The Epstein-Barr virus BMRF-2 protein facilitates virus attachment to oral epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: We previously reported that BMRF-2, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein, binds to beta1 family integrins and is important for EBV infection of polarized oral epithelial cells. To further study the functions of BMRF-2, we constructed a recombinant EBV that lacks BMRF-2 expression by homologous recombination in B95-8 cells. We found that lack of BMRF-2 resulted in about 50% reduction of EBV attachment to oral epithelial cells, but not to B lymphocytes, suggesting that BMRF-2 is critical for EBV infection in oral epithelial cells, but not in B lymphocytes. In polarized oral epithelial cells, infection rate of the recombinant EBV virus was about 4- to 8-fold lower than the wild-type B95-8 virus. Cell adhesion assays using the BMRF-2 RGD peptide and its RGE and AAA mutants showed that the RGD motif is critical for BMRF-2 binding to integrins. These data are consistent with our previous observation that interactions between EBV BMRF-2 and integrins are critical for infection of oral epithelial cells with EBV.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes its own microRNAs (miRNAs); however, their biological roles remain elusive. The commonly used EBV B95-8 strain lacks a 12-kb genomic region, known as BamHI A rightward transcripts (BART) locus, where a number of BART miRNAs are encoded. Here, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology was used to generate an EBV B95-8 strain in which the 12-kb region was fully restored at its native locus [BART(+) virus]. Epithelial cells were stably infected with either the parental B95-8 virus or the BART(+) virus, and BART miRNA expression was successfully reconstituted in the BART(+) virus-infected cells. Microarray analyses of cellular gene expression identified N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a putative target of BART miRNAs. The NDRG1 protein was barely expressed in B cells, highly expressed in epithelial cells, including primary epithelial cells, and strongly downregulated in the BART(+) virus-infected epithelial cells of various origins. Although in vitro reporter assays identified BART22 as being responsible for the NDRG1 downregulation, EBV genetic analyses revealed that BART22 was not solely responsible; rather, the entire BART miRNA cluster 2 was responsible for the downregulation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the expression level of the NDRG1 protein was downregulated significantly in EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma specimens. Considering that NDRG1 encodes an epithelial differentiation marker and a suppressor of metastasis, these data implicate a causative relationship between BART miRNA expression and epithelial carcinogenesis in vivo. IMPORTANCE:EBV-related epithelial cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinomas and EBV-positive gastric cancers, encompass more than 80% of EBV-related malignancies. Although it is known that they express high levels of virally encoded BART miRNAs, how these miRNAs contribute to EBV-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis remains unknown. Although a number of screenings have been performed to identify targets of viral miRNAs, many targets likely have not been identified, especially in case of epithelial cell infection. This is the first study to use EBV genetics to perform unbiased screens of cellular genes that are differentially expressed in viral miRNA-positive and -negative epithelial cells. The result indicates that multiple EBV-encoded miRNAs cooperatively downregulate NDRG1, an epithelial differentiation marker and suppressor of metastasis. The experimental system described in this study should be useful for further clarifying the mechanism of EBV-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) exhibits a distinct tropism for both B cells and epithelial cells. The virus persists as a latent infection of memory B cells in healthy individuals, but a role for infection of normal epithelial is also likely. Infection of B cells is initiated by the interaction of the major EBV glycoprotein gp350 with CD21 on the B cell surface. Fusion is triggered by the interaction of the EBV glycoprotein, gp42 with HLA class II, and is thereafter mediated by the core fusion complex, gH/gL/gp42. In contrast, direct infection of CD21-negative epithelial cells is inefficient, but efficient infection can be achieved by a process called transfer infection. In this study, we characterise the molecular interactions involved in the three stages of transfer infection of epithelial cells: (i) CD21-mediated co-capping of EBV and integrins on B cells, and activation of the adhesion molecules, (ii) conjugate formation between EBV-loaded B cells and epithelial cells via the capped adhesion molecules, and (iii) interaction of EBV glycoproteins with epithelial cells, with subsequent fusion and uptake of virions. Infection of epithelial cells required the EBV gH and gL glycoproteins, but not gp42. Using an in vitro model of normal polarized epithelia, we demonstrated that polarization of the EBV receptor(s) and adhesion molecules restricted transfer infection to the basolateral surface. Furthermore, the adhesions between EBV-loaded B cells and the basolateral surface of epithelial cells included CD11b on the B cell interacting with heparan sulphate moieties of CD44v3 and LEEP-CAM on epithelial cells. Consequently, transfer infection was efficiently mediated via CD11b-positive memory B cells but not by CD11b-negative naïve B cells. Together, these findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of EBV infection of normal and pre-malignant epithelial cells in vivo.
Project description:The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but it is unclear whether this diversity is due to infection with different EBV strains. We report a comparative characterization of SNU719, GP202, and YCCEL1, three EBV strains that were isolated from gastric carcinomas, M81, a virus isolated in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma and several well-characterized laboratory type A strains. We found that B95-8, Akata and GP202 induced cell growth more efficiently than YCCEL1, SNU719 and M81 and this correlated positively with the expression levels of the viral BHRF1 miRNAs. In infected B cells, all strains except Akata and B95-8 induced lytic replication, a risk factor for carcinoma development, although less efficiently than M81. The panel of viruses induced tumors in immunocompromised mice with variable speed and efficacy that did not strictly mirror their in vitro characteristics, suggesting that additional parameters play an important role. We found that YCCEL1 and M81 infected primary epithelial cells, gastric carcinoma cells and gastric spheroids more efficiently than Akata or B95-8. Reciprocally, Akata and B95-8 had a stronger tropism for B cells than YCCEL1 or M81. These data suggest that different EBV strains will induce the development of lymphoid tumors with variable efficacy in immunocompromised patients and that there is a parallel between the cell tropism of the viral strains and the lineage of the tumors they induce. Thus, EBV strains can be endowed with properties that will influence their transforming abilities and the type of tumor they induce.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to the development of both lymphoid and epithelial malignancies worldwide. The M81 strain of EBV, isolated from a Chinese patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), demonstrates spontaneous lytic replication and high-titer virus production in comparison to the prototype B95-8 EBV strain. Genetic comparisons of M81 and B95-8 EBVs were previously been performed in order to determine if the hyperlytic property of M81 is associated with sequence differences in essential lytic genes. EBV SM is an RNA-binding protein expressed during early lytic replication that is essential for virus production. We compared the functions of M81 SM and B95-8 SM and demonstrate that polymorphisms in SM do not contribute to the lytic phenotype of M81 EBV. However, the expression level of the EBV DNA polymerase protein was much higher in M81- than in B95-8-infected cells. The relative deficiency in the expression of B95-8 DNA polymerase was related to the B95-8 genome deletion, which truncates the BALF5 3' untranslated region (UTR). Similarly, the insertion of bacmid DNA into the widely used recombinant B95-8 bacmid creates an inefficient BALF5 3' UTR. We further showed that the while SM is required for and facilitates the efficient expression of both M81 and B95-8 mRNAs regardless of the 3' UTR, the BALF5 3' UTR sequence is important for BALF5 protein translation. These data indicate that the enhanced lytic replication and virus production of M81 compared to those of B95-8 are partly due to the robust translation of EBV DNA polymerase required for viral DNA replication due to a more efficient BALF5 3' UTR in M81.IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the human population, but the incidence of EBV-associated tumors varies greatly in different parts of the world. Thus, understanding the connection between genetic polymorphisms from patient isolates of EBV, gene expression phenotypes, and disease is important and may help in developing antiviral therapy. This study examines potential causes of the enhanced lytic replicative properties of M81 EBV isolated from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patient and provides new evidence for the role of the BALF5 gene 3' UTR sequence in DNA polymerase protein expression during lytic replication. Variation in the gene structure of the DNA polymerase gene may therefore contribute to lytic virus reactivation and pathogenesis.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that establishes a latent reservoir in peripheral B-lymphocytes with sporadic reactivation. EBV also infects epithelial cells, predominantly resulting in a lytic infection, which may contribute to EBV transmission from saliva. In the nasopharynx, EBV infection can lead to the clonal expansion of a latently infected cell and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The mechanisms governing EBV pathogenesis in nasopharyngeal epithelium are largely unknown. An advanced understanding would depend on a physiologically relevant culture model of polarized airway epithelium. The recent application of the organotypic raft culture in keratinocytes has demonstrated great promise for the use of polarized cultures in the study of EBV permissive replication. In this study, the adaptation of an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture method using transwell membranes was explored in an EBV-infected NPC cell line. In the EBV-infected NPC HK1 cell line, ALI culture resulted in the completion of EBV reactivation, with global induction of the lytic cascade, replication of EBV genomes, and production of infectious progeny virus. We propose that the ALI culture method can be widely adopted as a physiologically relevant model to study EBV pathogenesis in polarized nasal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE:Lifting adherent cells to the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a method conventionally used to culture airway epithelial cells into polarized apical and basolateral surfaces. Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from monolayer epithelial cultures is sometimes abortive, which may be attributed to the lack of authentic reactivation triggers that occur in stratified epithelium in vivo In the present work, the ALI culture method was applied to study EBV reactivation in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. The ALI culture of an EBV-infected cell line yielded high titers and can be dissected by a variety of molecular virology assays that measure induction of the EBV lytic cascade and EBV genome replication and assembly. EBV infection of polarized cultures of primary epithelial cells can be challenging and can have variable efficiencies. However, the use of the ALI method with established EBV-infected cell lines offers a readily available and reproducible approach for the study of EBV permissive replication in polarized epithelia.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that infects more than 90% of the world's population 1 . EBV predominantly infects human B cells and epithelial cells, which is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with a host cellular membrane 2 . The mechanism of EBV entry into B cells has been well characterized 3 . However, the mechanism for epithelial cell entry remains elusive. Here, we show that the integrins ?v?5, ?v?6 and ?v?8 do not function as entry and fusion receptors for epithelial cells, whereas Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) functions well for both. EphA2 overexpression significantly increased EBV infection of HEK293 cells. Using a virus-free cell-cell fusion assay, we found that EphA2 dramatically promoted EBV but not herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion with HEK293 cells. EphA2 silencing using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or knockout by CRISPR-Cas9 blocked fusion with epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect was rescued by the expression of EphA2. Antibody against EphA2 blocked epithelial cell infection. Using label-free surface plasmon resonance binding studies, we confirmed that EphA2 but not EphA4 specifically bound to EBV gHgL and this interaction is through the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD). The discovery of EphA2 as an EBV epithelial cell receptor has important implications for EBV pathogenesis and may uncover new potential targets that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is causally implicated in the development of lymphoid and epithelial tumors. Entry of virus requires fusion of virus envelopes and cell membranes. Fusion with B lymphocytes requires virus glycoprotein gB and a 3-part complex of glycoproteins, gHgLgp42. It is triggered by interactions between glycoprotein 42 (gp42) and HLA class II. However, fusion with epithelial cells is impeded by gp42 and instead is triggered by interactions between an unknown epithelial protein and a 2-part complex of gHgL. We report here that gHgL binds with high affinity to epithelial cells and that affinity of binding is increased by 3 orders of magnitude in the presence of Mn(2+). Binding and infection can be reduced by fibronectin and vitronectin, by down-regulation of integrin alphav, or by a peptide corresponding to 13 aa of gH which include a KGDE motif. Fusion of cells expressing gB and gHgL can be blocked by vitronectin or triggered by addition of soluble truncated integrins alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8. We conclude that the direct interaction between EBV gHgL and integrins alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 can provide the trigger for fusion of EBV with an epithelial cell.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s) that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1) promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs) cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.
Project description:In the oral epithelium, peripheral stores of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are transmitted from infiltrating B cells to epithelial cells. Once the virus is transmitted to epithelial cells, the highly permissive nature of this cell type for lytic replication allows virus amplification and exchange to other hosts. Since the initial transfer of EBV from B cells to epithelial cells requires transitioning of the B-cell to a state that induces virus reactivation, we hypothesized that there might be epithelium-specific signals that allow the infiltrating B cells to sense the appropriate environment to initiate reactivation and begin this exchange process. We previously found that the epithelium-specific miR-200 family of microRNAs promotes EBV lytic replication. Here we show that there are high levels of miR-200 family members in oral and tonsillar epithelia and in saliva. Analysis of cultured oral epithelial cells (OKF6) showed that they actively secrete membrane vesicles (exosomes) that are enriched with miR-200 family members. Coculturing of EBV-positive B cells with OKF6 cells induced viral reactivation. Further, treatment of EBV-positive B cells with OKF6 cell-derived membrane vesicles promoted reactivation. Using a cell system that does not naturally express miR-200 family members, we found that enforced expression of a miR-200 family member produced membrane vesicles that were able to induce the lytic cascade in EBV-positive B cells. We propose that membrane vesicles secreted by oral and tonsillar epithelial cells may serve as a tissue-specific environmental cue that initiates reactivation in B cells, promoting the transfer of virus from peripheral B-cell stores to the oral epithelium to facilitate virus amplification and exchange to other hosts.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogen that is causally associated with several lymphomas and carcinomas. The switch from latency to the lytic cycle is critical for successful host infection and for EBV pathogenesis. Although the EBV lytic cycle can be triggered by certain agents in vitro, the mechanisms that signal reactivation in vivo are poorly understood. We previously reported that endogenously expressed miR-200 family members likely play a role in facilitating the lytic tendencies of EBV in epithelial cells. Here we show that membrane vesicles secreted from oral epithelial cells contain miR-200 family members and that they can be transmitted to proximal EBV-positive B cells, where they trigger reactivation. We propose that this intercellular communication pathway may serve as a sensor mechanism for infiltrating B cells to recognize an appropriate environment to initiate reactivation, thereby allowing the exchange of virus to the oral epithelium.
Project description:The two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) types, EBV-1 and EBV-2, are known to differ in their EBNA-2 genes, which are 64 and 53% identical in their nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences, respectively. Restriction endonuclease maps and serologic analyses detect few other differences between EBV-1 and EBV-2 except in the EBNA-3 gene family. We determined the DNA sequence of the AG876 EBV-2 EBNA-3 coding region and have compared it with known B95-8 EBV-1 EBNA-3 sequences to delineate the extent of divergence between EBV-1 and EBV-2 isolates in their EBNA-3 genes. The B95-8 and AG876 EBV isolates had nucleotide and amino acid identity levels of 90 and 84%, 88 and 80%, and 81 and 72% for the EBNA-3A, -3B, and -3C genes, respectively. In contrast, nucleotide sequence identity in the noncoding DNA adjacent to the B95-8 and AG876 EBNA-3 open reading frames was 96%. We used the polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate that five additional EBV-1 isolates and six additional EBV-2 isolates have the type-specific differences in their EBNA-3 genes predicted from the B95-8 or AG876 sequences. Thus, EBV-1 and EBV-2 are two distinct wild-type EBV strains that have significantly diverged at four genetic loci and have maintained type-characteristic differences at each locus. The delineation of these sequence differences between EBV-1 and EBV-2 is essential to ongoing molecular dissection of the biologic properties of EBV and of the human immune response to EBV infection. The application of these data to the delineation of epitopes recognized in the EBV-immune T-cell response is also discussed.