Obesity-related hypoferremia is not explained by differences in reported intake of heme and nonheme iron or intake of dietary factors that can affect iron absorption.
ABSTRACT: Hypoferremia is more prevalent in obese than nonobese adults, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. To elucidate the role dietary factors play in obesity-related hypoferremia, the intake of heme and nonheme iron and the intake of other dietary factors known to affect iron absorption were compared cross-sectionally from April 2002 to December 2003 in a convenience sample of 207 obese and 177 nonobese adults. Subjects completed 7-day food records, underwent phlebotomy for serum iron measurement, and had body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, during a 21-month period. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Serum iron (mean+/-standard deviation) was significantly lower in obese than nonobese individuals (72.0+/-61.7 vs 85.3+/-58.1 microg/dL [12.888+/-11.0443 vs 15.2687+/-10.3999 micromol/L]; P<0.001). The obese cohort reported consuming more animal protein (63.6+/-34.5 vs 55.7+/-32.5 g/day; P<0.001) and more heme iron (3.6+/-2.8 vs 2.7+/-2.6 mg/day; P<0.001). Groups did not differ, however, in total daily iron consumption, including supplements. Obese subjects reported consuming less vitamin C (77.2+/-94.9 vs 91.8+/-89.5 mg/day; P=0.01), which may increase absorption of nonheme iron, and less calcium (766.2+/-665.0 vs 849.0+/-627.2 mg/day; P=0.038), which may decrease nonheme iron absorption, than nonobese subjects. Groups did not significantly differ in intake of other dietary factors that can impact absorption of iron, including phytic acid, oxalic acid, eggs, coffee, tea, zinc, vegetable protein, or copper. After accounting for demographic covariates and dietary factors expected to affect iron absorption, fat mass (P=0.007) remained a statistically significant negative predictor of serum iron. This cross-sectional, exploratory study suggests that obesity-related hypoferremia is not associated with differences in reported intake of heme and nonheme iron or intake of dietary factors that can affect iron absorption.
Project description:Dietary heme contributes to iron intake, yet regulation of heme absorption and tissue utilization of absorbed heme remains undefined.In a rat model of iron overload, we used stable iron isotopes to examine heme- and nonheme-iron absorption in relation to liver hepcidin and to compare relative utilization of absorbed heme and nonheme iron by erythroid (RBC) and iron storage tissues (liver and spleen).Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups for injections of either saline or iron dextran (16 or 48 mg Fe over 2 wk). After iron loading, rats were administered oral stable iron in the forms of (57)Fe-ferrous sulfate and (58)Fe-labeled hemoglobin. Expression of liver hepcidin and duodenal iron transporters and tissue stable iron enrichment was determined 10 d postdosing.High iron loading increased hepatic hepcidin by 3-fold and reduced duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) by 76%. Nonheme-iron absorption was 2.5 times higher than heme-iron absorption (P = 0.0008). Absorption of both forms of iron was inversely correlated with hepatic hepcidin expression (heme-iron absorption: r = -0.77, P = 0.003; nonheme-iron absorption: r = -0.80, P = 0.002), but hepcidin had a stronger impact on nonheme-iron absorption (P = 0.04). Significantly more (57)Fe was recovered in RBCs (P = 0.02), and more (58)Fe was recovered in the spleen (P = 0.01).Elevated hepcidin significantly decreased heme- and nonheme-iron absorption but had a greater impact on nonheme-iron absorption. Differential tissue utilization of heme vs. nonheme iron was evident between erythroid and iron storage tissues, suggesting that some heme may be exported into the circulation in a form different from that of nonheme iron.
Project description:Obesity is associated with hypoferremia, but it is unclear if this condition is caused by insufficient iron stores or diminished iron availability related to inflammation-induced iron sequestration.To examine the relationships between obesity, serum iron, measures of iron intake, iron stores and inflammation. We hypothesized that both inflammation-induced sequestration of iron and true iron deficiency were involved in the hypoferremia of obesity.Cross-sectional analysis of factors anticipated to affect serum iron.Outpatient clinic visits.Convenience sample of 234 obese and 172 non-obese adults.Relationships between serum iron, adiposity, and serum transferrin receptor, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and iron intake analyzed by analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression.Serum iron was lower (75.8+/-35.2 vs 86.5+/-34.2 g/dl, P=0.002), whereas transferrin receptor (22.6+/-7.1 vs 21.0+/-7.2 nmol/l, P=0.026), C-reactive protein (0.75+/-0.67 vs 0.34+/-0.67 mg/dl, P<0.0001) and ferritin (81.1+/-88.8 vs 57.6+/-88.7 microg/l, P=0.009) were higher in obese than non-obese subjects. Obese subjects had a higher prevalence of iron deficiency defined by serum iron (24.3%, confidence intervals (CI) 19.3-30.2 vs 15.7%, CI 11.0-21.9%, P=0.03) and transferrin receptor (26.9%, CI 21.6-33.0 vs 15.7%, CI 11.0-21.9%, P=0.0078) but not by ferritin (9.8%, CI 6.6-14.4 vs 9.3%, CI 5.7-14.7%, P=0.99). Transferrin receptor, ferritin and C-reactive protein contributed independently as predictors of serum iron.The hypoferremia of obesity appears to be explained both by true iron deficiency and by inflammatory-mediated functional iron deficiency.
Project description:Heme iron absorption during pregnancy and the role of hepcidin in regulating dietary heme iron absorption remains largely unexplored. The objective of this research was to examine relative differences in heme (animal based) and nonheme (ferrous sulfate) iron utilization. This study was undertaken in 18 pregnant (ages 16-32 y; wk 32-35 of gestation) and 11 nonpregnant women (ages 18-27 y). Women were randomly assigned to receive both an animal-based heme meal (intrinsically labeled (58)Fe pork) and labeled ferrous sulfate ((57)Fe) fed on alternate days. Blood samples obtained 2 wk postdosing were used to assess iron status indicators and serum hepcidin and iron utilization based on RBC incorporation of iron isotopes. Heme iron utilization was significantly greater than nonheme iron utilization in the pregnant (47.7 ± 14.4 vs. 40.4 ± 13.2%) and nonpregnant women (50.1 ± 14.8 vs. 15.3 ± 9.7%). Among pregnant women, utilization of nonheme iron was associated with iron status, as assessed by the serum transferrin receptor concentration (P = 0.003; r(2) = 0.43). In contrast, heme iron utilization was not influenced by maternal iron status. In the group as a whole, women with undetectable serum hepcidin had greater nonheme iron utilization compared with women with detectable serum hepcidin (P = 0.02; n = 29); however, there were no significant differences in heme iron utilization. Our study suggests that iron utilization from an animal-based food provides a highly bioavailable source of dietary iron for pregnant and nonpregnant women that is not as sensitive to hepcidin concentrations or iron stores compared with ferrous sulfate.
Project description:Background: Values for dietary iron bioavailability are required for setting dietary reference values. These are estimated from predictive algorithms, nonheme iron absorption from meals, and models of iron intake, serum ferritin concentration, and iron requirements.Objective: We developed a new interactive tool to predict dietary iron bioavailability.Design: Iron intake and serum ferritin, a quantitative marker of body iron stores, from 2 nationally representative studies of adults in the United Kingdom and Ireland and a trial in elderly people in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were used to develop a model to predict dietary iron absorption at different serum ferritin concentrations. Individuals who had raised inflammatory markers or were taking iron-containing supplements were excluded.Results: Mean iron intakes were 13.6, 10.3, and 10.9 mg/d and mean serum ferritin concentrations were 140.7, 49.4, and 96.7 mg/L in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The model predicted that at serum ferritin concentrations of 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, mean dietary iron absorption would be 22.3%, 16.3%, and 11.6%, respectively, in men; 27.2%, 17.2%, and 10.6%, respectively, in premenopausal women; and 18.4%, 12.7%, and 10.5%, respectively, in postmenopausal women.Conclusions: An interactive program for calculating dietary iron absorption at any concentration of serum ferritin is presented. Differences in iron status are partly explained by age but also by diet, with meat being a key determinant. The effect of the diet is more marked at lower serum ferritin concentrations. The model can be applied to any adult population in whom representative, good-quality data on iron intake and iron status have been collected. Values for dietary iron bioavailability can be derived for any target concentration of serum ferritin, thereby giving risk managers and public health professionals a flexible and transparent basis on which to base their dietary recommendations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infertility is an important public health problem with few known modifiable risk factors. Dietary factors including folic acid have been associated with improved fertility, but the association between iron and fertility is understudied. One study among US nurses found a 40% lower risk of ovulatory infertility with higher intake of nonheme iron and iron supplements. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which iron intake from diet and supplements reported on structured questionnaires is associated with fecundability. METHODS:We conducted parallel analyses that used data from 2 prospective cohort studies of pregnancy planners from Denmark (Snart Foraeldre; n = 1693) and North America (PRESTO; n = 2969) during 2013-2018. Follow-up comprised menstrual cycles at risk until pregnancy or censoring for fertility treatment, stopped trying to conceive, withdrawal, loss to follow-up, or 12 cycles of attempt. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS:We found little association between dietary heme iron intake and fecundability in either cohort. The FR for nonheme iron intake (?11 mg/d compared with <9 mg/day) was 1.11 for Snart Foraeldre participants (95% CI: 0.92, 1.34) and 1.01 for PRESTO participants (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14). The FR for iron-containing supplements was 1.01 in Snart Foraeldre (95% CI: 0.90, 1.13) and 1.19 in PRESTO (95% CI: 1.03, 1.38). In PRESTO, but not Snart Foraeldre, stronger positive associations were found for nonheme iron intake and iron supplement use among women with heavy menses or short menstrual cycles. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, dietary intake of iron was not consistently associated with fecundability, although there was some evidence for a positive association among women with risk factors for iron deficiency. We also found a small positive association between supplemental iron intake and fecundability among North American, but not Danish, pregnancy planners.
Project description:Background:Iron deficiency is an enduring global health problem that requires new remedial approaches. Iron absorption from soybean-derived ferritin, an ?550-kDa iron storage protein, is comparable to bioavailable ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). However, the absorption of ferritin is reported to involve an endocytic mechanism, independent of divalent metal ion transporter 1 (DMT-1), the transporter for nonheme iron. Objective:Our overall aim was to examine the potential of purified ferritin from peas (Pisum sativum) as a food supplement by measuring its stability under gastric pH treatment and the mechanisms of iron uptake into Caco-2 cells. Methods:Caco-2 cells were treated with native or gastric pH-treated pea ferritin in combination with dietary modulators of nonheme iron uptake, small interfering RNA targeting DMT-1, or chemical inhibitors of endocytosis. Cellular ferritin formation, a surrogate measure of iron uptake, and internalization of pea ferritin with the use of specific antibodies were measured. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to equimolar concentrations of native pea ferritin and FeSO4 was also compared. Results:Pea ferritin exposed to gastric pH treatment was degraded, and the released iron was transported into Caco-2 cells by DMT-1. Inhibitors of DMT-1 and nonheme iron absorption reduced iron uptake by 26-40%. Conversely, in the absence of gastric pH treatment, the iron uptake of native pea ferritin was unaffected by inhibitors of nonheme iron absorption, and the protein was observed to be internalized in Caco-2 cells. Chlorpromazine (clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor) reduced the native pea ferritin content within cells by ?30%, which confirmed that the native pea ferritin was transported into cells via a clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. In addition, 60% less ROS production resulted from native pea ferritin in comparison to FeSO4. Conclusion:With consideration that nonheme dietary inhibitors display no effect on iron uptake and the low oxidative potential relative to FeSO4, intact pea ferritin appears to be a promising iron supplement.
Project description:Genetic and dietary forms of iron overload have distinctive clinical and pathophysiological features. HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by overwhelming intestinal iron absorption, parenchymal iron deposition, and macrophage iron depletion. In contrast, excessive dietary iron intake results in iron deposition in macrophages. However, the functional consequences of genetic and dietary iron overload for the control of microbes are incompletely understood. Using Hfe+/+ and Hfe-/- mice in combination with oral iron overload in a model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, we found animals of either genotype to induce hepcidin antimicrobial peptide expression and hypoferremia following systemic infection in an Hfe-independent manner. As predicted, Hfe-/- mice, a model of hereditary hemochromatosis, displayed reduced spleen iron content, which translated into improved control of Salmonella replication. Salmonella adapted to the iron-poor microenvironment in the spleens of Hfe-/- mice by inducing the expression of its siderophore iron-uptake machinery. Dietary iron loading resulted in higher bacterial numbers in both WT and Hfe-/- mice, although Hfe deficiency still resulted in better pathogen control and improved survival. This suggests that Hfe deficiency may exert protective effects in addition to the control of iron availability for intracellular bacteria. Our data show that a dynamic adaptation of iron metabolism in both immune cells and microbes shapes the host-pathogen interaction in the setting of systemic Salmonella infection. Moreover, Hfe-associated iron overload and dietary iron excess result in different outcomes in infection, indicating that tissue and cellular iron distribution determines the susceptibility to infection with specific pathogens.
Project description:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by colonic microbiota from dietary carbohydrates and proteins that reach the colon. It has been suggested that SCFA may promote obesity via increased colonic energy availability. Recent studies suggest obese humans have higher faecal SCFA than lean, but it is unclear whether this difference is due to increased SCFA production or reduced absorption.To compare rectal SCFA absorption, dietary intake and faecal microbial profile in lean (LN) versus overweight and obese (OWO) individuals.Eleven LN and eleven OWO individuals completed a 3-day diet record, provided a fresh faecal sample and had SCFA absorption measured using the rectal dialysis bag method. The procedures were repeated after 2 weeks.Age-adjusted faecal SCFA concentration was significantly higher in OWO than LN individuals (81.3±7.4 vs 64.1±10.4?mmol?kg(-1), P=0.023). SCFA absorption (24.4±0.8% vs 24.7±1.2%, respectively, P=0.787) and dietary intakes were similar between the groups, except for a higher fat intake in OWO individuals. However, fat intake did not correlate with SCFAs or bacterial abundance. OWO individuals had higher relative Firmicutes abundance (83.1±4.1 vs 69.5±5.8%, respectively, P=0.008) and a higher Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P=0.023) than LN individuals. There was a positive correlation between Firmicutes and faecal SCFA within the whole group (r=0.507, P=0.044), with a stronger correlation after adjusting for available carbohydrate (r=0.615, P=0.005).The higher faecal SCFA in OWO individuals is not because of differences in SCFA absorption or diet. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that OWO individuals produce more colonic SCFA than LN individuals because of differences in colonic microbiota. However, further studies are needed to prove this.
Project description:Gene-diet interaction studies have reported that individual variations in phenotypic traits may be due to variations in individual diet. Our study aimed to evaluate (i) the association of ADRB2 rs1042713 with obesity and obesity-related metabolic parameters and (ii) the effect of dietary nutrients on these associations in Malaysian adults. ADRB2 genotyping, dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected from 79 obese and 99 nonobese individuals. Logistic regression revealed no association between ADRB2 rs1042713 and obesity (p=0.725). However, the carriers of G allele (AG?+?GG genotypes) of rs1042713 were associated with increased odds of insulin resistance, 2.83 (CI?=?1.04-7.70, adjusted p=0.042), in the dominant model, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Obese individuals carrying the G allele were associated with higher total cholesterol (p=0.011), LDL cholesterol levels (p=0.008), and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (p=0.048), compared to the noncarriers (AA), even after adjusting for potential confounders. Irrespective of obesity, the carriers of GG genotype had significantly lower fasting glucose levels with low saturated fatty acid intake (<7.3% of TE/day) (4.92?±?0.1?mmol/L vs 5.80?±?0.3?mmol/L, p=0.011) and high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio (?0.8/day) (4.83?±?0.1?mmol/L vs 5.93?±?0.4?mmol/L, p=0.006). Moreover, the carriers of GG genotype with high polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (?6% of TE/day) had significantly lower HOMA-IR (1.5?±?0.3 vs 3.0?±?0.7, p=0.026) and fasting insulin levels (6.8?±?1.6?µU/mL vs 11.4?±?2.1?µU/mL, p=0.036). These effects were not found in the noncarriers (AA). In conclusion, G allele carriers of ADRB2 rs1042713 were associated with increased odds of insulin resistance. Obese individuals carrying G allele were compromised with higher blood lipid levels. Although it is premature to report gene-diet interaction on the regulation of glucose and insulin levels in Malaysians, we suggest that higher quantity of PUFA-rich food sources in regular diet may benefit overweight and obese Malaysian adults metabolically. Large-scale studies are required to replicate and confirm the current findings in the Malaysian population.
Project description:The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin limits iron fluxes to the bloodstream by promoting degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin in target cells. Hepcidin insufficiency causes hyperabsorption of dietary iron, hyperferremia and tissue iron overload, which are hallmarks of hereditary hemochromatosis. Similar responses are also observed in iron-loading anemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis (such as thalassemias, dyserythropoietic anemias and myelodysplastic syndromes) and in chronic liver diseases. On the other hand, excessive hepcidin expression inhibits dietary iron absorption and leads to hypoferremia and iron retention within tissue macrophages. This reduces iron availability for erythroblasts and contributes to the development of anemias with iron-restricted erythropoiesis (such as anemia of chronic disease and iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia). Pharmacological targeting of the hepcidin/ferroportin axis may offer considerable therapeutic benefits by correcting iron traffic. This review summarizes the principles underlying the development of hepcidin-based therapies for the treatment of iron-related disorders, and discusses the emerging strategies for manipulating hepcidin pathways.