Structures of the CCR5 N terminus and of a tyrosine-sulfated antibody with HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.
ABSTRACT: The CCR5 co-receptor binds to the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and facilitates HIV-1 entry into cells. Its N terminus is tyrosine-sulfated, as are many antibodies that react with the co-receptor binding site on gp120. We applied nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallographic techniques to analyze the structure of the CCR5 N terminus and that of the tyrosine-sulfated antibody 412d in complex with gp120 and CD4. The conformations of tyrosine-sulfated regions of CCR5 (alpha-helix) and 412d (extended loop) are surprisingly different. Nonetheless, a critical sulfotyrosine on CCR5 and on 412d induces similar structural rearrangements in gp120. These results now provide a framework for understanding HIV-1 interactions with the CCR5 N terminus during viral entry and define a conserved site on gp120, whose recognition of sulfotyrosine engenders posttranslational mimicry by the immune system.
Project description:Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) were recently identified within the second variable (V2) loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3) loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2?-Tys) adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. Unlike CCR5 N-terminal peptides, V2 mimics inhibit a broad range of HIV-1 strains irrespective of their coreceptor tropism, highlighting the overall structural conservation of the coreceptor-binding site in gp120. These results document the use of receptor mimicry by a retrovirus to occlude a key neutralization target site and provide leads for the design of therapeutic strategies against HIV-1.
Project description:Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies is essential for the development of a protective vaccine against HIV-1. However, the native HIV-1 envelope adopts a protected conformation that conceals highly conserved sites of vulnerability from antibody recognition. Although high-definition structures of the monomeric core of the envelope glycoprotein subunit gp120 and, more recently, of a stabilized soluble gp140 trimer have been solved, fundamental aspects related to the conformation and function of the native envelope remain unresolved. Here, we show that the conserved central region of the second variable loop (V2) of gp120 contains sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) that in the CD4-unbound prefusion state mediate intramolecular interaction between V2 and the conserved base of the third variable loop (V3), functionally mimicking sulfated tyrosines in CCR5 and anti-coreceptor-binding-site antibodies such as 412d. Recombinant gp120 expressed in continuous cell lines displays low constitutive levels of V2 tyrosine sulfation, which can be enhanced markedly by overexpression of the tyrosyl sulfotransferase TPST2. In contrast, virion-associated gp120 produced by primary CD4(+) T cells is inherently highly sulfated. Consistent with a functional role of the V2 sulfotyrosines, enhancement of tyrosine sulfation decreased binding and neutralization of HIV-1 BaL by monomeric soluble CD4, 412d, and anti-V3 antibodies and increased recognition by the trimer-preferring antibodies PG9, PG16, CH01, and PGT145. Conversely, inhibition of tyrosine sulfation increased sensitivity to soluble CD4, 412d, and anti-V3 antibodies and diminished recognition by trimer-preferring antibodies. These results identify the sulfotyrosine-mediated V2-V3 interaction as a critical constraint that stabilizes the native HIV-1 envelope trimer and modulates its sensitivity to neutralization.
Project description:To facilitate the biochemical study of posttranslationally modified proteins, we have developed a strategy in which otherwise posttranslationally modified amino acids are genetically encoded in Escherichia coli in response to unique nonsense or frameshift codons. Here, we illustrate the utility of this approach through the characterization of the doubly tyrosine-sulfated anti-gp120 antibody, 412d. By expressing selectively sulfated variants of 412d directly in E. coli with an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair specific for sulfotyrosine, we were able to determine the contribution of each of the sulfates in 412d to gp120 binding affinity: tyrosine sulfation of 412d at position H100, position H100c, or dual sulfation at both positions (Kabat numbering where H designates heavy chain) leads to an increase in affinity for gp120 of 4.5-fold, 212-fold, or 500-fold, respectively. We also conducted directed evolution experiments to evolve 412d beyond the known sequence constraints required for posttranslational sulfation, while retaining the two tyrosine sulfates essential for function, yielding novel doubly sulfated antibodies, one of which binds gp120 with subnanomolar affinity. Taken together, our studies provide a more complete understanding of the role of 412d sulfation in gp120 binding and highlight the utility of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids in exploring the effects of posttranslational modifications on protein function.
Project description:The initial events of HIV-1 cell infection involve the sequential binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor and the coreceptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4. Binding to the coreceptor triggers the chain of events that culminates with the entry of the virus into the cell. In this process, the interaction of gp120 with the tyrosine-sulfated N-terminus of CCR5 is critical; however, this interaction has never been characterized at a quantitative or thermodynamic level. Here, we present the first thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of gp120 with the N-terminal peptide of the CCR5 coreceptor. Microcalorimetric titrations demonstrate that measurable binding of S22 peptide, a 22-amino acid tyrosine-sulfated peptide corresponding to the CCR5 N-terminus, requires prior binding of CD4 to gp120. The S22 peptide binds to the gp120-CD4 complex with a binding affinity of 4.5 x 10(5) M(-1) (K(d) = 2.2 microM) in an enthalpically and entropically favorable process. An identical peptide lacking the sulfated tyrosine residues is unable to bind the gp120-CD4 complex. These results indicate that the sulfated tyrosines contribute close to -3.5 kcal/mol to the Gibbs energy of binding. Furthermore, the S22 peptide is a competitive inhibitor of the 17b HIV-1 neutralizing antibody, which is known to bind to the CCR5 coreceptor site in gp120. Together, these results point toward compounds containing sulfated aromatic groups as potential inhibitors of viral entry. In analogy to existing inhibitors that bind to the CCR5 coreceptor directly, these compounds will accomplish the same result by binding to the coreceptor site in gp120.
Project description:HIV-1 membranes contain gp120-gp41 trimers. Binding of gp120 to CD4 and a coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) reduces the constraint on metastable gp41, enabling a series of conformational changes that cause membrane fusion. An analytic difficulty occurs because these steps occur slowly and asynchronously within cohorts of adsorbed virions. We previously isolated HIV-1JRCSF variants that efficiently use CCR5 mutants severely damaged in the tyrosine-sulfated amino terminus or extracellular loop 2. Surprisingly, both independent adaptations included gp120 mutations S298N, F313L, and N403S, supporting other evidence that they function by weakening gp120's grip on gp41 rather than by altering gp120 binding to specific CCR5 sites. Although several natural HIV-1 isolates reportedly use CCR5(?18) (CCR5 with a deletion of 18 N-terminal amino acids, including the tyrosine-sulfated region) when the soluble tyrosine-sulfated peptide is present, we show that HIV-1JRCSF with the adaptive mutations [HIV-1JRCSF(Ad)] functions approximately 100 times more efficiently and that coreceptor activation is reversible, enabling synchronous efficient entry control under physiological conditions. This system revealed that three-stranded gp41 folding intermediates susceptible to the inhibitor enfuvirtide form slowly and asynchronously on cell surface virions but resolve rapidly, with virions generally forming only one target. Adsorbed virions asynchronously and transiently become competent for entry at 37°C but are inactivated if the CCR5 peptide is absent during their window of opportunity. This competency is conferred by endocytosis, which results in inactivation if the peptide is absent. For both wild-type and adapted HIV-1 isolates, early gp41 refolding steps obligatorily occur on cell surfaces, whereas the final step(s) is endosomal. This system powerfully dissects HIV-1 entry and inhibitor mechanisms.We present a powerful means to reversibly and efficiently activate or terminate HIV-1 entry by adding or removing a tyrosine-sulfated CCR5 peptide from the culture medium. This system uses stable cell clones and a variant of HIV-1JRCSF with three adaptive mutations. It enabled us to show that CCR5 coreceptor activation is rapidly reversible and to dissect aspects of entry that had previously been relatively intractable. Our analyses elucidate enfuvirtide (T-20) function and suggest that HIV-1 virions form only one nonredundant membrane fusion complex on cell surfaces. Additionally, we obtained novel and conclusive evidence that HIV-1 entry occurs in an assembly line manner, with some steps obligatorily occurring on cell surfaces and with final membrane fusion occurring in endosomes. Our results were confirmed for wild-type HIV-1. Thus, our paper provides major methodological and mechanistic insights about HIV-1 infection.
Project description:The CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry by altering the CCR5 extracellular loops (ECL), such that the gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) no longer recognize CCR5. The mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to MVC, the only CCR5 antagonist licensed for clinical use are poorly understood, with insights into MVC resistance almost exclusively limited to knowledge obtained from in vitro studies or from studies of resistance to other CCR5 antagonists. To more precisely understand mechanisms of resistance to MVC in vivo, we characterized Envs isolated from 2 subjects who experienced virologic failure on MVC.Envs were cloned from subjects 17 and 24 before commencement of MVC (17-Sens and 24-Sens) and after virologic failure (17-Res and 24-Res). The Envs cloned during virologic failure showed broad divergence in resistance levels, with 17-Res Env exhibiting a relatively high maximal percent inhibition (MPI) of ~90% in NP2-CD4/CCR5 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and 24-Res Env exhibiting a very low MPI of ~0 to 12% in both cell types, indicating relatively "weak" and "strong" resistance, respectively. Resistance mutations were strain-specific and mapped to the gp120 V3 loop. Affinity profiling by the 293-Affinofile assay and mathematical modeling using VERSA (Viral Entry Receptor Sensitivity Analysis) metrics revealed that 17-Res and 24-Res Envs engaged MVC-bound CCR5 inefficiently or very efficiently, respectively. Despite highly divergent phenotypes, and a lack of common gp120 resistance mutations, both resistant Envs exhibited an almost superimposable pattern of dramatically increased reliance on sulfated tyrosine residues in the CCR5 N-terminus, and on histidine residues in the CCR5 ECLs. This altered mechanism of CCR5 engagement rendered both the resistant Envs susceptible to neutralization by a sulfated peptide fragment of the CCR5 N-terminus.Clinical resistance to MVC may involve divergent Env phenotypes and different genetic alterations in gp120, but the molecular mechanism of resistance of the Envs studied here appears to be related. The increased reliance on sulfated CCR5 N-terminus residues suggests a new avenue to block HIV-1 entry by CCR5 N-terminus sulfopeptidomimetic drugs.
Project description:The HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 possesses sulfo-tyrosine (TYS) residues at its N-terminus (Nt) that are required for binding HIV-1 gp120 and mediating viral entry. By using a 14-residue fragment of CCR5 Nt containing two TYS residues, we recently showed that CCR5 Nt binds gp120 through a conserved region specific for TYS moieties and suggested that this site may represent a target for inhibitors and probes of HIV-1 entry. As peptides containing sulfo-tyrosines are difficult to synthesize and handle due to limited stability of the sulfo-ester moiety, we have now incorporated TYS isosteres into CCR5 Nt analogs and assessed their binding to a complex of gp120-CD4 using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). STD enhancements for CCR5 Nt peptides containing tyrosine sulfonate (TYSN) in complex with gp120-CD4 were very similar to those observed for sulfated CCR5 Nt peptides indicating comparable modes of binding. STD enhancements for phosphotyrosine-containing CCR5 Nt analogs were greatly diminished consistent with earlier findings showing sulfo-tyrosine to be essential for CCR5 Nt binding to gp120. Tyrosine sulfonate-containing CCR5 peptides exhibited reduced water solubility, limiting their use in assay and probe development. To improve solubility, we designed, synthesized, and incorporated in CCR5 Nt peptide analogs an orthogonally functionalized azido tris(ethylenoxy) l-alanine (l-ate-Ala) residue. Through NMR and SPR experiments, we show a 19-residue TYSN-containing peptide to be a functional, hydrolytically stable CCR5 Nt isostere that was in turn used to develop both SPR-based and ELISA assays to screen for inhibitors of CCR5 binding to gp120-CD4.
Project description:Tyrosine sulfate-mediated interactions play an important role in HIV-1 entry. After engaging the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein binds to the CCR5 co-receptor via an interaction that requires two tyrosine sulfates, at positions 10 and 14 in the CCR5-N terminus. Building on previous structure determinations of this interaction, here we report the targeting of these tyrosine sulfate binding sites for drug design through in silico screening of small molecule libraries, identification of lead compounds, and characterization of biological activity. A class of tyrosine sulfate-mimicking small molecules containing a "phenyl sulfonate-linker-aromatic" motif was identified that specifically inhibited binding of gp120 to the CCR5-N terminus as well as to sulfated antibodies that recognize the co-receptor binding region on gp120. The most potent of these compounds bound gp120 with low micromolar affinity and its CD4-induced conformation with K(D)'s as tight as ?50 nM. Neutralization experiments suggested the targeted site to be conformationally inaccessible prior to CD4 engagement. Primary HIV-1 isolates were weakly neutralized, preincubation with soluble CD4 enhanced neutralization, and engineered isolates with increased dependence on the N terminus of CCR5 or with reduced conformational barriers were neutralized with IC(50) values as low as ?1 ?M. These results reveal the potential of targeting the tyrosine sulfate interactions of HIV-1 and provide insight into how mechanistic barriers, evolved by HIV-1 to evade antibody recognition, also restrict small-molecule-mediated neutralization.
Project description:The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is a trimer of gp120/gp41 heterodimers that mediates viral entry. Env binds cellular CD4, an association which stabilizes a conformation favorable to its subsequent association with a coreceptor, typically CCR5 or CXCR4. The CD4- and coreceptor-binding sites serve as epitopes for two classes of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies: CD4-binding site (CD4bs) and CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, respectively. Here we observed that, at a fixed total concentration, mixtures of the CD4i antibodies (E51 or 412d) and the CD4bs antibody VRC01 neutralized the HIV-1 isolates 89.6, ADA, SG3, and SA32 more efficiently than either antibody alone. We found that E51, and to a lesser extent 412d and 17b, promoted association of four CD4bs antibodies to the Env trimer but not to monomeric gp120. We further demonstrated that the binding of the sulfotyrosine-binding pocket by CCR5mim2-Ig was sufficient for promoting CD4bs antibody binding to Env. Interestingly, the relationship is not reciprocal: CD4bs antibodies were not as efficient as CD4-Ig at promoting E51 or 412d binding to Env trimer. Consistent with these observations, CD4-Ig, but none of the CD4bs antibodies tested, substantially increased HIV-1 infection of a CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cell line. We conclude that the ability of CD4i antibodies to promote VRC01 association with Env trimers accounts for the increase potency of VRC01 and CD4i antibody mixtures. Our data further suggest that potent CD4bs antibodies avoid inducing Env conformations that bind CD4i antibodies or CCR5.Potent HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies can prevent viral transmission and suppress an ongoing infection. Here we show that CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, which recognize the conserved coreceptor-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), can increase the association of Env with potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize the CD4-binding site (CD4bs antibodies). We further show that, unlike soluble forms of CD4, CD4bs antibodies poorly induce envelope glycoprotein conformations that efficiently bind CCR5. This study provides insight into the properties of potent CD4bs antibodies and suggests that, under some conditions, CD4i antibodies can improve their potency. These observations may be helpful to the development of vaccines designed to elicit specific antibody classes.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein, a (gp120-gp41)3 trimer, mediates fusion of viral and host cell membranes after gp120 binding to host receptor CD4. Receptor binding triggers conformational changes allowing coreceptor (CCR5) recognition through CCR5's tyrosine-sulfated amino (N) terminus, release of the gp41 fusion peptide and fusion. We present 3.3?Å and 3.5?Å cryo-EM structures of E51, a tyrosine-sulfated coreceptor-mimicking antibody, complexed with a CD4-bound open HIV-1 native-like Env trimer. Two classes of asymmetric Env interact with E51, revealing tyrosine-sulfated interactions with gp120 mimicking CCR5 interactions, and two conformations of gp120-gp41 protomers (A and B protomers in AAB and ABB trimers) that differ in their degree of CD4-induced trimer opening and induction of changes to the fusion peptide. By integrating the new structural information with previous closed and open envelope trimer structures, we modeled the order of conformational changes on the path to coreceptor binding site exposure and subsequent viral-host cell membrane fusion.