The proteasome maturation protein POMP facilitates major steps of 20S proteasome formation at the endoplasmic reticulum.
ABSTRACT: The quality control of proteins mediated by the plasticity of the proteasome system is regulated by the timely and flexible formation of this multisubunit proteolytic enzyme complex. Adaptable biogenesis of the 20S proteasome core complex is therefore of vital importance for adjusting to changing proteolytic requirements. However, the molecular mechanism and the cellular sites of mammalian proteasome formation are still unresolved. By using precursor complex-specific antibodies, we now show that the main steps in 20S core complex formation take place at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Thereby, the proteasome maturation protein (POMP)--an essential factor of mammalian proteasome biogenesis--interacts with ER membranes, binds to alpha1-7 rings, recruits beta-subunits stepwise and mediates the association of mammalian precursor complexes with the ER. Thus, POMP facilitates the main steps in 20S core complex formation at the ER to coordinate the assembly process and to provide cells with freshly formed proteasomes at their site of function.
Project description:Proteasomes are essential protease complexes that maintain cellular homeostasis, and aberrant proteasomal activity supports cancer development. The regulatory mechanisms and biological function of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome have been studied extensively, while those of the ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome system remain obscure. Here, we show that the cap 'n' collar (CNC) family transcription factor NRF3 specifically enhances 20S proteasome assembly in cancer cells and that 20S proteasomes contribute to colorectal cancer development through ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of the tumor suppressor p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) proteins. The NRF3 gene is highly expressed in many cancer tissues and cell lines and is important for cancer cell growth. In cancer cells, NRF3 upregulates the assembly of the 20S proteasome by directly inducing the gene expression of the 20S proteasome maturation protein POMP. Interestingly, NRF3 knockdown not only increases p53 and Rb protein levels but also increases p53 activities for tumor suppression, including cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, protein stability and cell viability assays using two distinct proteasome inhibitor anticancer drugs, the 20S proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 inhibitor TAK-243, show that the upregulation of the NRF3-POMP axis leads to ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of p53 and Rb and to impaired sensitivity to bortezomib but not TAK-243. More importantly, the NRF3-POMP axis supports tumorigenesis and metastasis, with higher NRF3/POMP expression levels correlating with poor prognoses in patients with colorectal or rectal adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that the NRF3-POMP-20S proteasome assembly axis is significant for cancer development via ubiquitin-independent proteolysis of tumor suppressor proteins.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is a large protein complex, responsible for degradation of ubiquinated proteins in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic proteasome formation is a highly ordered process that is assisted by several assembly chaperones. The assembly of its catalytic 20S core particle depends on at least five proteasome-specific chaperones, i.e., proteasome-assembling chaperons 1-4 (PAC1-4) and proteasome maturation protein (POMP). The orthologues of yeast assembly chaperones have been structurally characterized, whereas most mammalian assembly chaperones are not. In the present study, we determined a crystal structure of human PAC4 at 1.90-Å resolution. Our crystallographic data identify a hydrophobic surface that is surrounded by charged residues. The hydrophobic surface is complementary to that of its binding partner, PAC3. The surface also exhibits charge complementarity with the proteasomal ?4-5 subunits. This will provide insights into human proteasome-assembling chaperones as potential anticancer drug targets.
Project description:Keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenita and keratoderma (KLICK) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder associated with a single-nucleotide deletion in the 5'untranslated region of the proteasome maturation protein (POMP) gene. The deletion causes a relative switch in transcription start sites for POMP, predicted to decrease levels of POMP protein in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. To investigate the pathophysiology behind KLICK we created an in vitro model of the disease using siRNA silencing of POMP in epidermal air-liquid cultures. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue constructs revealed aberrant staining of POMP, proteasome subunits and the skin differentiation marker filaggrin when compared to control tissue constructs. The staining patterns of POMP siRNA tissue constructs showed strong resemblance to those observed in skin biopsies from KLICK patients. Western blot analysis of lysates from the organotypic tissue constructs revealed an aberrant processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin in samples transfected with siRNA against POMP. Knock-down of POMP expression in regular cell cultures resulted in decreased amounts of proteasome subunits. Prolonged silencing of POMP in cultured cells induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression consistent with an activation of the unfolded protein response and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The combined results indicate that KLICK is caused by reduced levels of POMP, leading to proteasome insufficiency in differentiating keratinocytes. Proteasome insufficiency disturbs terminal epidermal differentiation, presumably by increased ER stress, and leads to perturbed processing of profilaggrin. Our findings underline a critical role for the proteasome in human epidermal differentiation.
Project description:KLICK syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive skin disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, linear hyperkeratotic papules, and ichthyosiform scaling. In order to establish the genetic cause of this disorder, we collected DNA samples from eight European probands. Using high-density genome-wide SNP analysis, we identified a 1.5 Mb homozygous candidate region on chromosome 13q. Sequence analysis of the ten annotated genes in the candidate region revealed homozygosity for a single-nucleotide deletion at position c.-95 in the proteasome maturation protein (POMP) gene, in all probands. The deletion is included in POMP transcript variants with long 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) and was associated with a marked increase of these transcript variants in keratinocytes from KLICK patients. POMP is a ubiquitously expressed protein and functions as a chaperone for proteasome maturation. Immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies from KLICK patients revealed an altered epidermal distribution of POMP, the proteasome subunit proteins alpha 7 and beta 5, and the ER stress marker CHOP. Our results suggest that KLICK syndrome is caused by a single-nucleotide deletion in the 5' UTR of POMP resulting in altered distribution of POMP in epidermis and a perturbed formation of the outermost layers of the skin. These findings imply that the proteasome has a prominent role in the terminal differentiation of human epidermis.
Project description:Keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenita and sclerosing keratoderma (KLICK) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, linear hyperkeratotic plaques, ichthyosiform scaling, circular constrictions around the fingers, and numerous papules distributed linearly in the arm folds and on the wrists. Histologically, the affected skin shows hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the spinous, granular, and horny epidermal layers with mild infiltration of inflammatory cells in the upper dermis. There are 14 patients with KLICK syndrome described in the literature, and they all carry the same nucleotide deletion. Proteasome maturation protein (POMP), encoded by POMP, is an ubiquitously expressed protein that functions as a chaperone for proteasome maturation. KLICK syndrome is caused by a reduction in POMP levels that leads to proteasome insufficiency in differentiating keratinocytes. It is noteworthy that POMP is also known to be the causative gene for proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome-2 (PRAAS2). It is considered that the disrupted proteasome assembly caused by the POMP mutation might lead to both skin inflammation and then hyperkeratosis in KLICK syndrome. Inflammation caused by the hyperactivation of innate immunity occasionally leads to inflammatory diseases of the skin, recently denoted as autoinflammatory keratinization diseases (AiKDs). We propose that KLICK syndrome caused by the specific 1-bp nucleotide deletion mutation in the regulatory region of POMP might be in a spectrum of proteasome-associated phenotypes.
Project description:The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE). Proteasome maturation protein (POMP) is a chaperone for proteasome assembly and is critical for the incorporation of catalytic subunits into the proteasome. Here, we characterize and describe POMP-related autoinflammation and immune dysregulation disease (PRAID) discovered in two unrelated individuals with a unique constellation of early-onset combined immunodeficiency, inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis, and autoimmunity. We also begin to delineate a complex genetic mechanism whereby de novo heterozygous frameshift variants in the penultimate exon of POMP escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and result in a truncated protein that perturbs proteasome assembly by a dominant-negative mechanism. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported in any primary immunodeficiencies, autoinflammatory syndromes, or autoimmune diseases. Here, we define a unique hypo- and hyper-immune phenotype and report an immune dysregulation syndrome caused by frameshift mutations that escape NMD.
Project description:The 26S proteasome, a central enzyme for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, is a highly complex structure comprising 33 distinct subunits. Recent studies have revealed multiple dedicated chaperones involved in proteasome assembly both in yeast and in mammals. However, none of these chaperones is essential for yeast viability. PAC1 is a mammalian proteasome assembly chaperone that plays a role in the initial assembly of the 20S proteasome, the catalytic core of the 26S proteasome, but does not cause a complete loss of the 20S proteasome when knocked down. Thus, both chaperone-dependent and -independent assembly pathways exist in cells, but the contribution of the chaperone-dependent pathway remains unclear. To elucidate its biological significance in mammals, we generated PAC1 conditional knockout mice. PAC1-null mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PAC1 is essential for mammalian development, especially for explosive cell proliferation. In quiescent adult hepatocytes, PAC1 is responsible for producing the majority of the 20S proteasome. PAC1-deficient hepatocytes contained normal amounts of the 26S proteasome, but they completely lost the free latent 20S proteasome. They also accumulated ubiquitinated proteins and exhibited premature senescence. Our results demonstrate the importance of the PAC1-dependent assembly pathway and of the latent 20S proteasomes for maintaining cellular integrity.
Project description:The eukaryotic 26S proteasome is a large multisubunit complex that degrades the majority of proteins in the cell under normal conditions. The 26S proteasome can be divided into two subcomplexes: the 19S regulatory particle and the 20S core particle. Most substrates are first covalently modified by ubiquitin, which then directs them to the proteasome. The function of the regulatory particle is to recognize, unfold, deubiquitylate, and translocate substrates into the core particle, which contains the proteolytic sites of the proteasome. Given the abundance and subunit complexity of the proteasome, the assembly of this ~2.5MDa complex must be carefully orchestrated to ensure its correct formation. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the understanding of proteasome assembly, structure, and function. Technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy have resulted in a series of atomic cryo-electron microscopy structures of both human and yeast 26S proteasomes. These structures have illuminated new intricacies and dynamics of the proteasome. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of proteasome assembly, particularly in light of recent structural information.
Project description:The central protease of eukaryotes, the 26S proteasome, has a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) and an attached 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP is further subdivided into lid and base subcomplexes. Little is known about RP assembly. Here, we show that four conserved assembly factors govern biogenesis of the yeast RP base. Nas2 forms a complex with the Rpt4 and Rpt5 ATPases and enhances 26S proteasome formation in vivo and in vitro. Other RP subcomplexes contain Hsm3, which is related to mammalian proteasome subunit S5b. Hsm3 also contributes to base assembly. Larger Hsm3-containing complexes include two additional proteins, Nas6 and Rpn14, which function as assembly chaperones as well. Specific deletion combinations affecting these four factors cause severe perturbations to RP assembly. Our results demonstrate that proteasomal RP biogenesis requires multiple, functionally overlapping chaperones and suggest a model in which subunits form specific subcomplexes that then assemble into the base.
Project description:The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we used biochemical and mass spectrometric methods to investigate structural changes in the 26S proteasomes from yeast and mammalian cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Oxidative stress induced the dissociation of the 20S core particle from the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome, which resulted in loss of the activities of the 26S proteasome and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. H?O? triggered the increased association of the proteasome-interacting protein Ecm29 with the purified 19S particle. Deletion of ECM29 in yeast cells prevented the disassembly of the 26S proteasome in response to oxidative stress, and ecm29 mutants were more sensitive to H?O? than were wild-type cells, suggesting that separation of the 19S and 20S particles is important for cellular recovery from oxidative stress. The increased amount of free 20S core particles was required to degrade oxidized proteins. The Ecm29-dependent dissociation of the proteasome was independent of Yap1, a transcription factor that is critical for the oxidative stress response in yeast, and thus functions as a parallel defense pathway against H?O?-induced stress.