Molecular modeling of family GH16 glycoside hydrolases: potential roles for xyloglucan transglucosylases/hydrolases in cell wall modification in the poaceae.
ABSTRACT: Family GH16 glycoside hydrolases can be assigned to five subgroups according to their substrate specificities, including xyloglucan transglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs), (1,3)-beta-galactanases, (1,4)-beta-galactanases/kappa-carrageenases, "nonspecific" (1,3/1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases, and (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases. A structured family GH16 glycoside hydrolase database has been constructed (http://www.ghdb.uni-stuttgart.de) and provides multiple sequence alignments with functionally annotated amino acid residues and phylogenetic trees. The database has been used for homology modeling of seven glycoside hydrolases from the GH16 family with various substrate specificities, based on structural coordinates for (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases and a kappa-carrageenase. In combination with multiple sequence alignments, the models predict the three-dimensional (3D) dispositions of amino acid residues in the substrate-binding and catalytic sites of XTHs and (1,3/1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucan endohydrolases; there is no structural information available in the databases for the latter group of enzymes. Models of the XTHs, compared with the recently determined structure of a Populus tremulos x tremuloides XTH, reveal similarities with the active sites of family GH11 (1,4)-beta-D-xylan endohydrolases. From a biological viewpoint, the classification, molecular modeling and a new 3D structure of the P. tremulos x tremuloides XTH establish structural and evolutionary connections between XTHs, (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases and xylan endohydrolases. These findings raise the possibility that XTHs from higher plants could be active not only on cell wall xyloglucans, but also on (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans and arabinoxylans, which are major components of walls in grasses. A role for XTHs in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan and arabinoxylan modification would be consistent with the apparent overrepresentation of XTH sequences in cereal expressed sequence tags databases.
Project description:Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is a cell-wall-modifying enzyme participating in diverse cell morphogenetic processes and adaptation to stress. In this study, 48 XTH genes were identified from two pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars ('F153' and 'MD2') and designated Ac(F153)XTH1 to -24 and Ac(MD2)XTH1 to -24 based on their orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Endoglucanase family 16 members were identified in addition to XTHs of glycoside hydrolase family 16. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the XTHs into three major groups (Group I/II, III and Ancestral Group) and Group III was subdivided into Group IIIA and Group IIIB. Similar gene structure and motif number were observed within a group. Two highly conserved domains, glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16-XET) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase C-terminus (C-XET), were detected by multiple sequences alignment of all XTHs. Segmental replication were detected in the two cultivars, with only the paralogous pair Ac(F153)XTH7-Ac(F153)XTH18 presented in 'F153' prior to genomic expansion. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that XTHs were involved in the regulation of fruit ripening and crassulacean acid metabolism with tissue specificity and quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested that Ac(MD2)XTH18 was involved in root growth. The results enhance our understanding of XTHs in the plant kingdom and provide a basis for further studies of functional diversity in A. comosus.
Project description:The large xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family continues to be the focus of much attention in studies of plant cell wall morphogenesis due to the unique catalytic functions of the enzymes it encodes. The XTH gene products compose a subfamily of glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16), which also comprises a broad range of microbial endoglucanases and endogalactanases, as well as yeast cell wall chitin/?-glucan transglycosylases. Previous whole-family phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the closest relatives to the XTH gene products are the bacterial licheninases (EC 126.96.36.199), which specifically hydrolyze linear mixed linkage ?(1?3)/?(1?4)-glucans. In addition to their specificity for the highly branched xyloglucan polysaccharide, XTH gene products are distinguished from the licheninases and other GH16 enzyme subfamilies by significant active site loop alterations and a large C-terminal extension. Given these differences, the molecular evolution of the XTH gene products in GH16 has remained enigmatic. Here, we present the biochemical and structural analysis of a unique, mixed function endoglucanase from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), which reveals a small, newly recognized subfamily of GH16 members intermediate between the bacterial licheninases and plant XTH gene products. We postulate that this clade comprises an important link in the evolution of the large plant XTH gene families from a putative microbial ancestor. As such, this analysis provides new insights into the diversification of GH16 and further unites the apparently disparate members of this important family of proteins.
Project description:The xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family encodes enzymes of central importance to plant cell wall remodeling. The evolutionary history of plant XTH gene products is incompletely understood vis-à-vis the larger body of bacterial endoglycanases in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 (GH16). To provide molecular insight into this issue, high-resolution X-ray crystal structures and detailed enzyme kinetics of an extant transitional plant endoglucanase (EG) were determined. Functionally intermediate between plant XTH gene products and bacterial licheninases of GH16, Vitis vinifera EG16 (VvEG16) effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of the backbones of two dominant plant cell wall matrix glycans, xyloglucan (XyG) and ?(1,3)/?(1,4)-mixed-linkage glucan (MLG). Crystallographic complexes with extended oligosaccharide substrates reveal the structural basis for the accommodation of both unbranched, mixed-linked (MLG) and highly decorated, linear (XyG) polysaccharide chains in a broad, extended active-site cleft. Structural comparison with representative bacterial licheninases, a xyloglucan endotranglycosylase (XET), and a xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH) outline the functional ramifications of key sequence deletions and insertions across the phylogenetic landscape of GH16. Although the biological role(s) of EG16 orthologs remains to be fully resolved, the present biochemical and tertiary structural characterization provides key insight into plant cell wall enzyme evolution, which will continue to inform genomic analyses and functional studies across species.
Project description:(1,3;1,4)-?-Glucan is an important component of the cell walls of barley grain as it affects processability during the production of alcoholic beverages and has significant human health benefits when consumed above recommended threshold levels. This leads to diametrically opposed quality requirements for different applications as low levels of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan are required for brewing and distilling and high levels for positive impacts on human health.We quantified grain (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan content in a collection of 399 2-row Spring-type, and 204 2-row Winter-type elite barley cultivars originating mainly from north western Europe. We combined these data with genotypic information derived using a 9 K Illumina iSelect SNP platform and subsequently carried out a Genome Wide Association Scan (GWAS). Statistical analysis accounting for residual genetic structure within the germplasm collection allowed us to identify significant associations between molecular markers and the phenotypic data. By anchoring the regions that contain these associations to the barley genome assembly we catalogued genes underlying the associations. Based on gene annotations and transcript abundance data we identified candidate genes.We show that a region of the genome on chromosome 2 containing a cluster of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (Csl) genes, including CslF3, CslF4, CslF8, CslF10, CslF12 and CslH, as well as a region on chromosome 1H containing CslF9, are associated with the phenotype in this germplasm. We also observed that several regions identified by GWAS contain glycoside hydrolases that are possibly involved in (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan breakdown, together with other genes that might participate in (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan synthesis, re-modelling or regulation. This analysis provides new opportunities for understanding the genes related to the regulation of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan content in cereal grains.
Project description:?-1,4-Galactanases are glycoside hydrolases that are involved in the degradation of pectin and belong to family 53 in the classification of glycoside hydrolases. Previous studies have elucidated the structures of several fungal and two bacterial galactanases, while biochemical studies have indicated differences in the product profiles of different members of the family. Structural studies of ligand complexes have to date been limited to the bacterial members of the family. Here, the first structure of a fungal galactanase in complex with a disaccharide is presented. Galactobiose binds to subsites -1 and -2, thus improving our understanding of ligand binding to galactanases.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although xyloglucans are ubiquitous in land plants, they are less abundant in Poales species than in eudicotyledons. Poales cell walls contain higher levels of ?-1,3/1,4 mixed-linked glucans and arabinoxylans than xyloglucans. Despite the relatively low level of xyloglucans in Poales, the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family in rice (Oryza sativa) is comparable in size to that of the eudicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana. This raises the question of whether xyloglucan is a substrate for rice XTH gene products, whose enzyme activity remains largely uncharacterized. METHODS: This study focused on OsXTH19 (which belongs to Group IIIA of the XTH family and is specifically expressed in growing tissues of rice shoots), and two other XTHs, OsXTH11 (Group I/II) and OsXTH20 (Group IIIA), for reference, and measurements were made of the enzymatic activities of three recombinant rice XTHs, i.e. OsXTH11, OsXTH20 and OsXTH19. KEY RESULTS: All three OsXTH gene products have xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH, EC 3·2·1·151) activity, and OsXTH11 has both XEH and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET, EC 2·4·1207) activities. However, these proteins had neither hydrolase nor transglucosylase activity when glucuronoarabinoxylan or mixed-linkage glucan was used as the substrate. These results are consistent with histological observations demonstrating that pOsXTH19::GUS is expressed specifically in the vicinity of tissues where xyloglucan immunoreactivity is present. Transgenic rice lines over-expressing OsXTH19 (harbouring a Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter::OsXTH19 cDNA construct) or with suppressed OsXTH19 expression (harbouring a pOsXTH19 RNAi construct) did not show dramatic phenotypic changes, suggesting functional redundancy and collaboration among XTH family members, as was observed in A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: OsXTH20 and OsXTH19 act as hydrolases exclusively on xyloglucan, while OsXTH11 exhibits both hydrolase and XET activities exclusively on xyloglucans. Phenotypic analysis of transgenic lines with altered expression of OsXTH19 suggests that OsXTH19 and related XTH(s) play redundant roles in rice growth.
Project description:Plants are highly attuned to translating environmental changes to appropriate modifications in growth. Such phenotypic plasticity is observed in dense vegetations, where shading by neighboring plants, triggers rapid unidirectional shoot growth (shade avoidance), such as petiole elongation, which is partly under the control of auxin. This growth is fuelled by cellular expansion requiring cell-wall modification by proteins such as xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). Cortical microtubules (cMTs) are highly dynamic cytoskeletal structures that are also implicated in growth regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the tripartite interaction between auxin, cMTs and XTHs in shade avoidance. Our results indicate a role for cMTs to control rapid petiole elongation in Arabidopsis during shade avoidance. Genetic and pharmacological perturbation of cMTs obliterated shade-induced growth and led to a reduction in XTH activity as well. Furthermore, the cMT disruption repressed the shade-induced expression of a specific set of XTHs. These XTHs were also regulated by the hormone auxin, an important regulator of plant developmental plasticity and also of several shade avoidance responses. Accordingly, the effect of cMT disruption on the shade enhanced XTH expression could be rescued by auxin application. Based on the results we hypothesize that cMTs can mediate petiole elongation during shade avoidance by regulating the expression of cell wall modifying proteins via control of auxin distribution.
Project description:Yeast cell wall remodeling is controlled by the equilibrium between glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, and transglycosylases. Family 72 glycoside hydrolases (GH72) are ubiquitous in fungal organisms and are known to possess significant transglycosylase activity, producing elongated beta(1-3) glucan chains. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the balance between hydrolysis and transglycosylation in these enzymes are not understood. Here we present the first crystal structure of a glucan transglycosylase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gas2 (ScGas2), revealing a multidomain fold, with a (betaalpha)(8) catalytic core and a separate glucan binding domain with an elongated, conserved glucan binding groove. Structures of ScGas2 complexes with different beta-glucan substrate/product oligosaccharides provide "snapshots" of substrate binding and hydrolysis/transglycosylation giving the first insights into the mechanisms these enzymes employ to drive beta(1-3) glucan elongation. Together with mutagenesis and analysis of reaction products, the structures suggest a "base occlusion" mechanism through which these enzymes protect the covalent protein-enzyme intermediate from a water nucleophile, thus controlling the balance between hydrolysis and transglycosylation and driving the elongation of beta(1-3) glucan chains in the yeast cell wall.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes (XTHs) are a multigene family and play key roles in regulating cell wall extensibility in plant growth and development. Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea contain XTHs, but detailed identification and characterization of the XTH family in these species, and analysis of their tissue expression profiles, have not previously been carried out. RESULTS:In this study, 53 and 38 XTH genes were identified in B. rapa and B. oleracea respectively, which contained some novel members not observed in previous studies. All XTHs of B. rapa, B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana could be classified into three groups, Group I/II, III and the Early diverging group, based on phylogenetic relationships. Gene structures and motif patterns were similar within each group. All XTHs in this study contained two characteristic conserved domains (Glyco_hydro and XET_C). XTHs are located mainly in the cell wall but some are also located in the cytoplasm. Analyses of the mechanisms of gene family expansion revealed that whole-genome triplication (WGT) events and tandem duplication (TD) may have been the major mechanisms accounting for the expansion of the XTH gene family. Interestingly, TD genes all belonged to Group I/II, suggesting that TD was the main reason for the largest number of genes being in these groups. B. oleracea had lost more of the XTH genes, the conserved domain XET_C and the conserved active-site motif EXDXE compared with B. rapa, consistent with asymmetrical evolution between the two Brassica genomes. A majority of XTH genes exhibited different tissue-specific expression patterns based on RNA-seq data analyses. Moreover, there was differential expression of duplicated XTH genes in the two species, indicating that their functional differentiation occurred after B. rapa and B. oleracea diverged from a common ancestor. CONCLUSIONS:We carried out the first systematic analysis of XTH gene families in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The results of this investigation can be used for reference in further studies on the functions of XTH genes and the evolution of this multigene family.
Project description:beta-1,4-Galactanases hydrolyze the galactan side chains that are part of the complex carbohydrate structure of the pectin. They are assigned to family 53 of the glycoside hydrolases and display significant variations in their pH and temperature optimum and stability. Two fungal beta-1,4-galactanases from Myceliophthora thermophila and Humicola insolens have been cloned and heterologously expressed, and the crystal structures of the gene products were determined. The structures are compared to the previously only known family 53 structure of the galactanase from Aspergillus aculeatus (AAGAL) showing approximately 56% identity. The M. thermophila and H. insolens galactanases are thermophilic enzymes and are most active at neutral to basic pH, whereas AAGAL is mesophilic and most active at acidic pH. The structure of the M. thermophila galactanase (MTGAL) was determined from crystals obtained with HEPES and TRIS buffers to 1.88 A and 2.14 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the H. insolens galactanase (HIGAL) was determined to 2.55 A resolution. The thermostability of MTGAL and HIGAL correlates with increase in the protein rigidity and electrostatic interactions, stabilization of the alpha-helices, and a tighter packing. An inspection of the active sites in the three enzymes identifies several amino acid substitutions that could explain the variation in pH optimum. Examination of the activity as a function of pH for the D182N mutant of AAGAL and the A90S/ H91D mutant of MTGAL showed that the difference in pH optimum between AAGAL and MTGAL is at least partially associated with differences in the nature of residues at positions 182, 90, and/or 91.