Solution structure of Escherichia coli Par10: The prototypic member of the Parvulin family of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases.
ABSTRACT: E. coli Par10 is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) from Escherichia coli catalyzing the isomerization of Xaa-Pro bonds in oligopeptides with a broad substrate specificity. The structure of E. coli Par10 has been determined by multidimensional solution-state NMR spectroscopy based on 1207 conformational constraints (1067 NOE-derived distances, 42 vicinal coupling-constant restraints, 30 hydrogen-bond restraints, and 68 phi/psi restraints derived from the Chemical Shift Index). Simulated-annealing calculations with the program ARIA and subsequent refinement with XPLOR yielded a set of 18 convergent structures with an average backbone RMSD from mean atomic coordinates of 0.50 A within the well-defined secondary structure elements. E. coli Par10 is the smallest known PPIase so far, with a high catalytic efficiency comparable to that of FKBPs and cyclophilins. The secondary structure of E. coli Par10 consists of four helical regions and a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. The N terminus forms a beta-strand, followed by a large stretch comprising three alpha-helices. A loop region containing a short beta-strand separates these helices from a fourth alpha-helix. The C terminus consists of two more beta-strands completing the four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet with strand order 2143. Interestingly, the third beta-strand includes a Gly-Pro cis peptide bond. The curved beta-strand forms a hydrophobic binding pocket together with alpha-helix 4, which also contains a number of highly conserved residues. The three-dimensional structure of Par10 closely resembles that of the human proteins hPin1 and hPar14 and the plant protein Pin1At, belonging to the same family of highly homologous proteins.
Project description:The assignment of the side-chain NMR resonances and the determination of the three-dimensional solution structure of the C10S mutant of enzyme IIBcellobiose (IIBcel) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli are presented. The side-chain resonances were assigned nearly completely using a variety of mostly heteronuclear NMR experiments, including HCCH-TOCSY, HCCH-COSY, and COCCH-TOCSY experiments as well as CBCACOHA, CBCA(CO)NH, and HBHA(CBCA)(CO)NH experiments. In order to obtain the three-dimensional structure, NOE data were collected from 15N-NOESY-HSQC, 13C-HSQC-NOESY, and 2D NOE experiments. The distance restraints derived from these NOE data were used in distance geometry calculations followed by molecular dynamics and simulated annealing protocols. In an iterative procedure, additional NOE assignments were derived from the calculated structures and new structures were calculated. The final set of structures, calculated with approximately 2000 unambiguous and ambiguous distance restraints, has an rms deviation of 1.1 A on C alpha atoms. IIBcel consists of a four stranded parallel beta-sheet, in the order 2134. The sheet is flanked with two and three alpha-helices on either side. Residue 10, a cysteine in the wild-type enzyme, which is phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle, is located at the end of the first beta-strand. A loop that is proposed to be involved in the binding of the phosphoryl-group follows the cysteine. The loop appears to be disordered in the unphosphorylated state.
Project description:Lipoic acid is an essential prosthetic group in several metabolic pathways. The biosynthetic pathway of protein lipoylation in Escherichia coli involves gene products of the lip operon. YbeD is a conserved bacterial protein located in the dacA-lipB intergenic region. Here, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of YbeD from E. coli. The structure includes a beta alpha beta beta alpha beta fold with two alpha-helices on one side of a four-strand antiparallel beta-sheet. The beta 2-beta 3 loop shows the highest sequence conservation and is likely functionally important. The beta-sheet surface contains a patch of conserved hydrophobic residues, suggesting a role in protein-protein interactions. YbeD shows striking structural homology to the regulatory domain from d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, hinting at a role in the allosteric regulation of lipoic acid biosynthesis or the glycine cleavage system.
Project description:Designed peptides that fold autonomously to specific conformations in aqueous solution are useful for elucidating protein secondary structural preferences. For example, autonomously folding model systems have been essential for establishing the relationship between alpha-helix length and alpha-helix stability, which would be impossible to probe with alpha-helices embedded in folded proteins. Here, we use designed peptides to examine the effect of strand length on antiparallel beta-sheet stability. alpha-Helices become more stable as they grow longer. Our data show that a two-stranded beta-sheet ("beta-hairpin") becomes more stable when the strands are lengthened from five to seven residues, but that further strand lengthening to nine residues does not lead to further beta-hairpin stabilization for several extension sequences examined. (In one case, all-threonine extension, there may be an additional stabilization on strand lengthening from seven to nine residues.) These results suggest that there may be an intrinsic limit to strand length for most sequences in antiparallel beta-sheet secondary structure.
Project description:To help elucidate the role of secondary structure packing preferences in protein folding, here we present an analysis of the packing geometry observed between alpha-helices and between alpha-helices and beta-sheets in 1316 diverse, nonredundant protein structures. Finite-length vectors were fit to the alpha-carbon atoms in each of the helices and strands, and the packing angle between the vectors, Omega, was determined at the closest point of approach within each helix-helix or helix-sheet pair. Helix-sheet interactions were found in 391 of the proteins, and the distributions of Omega values were calculated for all the helix-sheet and helix-helix interactions. The packing angle preferences for helix-helix interactions are similar to those previously observed. However, analysis of helix-strand packing preferences uncovered a remarkable tendency for helices to align antiparallel to parallel regions of beta-sheets, independent of the topological constraints or prevalence of beta-alpha-beta motifs in the proteins. This packing angle preference is significantly diminished in helix interactions involving mixed and antiparallel beta-sheets, suggesting a role for helix-sheet dipole alignment in guiding supersecondary structure formation in protein folding. This knowledge of preferred packing angles can be used to guide the engineering of stable protein modules.
Project description:The high-resolution three-dimensional solution structure of the plant toxin hordothionin-alpha obtained from korean barley was determined by using two-dimensional NMR techniques combined with distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics. Experimentally derived restraints including 292 interproton distances from nuclear Overhauser effect measurements, 16 hydrogen bond restraints together with four disulphide bridge restraints were used as input to calculations of distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics. Also included in the calculations were 36 phi and 17 chi 1 torsion angles obtained from 33JHN alpha and 3J alpha beta coupling constants in double quantum filtered COSY and primitive exclusive COSY experiments, respectively. The overall protein fold is similar to crambin and purothionin-alpha 1. Two alpha-helices running in opposite directions are found on the basis of 3JHN alpha and 3J alpha beta and deuterium exchange rates for backbone NH protons, and encompass residues 7-18 and 22-28. These two helices are connected by a turn and form a 'helix-turn-helix' motif. A short stretch of an anti-parallel beta-sheet exists between residues 1-4 and 31-34. the two protein termini of hordothionin-alpha are 'well-anchored'; the N-terminus of the protein is immobilized by this short beta-sheet whereas the C-terminus is 'pasted' to the carbonyl group of Cys-4 by a very stable hydrogen bond. The average root-mean-square differences for the backbone and heavy atoms after the restrained molecular dynamics calculations are 0.62 and 1.16 A respectively. These numbers represent a significant improvement over the corresponding values for the previous NMR structures of other thionins. The distance violation from the experimental interproton distances for the final structures is 0.14 for all atoms.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, FtsZ, a homologue of eukaryotic tubulins, and ZipA, a membrane-anchored protein that binds to FtsZ, are two essential components of the septal ring structure that mediates cell division. Recent data indicate that ZipA is involved in the assembly of the ring by linking FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane and that the ZipA-FtsZ interaction is mediated by their C-terminal domains. We present the X-ray crystal structures of the C-terminal FtsZ-binding domain of ZipA and a complex between this domain and a C-terminal fragment of FtsZ. The ZipA domain is a six-stranded beta-sheet packed against three alpha-helices and contains the split beta-alpha-beta motif found in many RNA-binding proteins. The uncovered side of the sheet incorporates a shallow hydrophobic cavity exposed to solvent. In the complex, the 17-residue FtsZ fragment occupies this entire cavity of ZipA and binds as an extended beta-strand followed by alpha-helix. An alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis of the FtsZ fragment was also performed, which shows that only a small cluster of the buried FtsZ side chains is critical in binding to ZipA.
Project description:The high-resolution three-dimensional structure of the plant toxin viscotoxin A3, from Viscum album L., has been determined in solution by (1)H NMR spectroscopy at pH 3.6 and 12 degrees C (the structure has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under the id. code 1ED0). Experimentally derived restraints including 734 interproton distances from nuclear Overhauser effect measurements, 22 hydrogen bonds, 32 φ angle restraints from J coupling measurements, together with three disulphide bridge constraints were used as input in restrained molecular dynamics, followed by minimization, using DYANA and Discover. Backbone and heavy atom root-mean-square deviations were 0.47+/-0.11 A (1 A=10(-10) m) and 0.85+/-0.13 A respectively. Viscotoxin A3 consists of two alpha-helices connected by a turn and a short stretch of antiparallel beta-sheet. This fold is similar to that found in other thionins, such as crambin, hordothionin-alpha and -beta, phoratoxin A and purothionin-alpha and -beta. The difference in the observed biological activity for thionins of known structure is discussed in terms of the differences in the calculated surface potential distribution, playing an important role in their function through disruption of cell membranes. In addition, the possible role in DNA binding of the helix-turn-helix motif of viscotoxin A3 is discussed.
Project description:The structure of the 84 residue DNA binding domain of the Escherichia coli LexA repressor has been determined from NMR data using distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics. The assignment of the 1H NMR spectrum of the molecule, derived from 2- and 3-D homonuclear experiments, is also reported. A total of 613 non-redundant distance restraints were used to give a final family of 28 structures. The structured region of the molecule consisted of residues 4-69 and yielded a r.m.s. deviation from an average of 0.9 A for backbone and 1.6 A for all heavy atoms. The structure contains three regular alpha-helices at residues 6-21 (I), 28-35 (II) and 41-52 (III), and an antiparallel beta-sheet at residues 56-58 and 66-68. Helices II and III form a variant helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif, with an unusual one residue insert at residue 38. The topology of the LexA DNA binding domain is found to be the same as for the DNA binding domains of the catabolic activator protein, human histone 5, the HNF-3/fork head protein and the Kluyveromyces lactis heat shock transcription factor.
Project description:The crystal structure of Escherichia coli PhnF C-terminal domain (C-PhnF) was solved at 1.7 A resolution by the single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. The PhnF protein belongs to the HutC subfamily of the large GntR transcriptional regulator family. Members of this family share similar N-terminal DNA-binding domains, but are divided into four subfamilies according to their heterogenic C-terminal domains, which are involved in effector binding and oligomerization. The C-PhnF structure provides for the first time the scaffold of this domain for the HutC subfamily, which covers about 31% of GntR-like regulators. The structure represents a mixture of alpha-helices and beta-strands, with a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet at the core. C-PhnF monomers form a dimer by establishing interdomain eight-strand beta-sheets that include core antiparallel and N-terminal two-strand parallel beta-sheets from each monomer. C-PhnF shares strong structural similarity with the chorismate lyase fold, which features a buried active site locked behind two helix-turn-helix loops. The structural comparison of the C-PhnF and UbiC proteins allows us to propose that a similar site in the PhnF structure is adapted for effector binding.
Project description:An N-terminally truncated and cooperatively folded version (residues 6-39) of the human Pin1 WW domain (hPin1 WW hereafter) has served as an excellent model system for understanding triple-stranded beta-sheet folding energetics. Here we report that the negatively charged N-terminal sequence (Met1-Ala-Asp-Glu-Glu5) previously deleted, and which is not conserved in highly homologous WW domain family members from yeast or certain fungi, significantly increases the stability of hPin1 WW (approximately 4 kJ mol(-1) at 65 degrees C), in the context of the 1-39 sequence based on equilibrium measurements. N-terminal truncations and mutations in conjunction with a double mutant cycle analysis and a recently published high-resolution X-ray structure of the hPin1 cis/trans-isomerase suggest that the increase in stability is due to an energetically favorable ionic interaction between the negatively charged side chains in the N terminus of full-length hPin1 WW and the positively charged epsilon-ammonium group of residue Lys13 in beta-strand 1. Our data therefore suggest that the ionic interaction between Lys13 and the charged N terminus is the optimal solution for enhanced stability without compromising function, as ascertained by ligand binding studies. Kinetic laser temperature-jump relaxation studies reveal that this stabilizing interaction has not formed to a significant extent in the folding transition state at near physiological temperature, suggesting a differential contribution of the negatively charged N-terminal sequence to protein stability and folding rate. As neither the N-terminal sequence nor Lys13 are highly conserved among WW domains, our data further suggest that caution must be exercised when selecting domain boundaries for WW domains for structural, functional, or thermodynamic studies.