Lysosome-targeted stress reveals increased stability of lipofuscin-containing lysosomes.
ABSTRACT: Cellular ageing is associated with accumulation of undegradable intralysosomal material, called lipofuscin. In order to accelerate the lipofuscin accumulation, confluent, growth-arrested human fibroblasts were cultured under hyperoxic conditions. To provide a better insight into the effects of lipofuscin on cellular functions, we compared lysosomal stability in control and lipofuscin-loaded human fibroblasts under conditions of lysosome-targeted stress induced by exposure to either the lysosomotropic detergent MSDH or the redox-cycling quinone naphthazarin. We show that lysosomal damage, assessed by acridine-orange relocation, translocation of cathepsin D to the cytosol, and alkalinization of lysosomes, is more pronounced in control than in lipofuscin-loaded fibroblasts. Finding that lysosomal integrity was less affected or even preserved in case of lipofuscin-loaded cells enables us to suggest that lipofuscin exerts lysosome-stabilizing properties.
Project description:Pompe disease, an inherited deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), is a metabolic myopathy with heterogeneous clinical presentations. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a debilitating progressive muscle disorder that can occur anytime from early childhood to late adulthood. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human GAA is currently available for Pompe patients. Although ERT shows some benefits, the reversal of skeletal muscle pathology - lysosomal glycogen accumulation and autophagic buildup - remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the clinical status and muscle pathology of 22 LOPD patients and one atypical infantile patient on ERT to understand the reasons for muscle resistance to ERT.The patients were divided into three groups for analysis, based on the age of onset and diagnosis: adult-onset patients, juvenile-onset patients, and those identified through newborn screening (NBS). The areas of autophagic buildup found in patients' biopsies of all three groups, contained large autofluorescent inclusions which we show are made of lipofuscin, an indigestible intralysosomal material typically associated with ageing. These inclusions, analysed by staining, spectral analysis, time-resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM), and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging, were the major pathology remaining in many fibers after ERT. The best outcome of ERT both clinically and morphologically was observed in the NBS patients.The muscle biopsy, in spite of its shortcomings, allowed us to recognize an underreported, ERT-resistant pathology in LOPD; numerous lysosomes and autolysosomes loaded with lipofuscin appear to be a hallmark of LOPD skeletal muscle. Lipofuscin accumulation - a result of inefficient lysosomal degradation - may in turn exacerbate both lysosomal and autophagic abnormalities.
Project description:Lipofuscin, or aging pigment, is accreted as red autofluorescence in the lysosomes of motor neuron cell bodies in the ventral horn of WT mice by 3 mo of age. Strikingly, in two presymptomatic ALS mouse strains transgenic for mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), G85R SOD1YFP and G93A SOD1, little or no lipofuscin was detected in motor neuron cell bodies. Two markers of autophagy, sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), were examined in the motor neuron cell bodies of G85R SOD1YFP mice and found to be reduced relative to WT SOD1YFP transgenic mice. To elucidate whether the autophagy/lysosome pathway was either impaired or hyperactive in motor neurons, chloroquine was administered to 3-mo-old G85R SOD1YFP mice to block lysosomal hydrolysis. After 2 wk, lipofuscin was now observed in motor neurons, and SQSTM1 and LC3 levels approached those of WT SOD1YFP mice, suggesting that the autophagy/lysosome pathway is hyperactive in motor neurons of SOD1-linked ALS mice. This seems to be mediated at least in part through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway, because levels of Ser757-phosphorylated Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), an MTORC1 target, were greatly reduced in the G85R SOD1YFP motor neurons, correspondent to an activated state of ULK1 that initiates autophagy.
Project description:Cultured fibroblasts from patients with I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II) accumulate excessive amounts of free cystine, similarly to cells from patients with nephropathic cystinosis, a disorder of lysosomal cystine transport. To clarify whether the intralysosomal accumulation of cystine in I-cell-disease fibroblasts was due to a defective disposal mechanism, we measured the rates of clearance of free [35S]cystine from intact normal, cystinotic and I-cell-disease fibroblasts. Loss of radioactivity from the two mutant cell types occurred slowly (t 1/2 = 500 min) compared with the rapid loss from normal cells (t 1/2 = 40 min). Lysosome-rich granular fractions isolated from three different cystine-loaded normal, cystinotic and I-cell-disease fibroblast strains were similarly examined for non-radioactive cystine egress. Normal granular fractions lost cystine rapidly (mean t 1/2 = 43 min), whereas cystinotic granular fractions did not lose any cystine (mean t 1/2 = infinity). I-cell-disease granular fractions displayed prolonged half-times for cystine disposal (mean = 108 min), suggesting that I-cell-disease fibroblasts, like cystinotic cells, possess a defective carrier mechanism for cystine transport.
Project description:Normal leucocyte lysosome-rich granular fractions exhibited counter-transport of cystine, confirming that cystine transport across the lysosomal membrane is carrier-mediated. The trans-activation of cystine transport was temperature-dependent but relatively independent of the external Na+ or K+ concentration in phosphate buffer. Counter-transport, measured as uptake of exogenous [3H]cystine, increased with increasing intralysosomal cystine content up to approx. 3 nmol of half-cystine/unit of hexosaminidase activity. The amount of [3H]cystine entering lysosomes loaded with unlabelled cystine decreased when unlabelled cystine was added to the extralysosomal medium. Lysosomal cystine counter-transport was stereospecific for the L-isomer. Cystathionine, cystamine and cysteamine-cysteine mixed disulphide gave evidence of sharing the lysosomal cystine-transport system, although at lower activity than cystine. Other tested amino acids, including arginine, glutamate and homocystine, were inactive in this system. Nine leucocyte lysosome-rich preparations from eight different cystinotic patients displayed virtually no counter-transport of cystine, conclusively establishing that a carrier-mediated system for cystine transport is dysfunctional in cystinotic lysosomes.
Project description:We hypothesized that liposomes modified with lysosomotropic octadecyl-rhodamine B (Rh) and loaded with therapeutic glucocerebroside velaglucerase alfa (VPRIV™) will improve lysosomal delivery of the enzyme into Gaucher's cells.Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the ability of Rh-modified liposomes loaded with VPRIV to improve the lysosomal targeting in monocyte-derived macrophages and Gaucher's fibroblasts.Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rh-modified liposomes localized primarily in the lysosomes. As confirmed by flow cytometry using specific substrate 5-(pentafluorobenzoylamino)fluorescein diglucoside, intralysosomal accumulation of VPRIV in the cells treated with Rh-modified liposomes was significantly increased (up to 68%) relative to the cells treated with plain liposomes or free VPRIV.Rh-modified lysosomotropic liposomes can improve lysosomal accumulation of liposomal enzymes both in nonphagocytic Gaucher's fibroblasts and phagocytic monocyte-derived macrophages.
Project description:Lysosomes are a promising therapeutic target for induction apoptosis in cancer cells due to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, especially the cathepsins, into the cytoplasm. We hypothesized that with the modification of the ceramide-loaded liposomes with transferrin (Tf), we would achieve both tumor targeting and increased delivery of lysosome-destabilizing agents, such as ceramides to lysosomes, to initiate LMP-induced apoptosis. We prepared Tf-modified (TL) and plain (PL) liposomes and loaded with short (C6)- or long (C16) N-acyl chain ceramides. Uptake, intracellular localization of liposomes, stability of the lysosomal membrane and release of cathepsin D were investigated on Hela cells by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by binding of fluorescently-labeled Annexin V. Antitumor and pro-apoptotic effects of C6Cer-loaded Tf-liposomes were demonstrated in vivo in an A2780-ovarian carcinoma xenograft mouse model. TL were internalized specifically via the TfR-dependent endocytic pathway and localized within the endosome-lysosomal compartment. Ceramide-loaded Tf-liposomes significantly increased apoptosis compared with ceramide-free and ceramide-loaded non-modified liposomes. The treatment of cancer cells with TL led to increased LMP and cytoplasmic relocation of the intralysosomal cathepsin D. A strong antitumor and pro-apoptotic effect of C6Cer-loaded TL was also demonstrated in vivo in an A2780-ovarian carcinoma xenograft mouse model. The lysosomal accumulation of ceramides delivered by Tf-liposomes initiates the permeabilization of the lysosomal membranes required for the release of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytoplasm and initiation of the cancer cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:O-methyl-serine dodecylamine hydrochloride (MSDH) is a detergent that accumulates selectively in lysosomes, a so-called lysosomotropic detergent, with unexpected chemical properties. At physiological pH, it spontaneously forms vesicles, which disassemble into small aggregates (probably micelles) below pH 6.4. In this study, we characterize the interaction between MSDH and liposomes at different pH and correlate the findings to toxicity in human fibroblasts. We find that the effect of MSDH on lipid membranes is highly pH-dependent. At neutral pH, the partitioning of MSDH into the liposome membrane is immediate and causes the leakage of small fluorophores, unless the ratio between MSDH and lipids is kept low. At pH 5, the partitioning of MSDH into the membrane is kinetically impeded since MSDH is charged and a high ratio between MSDH and the lipids is required to permeabilize the membrane. When transferred to cell culture conditions, the ratio between MSDH and plasma membrane lipids must therefore be low, at physiological pH, to maintain plasma membrane integrity. Transmission electron microscopy suggests that MSDH vesicles are taken up by endocytosis. As the pH of the endosomal compartment progressively drops, MSDH vesicles disassemble, leading to a high concentration of increasingly charged MSDH in small aggregates inside the lysosomes. At sufficiently high MSDH concentrations, the lysosome is permeabilized, the proteolytic content released to the cytosol and apoptotic cell death is induced.
Project description:Lysosomal accumulation of undegraded materials is a common feature of lysosomal storage diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and the aging process. To better understand the role of lysosomal storage in the onset of cell damage, we used human fibroblasts loaded with sucrose as a model of lysosomal accumulation. Sucrose-loaded fibroblasts displayed increased lysosomal biogenesis followed by arrested cell proliferation. Notably, we found that reduced lysosomal catabolism and autophagy impairment led to an increase in sphingolipids ( i.e., sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide, ceramide, and the gangliosides GM3 and GD3), at both intracellular and plasma membrane (PM) levels. In addition, we observed an increase in the lysosomal membrane protein Lamp-1 on the PM of sucrose-loaded fibroblasts and a greater release of the soluble lysosomal protein cathepsin D in their extracellular medium compared with controls. These results indicate increased fusion between lysosomes and the PM, as also suggested by the increased activity of lysosomal glycosphingolipid hydrolases on the PM of sucrose-loaded fibroblasts. The inhibition of ?-glucocerebrosidase and nonlysosomal glucosylceramidase, both involved in ceramide production resulting from glycosphingolipid catabolism on the PM, partially restored cell proliferation. Our findings indicate the existence of a new molecular mechanism underlying cell damage triggered by lysosomal impairment.-Samarani, M., Loberto, N., Soldà, G., Straniero, L., Asselta, R., Duga, S., Lunghi, G., Zucca, F. A., Mauri, L., Ciampa, M. G., Schiumarini, D., Bassi, R., Giussani, P., Chiricozzi, E., Prinetti, A., Aureli, M., Sonnino, S. A lysosome-plasma membrane-sphingolipid axis linking lysosomal storage to cell growth arrest.
Project description:TRPML1 (mucolipin 1, also known as MCOLN1) is predicted to be an intracellular late endosomal and lysosomal ion channel protein that belongs to the mucolipin subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins. Mutations in the human TRPML1 gene cause mucolipidosis type IV disease (ML4). ML4 patients have motor impairment, mental retardation, retinal degeneration and iron-deficiency anaemia. Because aberrant iron metabolism may cause neural and retinal degeneration, it may be a primary cause of ML4 phenotypes. In most mammalian cells, release of iron from endosomes and lysosomes after iron uptake by endocytosis of Fe(3+)-bound transferrin receptors, or after lysosomal degradation of ferritin-iron complexes and autophagic ingestion of iron-containing macromolecules, is the chief source of cellular iron. The divalent metal transporter protein DMT1 (also known as SLC11A2) is the only endosomal Fe(2+) transporter known at present and it is highly expressed in erythroid precursors. Genetic studies, however, suggest the existence of a DMT1-independent endosomal and lysosomal Fe(2+) transport protein. By measuring radiolabelled iron uptake, by monitoring the levels of cytosolic and intralysosomal iron and by directly patch-clamping the late endosomal and lysosomal membrane, here we show that TRPML1 functions as a Fe(2+) permeable channel in late endosomes and lysosomes. ML4 mutations are shown to impair the ability of TRPML1 to permeate Fe(2+) at varying degrees, which correlate well with the disease severity. A comparison of TRPML1(-/- )ML4 and control human skin fibroblasts showed a reduction in cytosolic Fe(2+) levels, an increase in intralysosomal Fe(2+) levels and an accumulation of lipofuscin-like molecules in TRPML1(-/-) cells. We propose that TRPML1 mediates a mechanism by which Fe(2+) is released from late endosomes and lysosomes. Our results indicate that impaired iron transport may contribute to both haematological and degenerative symptoms of ML4 patients.
Project description:To investigate the role of intralysosomal redox-active iron in oxidative stress-induced damage in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.Chronic oxidative stress was applied using the hyperoxic model; acute oxidative stress was applied with H(2)O(2). Microarray analysis was performed using microarrays. mRNA and protein levels were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Redox-active iron was monitored using calcein-AM. Apoptosis was quantified using double staining. DNA damage was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Lysosomal permeabilization was monitored using uptake and acridine orange relocation techniques. Intracellular ROS production was quantified using H(2)DCFDA. Cytosolic translocation of cathepsins was visualized with pepstatin-A-BODIPY-FL. Chemical inhibition of cathepsins was achieved with leupeptin and pepstatin A. Silencing of cathepsin expression was accomplished with miRNA sequences. Lysosomal iron chelation was achieved with desferrioxamine.Chronically stressed TM cells showed elevated levels of redox-active iron and altered expression of genes involved in intracellular iron homeostasis. Although iron increased ROS production and lipofuscin levels and sensitized TM cells to H(2)O(2), intralysosomal iron chelation completely protected the cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and apoptosis. The protective effect of desferrioxamine was mediated by the prevention of lysosomal ROS generation and the rupture of lysosomal membrane, with the subsequent release of cathepsin D into the cytosol.These results indicate that the generation of intralysosomal ROS induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsin D into the cytosol, leading to TM cell death. Here, the authors propose a mechanism by which oxidative stress might contribute to the decrease in cellularity reported in the TM tissue with both aging and disease.