-1 mutant cells. Our data suggest that Sed5 plays a novel role in autophagy, by regulating the formation of Atg9-containing vesicles in the Golgi apparatus, and the genetic interaction between Sft1/2 and Sed5 is essential for autophagy.
Project description:Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins contribute to membrane fusion by interacting with Qa-SNAREs or nascent trans-SNARE complexes. Gymnosperms and the basal angiosperm Amborella have only a single SEC1 gene related to the KEULE gene in Arabidopsis However, the genomes of most angiosperms including Arabidopsis encode three SEC1-related SM proteins of which only KEULE has been functionally characterized as interacting with the cytokinesis-specific Qa-SNARE KNOLLE during cell-plate formation. Here we analyze the closest paralog of KEULE named SEC1B. In contrast to the cytokinesis defects of keule mutants, sec1b mutants are homozygous viable. However, the keule sec1b double mutant was nearly gametophytically lethal, displaying collapsed pollen grains, which suggests substantial overlap between SEC1B and KEULE functions in secretion-dependent growth. SEC1B had a strong preference for interaction with the evolutionarily ancient Qa-SNARE SYP132 involved in secretion and cytokinesis, whereas KEULE interacted with both KNOLLE and SYP132. This differential interaction with Qa-SNAREs is likely conferred by domains 1 and 2a of the two SM proteins. Comparative analysis of all four possible combinations of the relevant SEC1 Qa-SNARE double mutants revealed that in cytokinesis, the interaction of SEC1B with KNOLLE plays no role, whereas the interaction of KEULE with KNOLLE is prevalent and functionally as important as the interactions of both SEC1B and KEU with SYP132 together. Our results suggest that functional diversification of the two SEC1-related SM proteins during angiosperm evolution resulted in enhanced interaction of SEC1B with Qa-SNARE SYP132, and thus a predominant role of SEC1B in secretion.
Project description:SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (. Genetics. 142:393-406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE-associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex.
Project description:The human Batten disease gene CLN3 and yeast orthologue BTN1 encode proteins of unclear function. We show that the loss of BTN1 phenocopies that of BTN2, which encodes a retromer accessory protein involved in the retrieval of specific cargo from late endosomes (LEs) to the Golgi. However, Btn1 localizes to Golgi and regulates soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) function to control retrograde transport. Specifically, BTN1 overexpression and deletion have opposing effects on phosphorylation of the Sed5 target membrane SNARE, on Golgi SNARE assembly, and on Golgi integrity. Although Btn1 does not interact physically with SNAREs, it regulates Sed5 phosphorylation by modulating Yck3, a palmitoylated endosomal kinase. This may involve modification of the Yck3 lipid anchor, as substitution with a transmembrane domain suppresses the deletion of BTN1 and restores trafficking. Correspondingly, deletion of YCK3 mimics that of BTN1 or BTN2 with respect to LE-Golgi retrieval. Thus, Btn1 controls retrograde sorting by regulating SNARE phosphorylation and assembly, a process that may be adversely affected in Batten Disease patients.
Project description:It is generally accepted that ER protein export is largely influenced by the transmembrane domain (TMD). The situation is unclear for membrane-anchored proteins such as SNAREs, which are anchored to the membrane by their TMD at the C-terminus. For example, in plants, Sec22 and SYP31 (a yeast Sed5 homologue) have a 17 aa TMD but different locations (ER/Golgi and Golgi), indicating that TMD length alone is not sufficient to explain their targeting. To establish the identity of factors that influence SNARE targeting, mutagenesis and live cell imaging experiments were performed on SYP31. It was found that deletion of the entire N-terminus domain of SYP31 blocked the protein in the ER. Several deletion mutants of different parts of this N-terminus domain indicated that a region between the SNARE helices Hb and Hc is required for Golgi targeting. In this region, replacement of the aa sequence MELAD by GAGAG or MALAG retained the protein in the ER, suggesting that MELAD may function as a di-acidic ER export motif EXXD. This suggestion was further verified by replacing the established di-acidic ER export motif DLE of a type II Golgi protein AtCASP and a membrane-anchored type I chimaera, TMcCCASP, by MELAD or GAGAG. The MELAD motif allowed the proteins to reach the Golgi, whereas the motif GAGAG was found to be insufficient to facilitate ER protein export. Our analyses indicate that we have identified a novel and transplantable di-acidic motif that facilitates ER export of SYP31 and may function for type I and type II proteins in plants.