Acute regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at Ser-264 by vasopressin.
ABSTRACT: By phosphoproteome analysis, we identified a phosphorylation site, serine 264 (pS264), in the COOH terminus of the vasopressin-regulated water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP2). In this study, we examined the regulation of AQP2 phosphorylated at serine 264 (pS264-AQP2) by vasopressin, using a phospho-specific antibody (anti-pS264). Immunohistochemical analysis showed pS264-AQP2 labeling of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) from control mice, whereas AQP2 knockout mice showed a complete absence of labeling. In rat and mouse, pS264-AQP2 was present throughout the collecting duct system, from the connecting tubule to the terminal IMCD. Immunogold electron microscopy, combined with double-labeling confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers, determined that the majority of pS264 resides in compartments associated with the plasma membrane and early endocytic pathways. In Brattleboro rats treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP), the abundance of pS264-AQP2 increased 4-fold over controls. Additionally, dDAVP treatment resulted in a time-dependent change in the distribution of pS264 from predominantly intracellular vesicles, to both the basolateral and apical plasma membranes. Sixty minutes after dDAVP exposure, a proportion of pS264-AQP2 was observed in clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and recycling compartments, but not lysosomes. Overall, our results are consistent with a dynamic effect of AVP on the phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of AQP2.
Project description:The action of vasopressin in rodent collecting ducts to regulate water permeability depends in part on increases in phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at three sites: Ser256, Ser264, and Ser269. Previous studies of AQP2 phosphorylation have depended largely on qualitative data using protein mass spectrometry and phospho-specific antibodies. Here, we use a new method employing phospho-specific antibodies to determine the percentage of total AQP2 phosphorylated at each site in the presence and absence of the V2-receptor-selective vasopressin analog dDAVP in rat renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and cultured mpkCCD cells. Phosphorylation of Ser269, a site previously implicated in plasma membrane retention, was found to increase from 3 to 26% of total AQP2 in rat IMCD cells following dDAVP. Quantification of immunogold labeling of the opposite kidneys from the same rats estimated that 11% of total AQP2 is present in the apical plasma membrane (APM) without injection of dDAVP and 25% is present in the APM after dDAVP. Surprisingly, the baseline level of Ser256 phosphorylation was constitutively high, and there was no increase with dDAVP (confirmed in 2 more sets of rats). In general, Ser264 phosphorylation remained below 5% of total. The pattern of response was similar in cultured mpkCCD cells (large increase in Ser269 phosphorylation following dDAVP, but constitutively high levels of Ser256 phosphorylation). We suggest from these studies that Ser269 phosphorylation may be a more consistent indicator of vasopressin action and AQP2 membrane abundance than is Ser256 phosphorylation.
Project description:Phosphorylation and lysine (K)-acetylation are dynamic posttranslational modifications of proteins. Previous proteomic studies have identified over 170,000 phosphorylation sites and 15,000 K-acetylation sites in mammals. We recently reported that the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), which functions in the regulation of water-reabsorption, via the actions of vasopressin, expresses many of the enzymes that can modulated K-acetylation. The purpose of this study was to determine the K-acetylated or phosphorylated proteins expressed in IMCD cells. Second we questioned whether vasopressin V2 receptor activation significantly affects the IMCD acetylome or phosphoproteome? K-acetylated or serine-, threonine-, or tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides were identified from native rat IMCDs by proteomic analysis with four different enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, ASP-N, or Glu-C) to generate a high-resolution proteome. K-acetylation was identified in 431 unique proteins, and 64% of the K-acetylated sites were novel. The acetylated proteins were expressed in all compartments of the cell and were enriched in pathways including glycolysis and vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption. In the vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption pathway, eight proteins were acetylated, including the novel identification of the basolateral water channel, AQP3, acetylated at K282; 215 proteins were phosphorylated in this IMCD cohort, including AQP2 peptides that were phosphorylated at four serines: 256, 261, 264, and 269. Acute dDAVP did not significantly affect the IMCD acetylome; however, it did significantly affect previously known vasopressin-regulated phosphorylation sites. In conclusion, presence of K-acetylated proteins involved in metabolism, ion, and water transport in the IMCD points to multiple roles of K-acetylation beyond its canonical role in transcriptional regulation.
Project description:Internalization of receptor proteins after interacting with specific ligands has been proposed to facilitate siRNA delivery into the target cells via receptor-mediated siRNA transduction. In this study, we demonstrated a novel method of vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R)-mediated siRNA delivery against AQP2 in primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells of rat kidney. We synthesized the dDAVP conjugated with nine D-arginines (dDAVP-9r) as a peptide carrier for siRNA delivery. The structure of synthetic peptide carrier showed two regions (i.e., ligand domain to V2R (dDAVP) and siRNA carrying domain (nine D-arginine)) bisected with a spacer of four glycines. The results revealed that 1) synthesized dDAVP-9r peptides formed a stable polyplex with siRNA; 2) siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex could bind to the V2R of IMCD cells and induced AQP2 phosphorylation (Ser 256); 3) siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex was stable in response to the wide range of different osmolalities, pH levels, or to the RNases; 4) fluorescein-labeled siRNA was delivered into V2R-expressing MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells by siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex, but not into the V2R-negative Cos-7 cells; and 5) AQP2-siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex effectively delivered siRNA into the IMCD cells, resulting in the significant decrease of protein abundance of AQP2, but not AQP4. Therefore, for the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrated that V2R-mediated siRNA delivery could be exploited to deliver specific siRNA to regulate abnormal expression of target proteins in V2R-expressing kidney cells. The methods could be potentially used in vivo to regulate abnormal expression of proteins associated with disease conditions in the V2R-expressing kidney cells.
Project description:Trafficking of the water channel aquaporin-2 to the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct is mediated by arginine vasopressin, rendering the cell permeable to water. We recently identified a novel form of aquaporin-2 that is phosphorylated at serine-269 (pS269-AQP2). Using antibodies specific for this form of the water channel, we detected rat and mouse pS269-AQP2 in the connecting tubule and throughout the collecting duct system. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers and immunogold electron microscopy, we found that pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane of principal cells. In vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats, pS269-AQP2 was undetectable but dramatically increased in abundance after these rats were treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP). This increase occurred only at the apical plasma membrane, even after long-term dDAVP treatment. Following dDAVP there was a time-dependent redistribution of total aquaporin-2 from predominantly intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane, clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and lysosomes. However, pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane at any time. Our results show that S269 phosphorylated aquaporin-2 is exclusively associated with the apical plasma membrane, where it escapes endocytosis to remain at the cell surface.
Project description:AIM: Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel located in the collecting tubule and collecting duct cells of mammalian kidney. The aim of this study is to investigate whether PKC? plays a role in vasopressin-induced AQP2 trafficking in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells. METHODS: AQP2-mIMCD3 stable cell line was constructed by transfection of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells with AQP2-GFP construct. Then the cells were transfected with PKC? shRNA, PKC? A/25E, or PKC? scrambled shRNA. The expression levels of PKC?, AQP2, and phospho-S256-AQP2 were analyzed using Western blot. The interaction between AQP2 and PKC? was examined using immunoprecipitation. The distribution of AQP2 and microtubules was studied using immunocytochemistry. The AQP2 trafficking was examined using the biotinylation of surface membranes. RESULTS: Treatment of AQP2-mIMCD3 cells with 100 ?mol/L of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DdAVP) for 30 min stimulated the translocation of AQP2 from the cytoplasm to plasma membrane through influencing the microtubule assembly. Upregulation of active PKC? by transfection with PKC? A/25E plasmids resulted in de-polymerization of ?-tubulin and redistributed AQP2 in the cytoplasm. Down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA partially inhibited DdAVP-stimulated AQP2 trafficking without altering ?-tubulin distribution. Although 100 ?mol/L of DdAVP increased AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256, down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA did not influence DdAVP-induced AQP2 phosphorylation, suggesting that AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256 was independent of PKC?. Moreover, PKC? did not physically interact with AQP2 in the presence or absence of DdAVP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that PKC? regulates AQP2 trafficking induced by DdAVP via microtubule assembly.
Project description:Transient receptor potential channels TRPC3 and TRPC6 are expressed in principal cells of the collecting duct (CD) along with the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) both in vivo and in the cultured mouse CD cell line IMCD-3. The channels are primarily localized to intracellular vesicles, but upon stimulation with the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), TRPC3 and AQP2 translocate to the apical membrane. In the present study, the effect of various activators and inhibitors of the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade on channel trafficking was examined using immunohistochemical techniques and by biotinylation of surface membrane proteins. Both in vivo in rat kidney and in IMCD-3 cells, translocation of AQP2 and TRPC3 (but not TRPC6) was stimulated by [deamino-Cys(1), d-Arg(8)]-vasopressin (dDAVP), a specific V2-receptor agonist, and blocked by [adamantaneacetyl(1), O-Et-d-Tyr(2), Val(4), aminobutyryl(6), Arg(8,9)]-vasopressin (AEAVP), a specific V2-receptor antagonist. In IMCD-3 cells, translocation of TRPC3 and AQP2 was activated by forskolin, a direct activator of AC, or by dibutyryl-cAMP, a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. AVP-, dDAVP-, and forskolin-induced translocation in IMCD-3 cells was blocked by SQ22536 and H89, specific inhibitors of AC and PKA, respectively. Translocation stimulated by dibutyryl-cAMP was unaffected by AEAVP but could be blocked by H89. AVP- and forskolin-induced translocation of TRPC3 in IMCD-3 cells was also blocked by two additional inhibitors of PKA, specifically Rp-cAMPS and the myristoylated inhibitor of PKA (m-PKI). Quantification of TRPC3 membrane insertion in IMCD-3 cells under each assay condition using a surface membrane biotinylation assay, confirmed the translocation results observed by immunofluorescence. Importantly, AVP-induced translocation of TRPC3 as estimated by biotinylation was blocked on average 95.2 +/- 1.0% by H89, Rp-cAMPS, or m-PKI. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AVP stimulation of V2 receptors in principal cells of the CD causes translocation of TRPC3 to the apical membrane via stimulation of the AC/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade.
Project description:In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin controls transport of water and solutes via regulation of membrane transporters such as aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the epithelial urea transporter UT-A. To discover proteins potentially involved in vasopressin action in rat kidney collecting ducts, we enriched membrane "raft" proteins by harvesting detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Proteins were identified and quantified with LC-MS/MS. A total of 814 proteins were identified in the DRM fractions. Of these, 186, including several characteristic raft proteins, were enriched in the DRMs. Immunoblotting confirmed DRM enrichment of representative proteins. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of rat IMCDs with antibodies to DRM proteins demonstrated heterogeneity of raft subdomains: MAL2 (apical region), RalA (predominant basolateral labeling), caveolin-2 (punctate labeling distributed throughout the cells), and flotillin-1 (discrete labeling of large intracellular structures). The DRM proteome included GPI-anchored, doubly acylated, singly acylated, cholesterol-binding, and integral membrane proteins (IMPs). The IMPs were, on average, much smaller and more hydrophobic than IMPs identified in non-DRM-enriched IMCD. The content of serine 256-phosphorylated AQP2 was greater in DRM than in non-DRM fractions. Vasopressin did not change the DRM-to-non-DRM ratio of most proteins, whether quantified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, n=22) or immunoblotting (n=6). However, Rab7 and annexin-2 showed small increases in the DRM fraction in response to vasopressin. In accord with the long-term goal of creating a systems-level analysis of transport regulation, this study has identified a large number of membrane-associated proteins expressed in the IMCD that have potential roles in vasopressin action.
Project description:Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) modulates the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct to maintain homeostasis of body water. AVP binds to vasopressin V2 receptors (V2R), increasing cAMP, which promotes the redistribution of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane. cAMP also increases AQP2 transcription, but whether altered degradation also modulates AQP2 protein levels is not well understood. Here, elevation of cAMP increased AQP2 protein levels within 30 minutes in primary inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells ectopically expressing AQP2, and in mouse kidneys. Accelerated transcription or translation did not explain this increase in AQP2 abundance. In IMCD cells, cAMP inhibited p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) via activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of p38-MAPK associated with decreased phosphorylation (serine 261) and polyubiquitination of AQP2, preventing proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate that AVP enhances AQP2 protein abundance by altering its proteasomal degradation through a PKA- and p38-MAPK-dependent pathway.
Project description:Vasopressin regulates water excretion through effects on the renal collecting duct. Vasopressin signaling in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is mediated by V2 receptor occupation coupled to the generation of cyclic AMP. Here, we employ a "systems" approach to analysis of vasopressin signaling. The objective is to investigate roles of activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathways, as well as Ca2+ mobilization, in IMCD cells isolated from rat kidney. The V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analog dDAVP increased the state of Akt activation (increased phosphorylation at T308 and S473) and decreased the state of ERK1/2 activation (decreased phosphorylation at T202 and Y204). Akt activation was blocked by an inhibitor of PI3K, LY294002. In microdissected IMCD segments, nonperiodic spike-like increases in intracellular Ca2+ (FLUO-4) were accelerated by vasopressin. Chelation of Ca2+ or calmodulin inhibition markedly decreased Akt phosphorylation. Decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation was associated with a decrease in MEK1/2 phosphorylation and an increase in c-Raf phosphorylation at S259 (an inhibitory site). Based on the current findings integrated with previous findings in the IMCD, we now report a 33-node vasopressin signaling network involved in vasopressin regulation of IMCD function.
Project description:miRNA plays a role as post-transcriptional regulator. However, miRNAs in the kidney collecting duct cell have not been well understood. So we aimed to profile miRNAs in the kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, and to identify the vasopressin-responsive miRNAs in the kidney IMCD cells. The microarray assay revealed that relative expression of miRNAs in the kidney IMCD cells was changed by desmopressin (dDAVP) stimulation. Fresh IMCD tubules were prepared from rat kidney and incubated in the medium in the absence or presence of dDAVP (1 nM, 2 h). Total RNA purified from IMCD tubules was used to analyze miRNA expression by GeneChip® miRNA 3.0 Array (Affymetrix).