Molecular subtyping scheme for serotypes HS1 and HS4 of Campylobacter jejuni.
ABSTRACT: We describe a molecular subtyping scheme for two principal O (heat-stable [HS]) serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni, HS1 and the HS4 complex. A 16S rRNA gene-specific probe confirmed that almost all the C. jejuni strains had three copies of this gene, and strains could be assigned with complete typeability to 1 of 16 combined (Pst1 and HaeIII) 16S ribotypes. Macrorestriction profiles (mrps) consisting of up to 10 SmaI fragments from approximately 40 to approximately 480 kbp were resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). There were 11 mrps among the HS1 strains and 9 mrps among HS4 strains which corresponded to valid types--they occurred in multiple isolates, hosts, places, and times. There were 14 additional single-strain mrp fingerprints in HS1 and 20 in HS4. PFGE exhibited complete typeability when formaldehyde fixation of cells was employed, and PFGE was generally more differential than ribotyping. The data presented elucidate a high-resolution genotypic subtyping scheme for these common subspecific phenotypes of C. jejuni, which is both coherent and efficient for epidemiological purposes.
Project description:A molecular typing approach for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was developed with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 9.6-kb PCR-amplified portion of the lipopolysaccharide gene cluster. Sixty-one Penner serotype reference strains were analyzed with this new genotyping scheme, and 32 genogroups were found. Eleven additional genogroups were obtained from 87 clinical C. jejuni strains tested. This molecular typing method shows a correlation with the Penner heat-stable serotyping method, a phenotypic typing method based on lipopolysaccharide structures that is often used as a "gold standard" for subtyping Campylobacter spp. This strong correlation suggests that the data obtained can be directly compared with epidemiological data collected in the past by classical serotyping of C. jejuni and C. coli. In contrast to the high percentage of nontypeability by phenotyping, this molecular typing method results in 100% typeability and provides a superior alternative to serotyping.
Project description:To overcome some of the deficiencies with current molecular typing schema for Campylobacter spp., we developed a prototype PCR binary typing (P-BIT) approach. We investigated the distribution of 68 gene targets in 58 Campylobacter jejuni strains, one Campylobacter lari strain, and two Campylobacter coli strains for this purpose. Gene targets were selected on the basis of distribution in multiple genomes or plasmids, and known or putative status as an epidemicity factor. Strains were examined with Penner serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE; using SmaI and KpnI enzymes), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches for comparison. P-BIT provided 100% typeability for strains and gave a diversity index of 98.5%, compared with 97.0% for SmaI PFGE, 99.4% for KpnI PFGE, 96.1% for MLST, and 92.8% for serotyping. Numerical analysis of the P-BIT data clearly distinguished strains of the three Campylobacter species examined and correlated somewhat with MLST clonal complex assignations and with previous classifications of "high" and "low" risk. We identified 18 gene targets that conferred the same level of discrimination as the 68 initially examined. We conclude that P-BIT is a useful approach for subtyping, offering advantages of speed, cost, and potential for strain risk ranking unavailable from current molecular typing schema for Campylobacter spp.
Project description:Globin gene transfer in autologous hematopoietic stem cells is a promising therapeutic option for subjects with beta-thalassemia major. In this approach, high level, erythroid-specific globin transgene expression should correct ineffective erythropoiesis and hemolytic anemia following the delivery of only 1 to 2 vector copies per cell. The generation of vectors that provide high-level globin expression and require low vector copy (VC) integration is therefore essential for both safety and efficacy. We show here the major roles played by 2 lesser-known locus control region elements, termed HS1 and HS4. Partial deletions within HS4 markedly reduce in vivo globin expression requiring multiple VC per cell to correct the anemia. Most strikingly, addition of HS1 to HS2-3-4 increases globin expression by 52%, yielding 9 g Hb/VC in beta-thalassemic mice. Thus, while vectors encoding HS2-3-4 provide curative levels of hemoglobin at 1 to 2 copies per cell, adding HS1 is a promising alternative strategy if upcoming clinical trials prove higher levels of expression to be necessary.
Project description:A 213 kb human beta-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (beta-YAC) was modified by homologous recombination to delete 2.9 kb of cross-species conserved sequence similarity encompassing the LCR 5' hypersensitive site (HS) 4 (Delta5'HS4 beta-YAC). In three transgenic mouse lines, completion of the gamma- to beta-globin switch during definitive erythropoiesis was delayed relative to wild-type beta-YAC mice. In addition, quantitative per-copy human beta-like globin mRNA levels were similar to wild-type beta-YAC transgenic lines, although beta-globin gene expression was slightly decreased in the day 12 fetal liver of Delta5'HS4 beta-YAC mice. A 0.8 kb 5'HS1 fragment was similarly deleted in the YAC. Three Delta5'HS1 beta-YAC transgenic lines were established. epsilon-globin gene expression was markedly reduced, approximately 16 fold, during primitive erythropoiesis compared to wild-type beta-YAC mice, but gamma-globin expression levels were unaffected. However, during the fetal stage of definitive erythropoiesis, gamma-globin gene expression was decreased approximately 4 fold at day 12 and approximately 5 fold at day 14. Temporal developmental expression profiles of the beta-like globin genes were unaffected by deletion of 5'HS1. Decreased expression of the epsilon- and gamma-globin genes is the first phenotype ascribed to a 5'HS1 mutation in the human beta-globin locus, suggesting that this HS does indeed have a role in LCR function beyond simply a combined synergism with the other LCR HSs.
Project description:At present, the most used methods for Klebsiella pneumoniae subtyping are multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, the discriminatory power of MLST could not meet the need for distinguishing outbreak and non-outbreak isolates and the PFGE is time-consuming and labor-intensive. A core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme for whole-genome sequence-based typing of K. pneumoniae was developed for solving the disadvantages of these traditional molecular subtyping methods. Firstly, we used the complete genome of K. pneumoniae strain HKUOPLC as the reference genome and 907 genomes of K. pneumoniae download from NCBI database as original genome dataset to determine cgMLST target genes. A total of 1,143 genes were retained as cgMLST target genes. Secondly, we used 26 K. pneumoniae strains from a nosocomial infection outbreak to evaluate the cgMLST scheme. cgMLST enabled clustering of outbreak strains with <10 alleles difference and unambiguous separation from unrelated outgroup strains. Moreover, cgMLST revealed that there may be several sub-clones of epidemic ST11 clone. In conclusion, the novel cgMLST scheme not only showed higher discriminatory power compared with PFGE and MLST in outbreak investigations but also showed ability to reveal more population structure characteristics than MLST.
Project description:Organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are especially important pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF), with a propensity for patient-to-patient spread and long-term respiratory colonization. B. cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans account for the majority of infections in CF, and major epidemic clones have been recognized throughout the world. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme for B. cenocepacia. Potential VNTR loci were identified upon analysis of the annotated genome sequences of B. cenocepacia strains AU1054, J2315, and MCO-3, and 10 of them were selected on the basis of polymorphisms and size. A collection of 100 B. cenocepacia strains, including epidemiologically related and unrelated strains, as well as representatives of the major epidemic lineages, was used to evaluate typeability, epidemiological concordance, and the discriminatory power of MLVA-10 compared with those of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Longitudinal stability was assessed by testing 39 successive isolates from 14 patients. Typeability ranged from 0.91 to 1, except for that of one marker, which was not amplified in 53% of the B. cenocepacia IIIA strains. The MLVA types were shown to be stable in chronically colonized patients and within outbreak-related strains, with excellent epidemiological concordance. Epidemic and/or globally distributed lineages (epidemic Edinburgh-Toronto electrophoretic type 12 [ET-12], sequence type 32 [ST-32], ST-122, ST-234, and ST-241) were successfully identified. Conversely, the discriminatory power of MLVA was lower than that of PFGE or MLST, although PFGE variations within the epidemic lineages sometimes masked their genetic relatedness. In conclusion, MLVA represents a promising cost-effective first-line tool in B. cenocepacia surveillance.
Project description:Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been proven useful for the study of the global population structure of Campylobacter jejuni; however, its usefulness for the investigation of outbreaks of disease caused by C. jejuni has not been proven. In this study, MLST plus sequencing of the flaA short variable region (SVR) were applied to 47 isolates from 12 outbreaks of C. jejuni infection whose relatedness has been determined previously, and the results were compared to those of serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates implicated in an outbreak were indistinguishable by all four subtyping methods, with sporadic isolates being distinguished from outbreak isolates. Two sporadic isolates from one outbreak were resistant to SmaI digestion and therefore nontypeable by PFGE but were differentiated from the outbreak strain by the other methods. PFGE and flaA SVR typing were the most discriminatory methods, with discriminatory indices (DI) of 0.930 and 0.923, respectively. However, an epidemic strain from one outbreak was distinguished from the other outbreak isolates by flaA SVR typing; its flaA allele was different at five nucleotides, suggesting that this change was possibly mediated by recombination. MLST was less discriminatory than PFGE and flaA SVR typing (DI = 0.859), and many of the epidemic strains possessed common sequence types (STs) including ST-8, -21, -22, and -42. However, further discrimination within STs was achieved by flaA SVR typing or PFGE. The results from this study demonstrate that a combined approach of MLST plus flaA SVR typing provides a level of discrimination equivalent to PFGE for outbreak investigations.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne disease in the United States. Molecular subtyping methods are powerful tools for tracking the farm-to-fork spread of food-borne pathogens during outbreaks. In order to develop a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for subtyping the major serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica, the virulence genes sseL and fimH and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci were sequenced from 171 clinical isolates from nine Salmonella serovars, Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, Javiana, I 4,,12:i:-, Montevideo, Muenchen, and Saintpaul. The MLST scheme using only virulence genes was congruent with serotyping and identified epidemic clones but could not differentiate outbreaks. The addition of CRISPR sequences dramatically improved discriminatory power by differentiating individual outbreak strains/clones. Of particular note, the present MLST scheme provided better discrimination of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis strains than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This method showed high epidemiologic concordance for all serovars screened except for Salmonella serovar Muenchen. In conclusion, the novel MLST scheme described in the present study accurately differentiated outbreak strains/clones of the major serovars of Salmonella, and therefore, it shows promise for subtyping this important food-borne pathogen during investigations of outbreaks.
Project description:Histophilus somni, a member of the family Pasteurellaceae, causes a variety of diseases, including thromboembolic meningoencephalitis (TEME) and respiratory diseases, which result in considerable economic losses to the cattle and sheep industries. In this study, 132 chronologically diverse isolates from cattle in Japan and 68 isolates from other countries comprising 49 from cattle and 19 from sheep were characterized using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene sequence and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses. The H. somni isolates formed nine MOMP genetic clades (clade Ia, Ib, and II-VIII) and 10 PFGE clusters (HS1-HS10). Except for two (1.0%), all isolates fell into one of the nine MOMP genetic clades, while 62 (31.0%) isolates belonged to no PFGE cluster. MOMP genetic clade Ia and PFGE cluster HS1 were the major groups, and all HS1 isolates possessed the clade Ia MOMP gene. Isolates from TEME cases were significantly associated with these major groups (chi-square test, p < 0.0001), as 88.2% of the TEME isolates belonged to MOMP genetic clade Ia and PFGE cluster HS1, which formed the most predominant clonal group. After an inactivated vaccine using an HS1 strain with the clade Ia MOMP gene was introduced in Japan in late 1989, the number of TEME cases and isolates assigned into the clonal group decreased simultaneously. However, the proportions of clade Ia and cluster HS1 isolates from TEME cases remained high after 1990. These results suggest a close association of TEME with PFGE cluster HS1 and MOMP genetic clade Ia, and imply the presence of factors or characteristics commonly possessed by those strains that contribute to the development of TEME.
Project description:The human beta-globin LCR plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of the beta-globin locus and comprises four erythroid specific DNase I hypersensitive sites, designated 5'HS1-4. We have now isolated genomic clones containing 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 of the mouse beta-globin LCR. 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 are located 15 kb and 22 kb upstream of the mouse epsilon y-globin gene, respectively. Sequence analysis of murine 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 reveals a significant degree of sequence conservation with their human homologues, including the presence of recognition sites for functionally relevant transcription factors. 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 regions were found to form hypersensitive sites in nuclei from murine erythroid cells, but not in nuclei from a variety of nonerythroid haematopoietic cell lines. Analysis of different mouse strains revealed the existence of a polymorphism that alters the spacing between 5'HS3 and 5'HS4. Taken together, our results emphasize the extent of evolutionary conservation and complexity of mammalian beta-globin LCRs. Finally, the cloning of mouse 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 will facilitate the molecular analysis of LCR function in the mouse model.