Sequencing emm-specific PCR products for routine and accurate typing of group A streptococci.
ABSTRACT: Rapid sequence analysis of specific PCR products was used to accurately deduce emm types corresponding to the majority of the known group A streptococcal (GAS) M serotypes. The study involved 95 M type reference GAS strains and a survey of 74 recent clinical isolates. A high percentage of agreement between M type serology and the previously published 5' sequences of the emm genes of M type reference strains was noted. The 5' sequences for six established M protein genes--the emm-32, emm-34, emm-38, emm-40, emm-42, and emm-71 genes--were determined to supplement the existing emm sequence database. Rapid sequence analysis differentiated serologically M-nontypeable strains and was used to establish the probable.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The major virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of streptococcal strains include M protein encoded by emm and emm-like (emmL) genes and superantigens. In this study, the distribution of emm, emmL and superantigen genes was analyzed among the streptococcal strains isolated from the patients of acute pharyngitis. METHODS: The streptococcal strains were isolated from the throat swabs of 1040 patients of acute pharyngitis. The emm and emmL genes were PCR amplified from each strain and sequenced to determine the emm types. The dot-blot hybridization was performed to confirm the pathogens as true emm nontypeable strains. The presence of eleven currently known superantigens was determined in all the strains by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Totally, 124 beta-hemolytic streptococcal strains were isolated and they were classified as group A streptococcus (GAS) [15.3% (19/124)], group C streptococcus (GCS) [59.7% (74/124)] and group G streptococcus (GGS) [25.0% (31/124)]. Among 124 strains, only 35 strains were emm typeable and the remaining 89 strains were emm nontypeable. All GAS isolates were typeable, whereas most of the GCS and GGS strains were nontypeable. These nontypeable strains belong to S. anginosus [75.3% (67/89)] and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis [24.7% (22/89)]. The emm and emmL types identified in this study include emm12.0 (28.6%), stG643.0 (28.6%), stC46.0 (17.0%), emm30.11 (8.5%), emm3.0 (2.9%), emm48.0 (5.7%), st3343.0 (2.9%), emm107.0 (2.9%) and stS104.2 (2.9%). Various superantigen profiles were observed in typeable as well as nontypeable strains. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR analysis revealed the presence of superantigens in all the typeable strains irrespective of their emm types. However, the presence of superantigen genes in emm and emmL nontypeable strains has not been previously reported. In this study, presence of at least one or a combination of superantigen coding genes was identified in all the emm and emmL nontypeable strains. Thus, the superantigens may inevitably play an important role in the pathogenesis of these nontypeable strains in the absence of the primary virulence factor, M protein.
Project description:This report discusses the following issues related to typing of group A streptococci (GAS): The development and use of the 5' emm variable region sequencing (emm typing) in relation to the existing serologic typing system; the designation of emm types in relation to M types; a system for validation of new emm types; criteria for validation of provisional M types to new M-types; a list of reference type cultures for each of the M-type or emm-type strains of GAS; the results of the first culture exchange program for a quality control testing system among the national and World Health Organization collaborating centers for streptococci; and dissemination of new approaches to typing of GAS to the international streptococcal community.
Project description:The genetic diversity of group A streptococcal (GAS) isolates obtained in 1990 from Ethiopian children with various streptococcal diseases was studied by using emm gene sequence analysis. A total of 217 GAS isolates were included: 155 and 62 isolates from throat and skin, respectively. A total of 78 different emm/st types were detected among the 217 isolates. Of these, 166 (76.5%) belonged to 52 validated reference emm types, 26 (11.9%) belonged to 16 already recognized sequence types (st types) and 25 (11.5%) belonged to 10 undocumented new sequence types. Resistance to tetracycline (148 of 217) was not correlated to emm type. Isolation rate of the classical rheumatogenic and nephritogenic strains was low from cases of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), respectively. Instead, the recently discovered st types were overrepresented among isolates from patients with ARF (3 of 7) and AGN (9 of 16) (P < 0.01) compared to isolates from subjects with tonsillitis and from healthy carriers (10 of 57 and 16 of 90, respectively). In contrast to rheumatogenic strains from the temperate regions, more than half of the isolates from ARF (four of seven) carried the genetic marker for skin preference, emm pattern D, although most of them (six of seven) were isolated from throat. Of 57 tonsillitis-associated isolates, 16 (28%) belonged to emm pattern D compared to <1% in temperate regions. As in other reports emm patterns A to C were strongly associated with throat, whereas emm pattern D did not correlate to skin. This first large-scale emm typing report from Africa has demonstrated a heterogeneous GAS population and contrasting nature of GAS epidemiology in the region.
Project description:The variable 5' emm (M-protein gene) sequences and T-antigen types were determined from 340 systemic group A streptococcal (GAS) isolates taken from hospitalized patients in San Francisco, Calif.; Atlanta, Ga.; and Connecticut in 1994 and 1995. Eighty percent of these isolates had emm sequences and T-antigen types in agreement with previously recorded M- and T-antigen associations. Most of the remaining strains either were T nontypeable (11%) or contained emm genes encoding M proteins for which T-antigen associations have not been made (6%). One newly encountered emm gene, designated ST2974, from each of 13 isolates had the T type 8/25/Imp19. Another new emm gene, ST2967, from 8 of 11 isolates was T nontypeable. Six other unique emm gene sequences from seven isolates were encountered. Sequencing of the variable region of the emm gene of GAS isolates (emm typing) is effective for surveying the sequence variability of the M virulence protein, and combined with T typing, emm typing is useful for monitoring GAS strain diversity.
Project description:We conducted a nationwide surveillance of the variable 5' emm-like (M-like protein gene) sequences from 214 pharyngeal group C and group G streptococci. Almost 75% of the isolates exhibited emm or emm-like sequences previously described. We identified six new 5' emm-like regions, and almost 23% of the isolates were nontypeable. Five emm-like sequences accounted for more than 50% of the isolates in group C and group G, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between strains of different species.
Project description:Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is classified on the basis of the sequence of the gene encoding the M protein (emm) and the patterns into which emm types are grouped. We discovered a novel emm pattern in emm4 GAS, historically considered pattern E, arising from a fusion event between emm and the adjacent enn gene. We identified the emm-enn fusion event in 51 out of 52 emm4 GAS strains isolated by national surveillance in 2015. GAS isolates with an emm-enn fusion event completely replaced pattern E emm4 strains over a 4-year span in Houston (2013-2017). The novel emm-enn gene fusion and new emm pattern has potential vaccine implications.
Project description:In the present study, 37 group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains belonging to 13 new emm sequence types identified among GAS strains randomly isolated in Brazil were characterized by using phenotypic and genotypic methods. The new types were designated st204, st211, st213, st809, st833, st854, st2904, st2911, st2917, st2926, st3757, st3765, and st6735. All isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested, except to tetracycline. They all carried the speB gene, and 94.6% produced detectable SpeB. Most strains belonging to a given emm type had similar or highly related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles that were distinct from profiles of strains of another type. The other characteristics were variable from isolate to isolate, although some associations were consistently found within some emm types. Unlike the other isolates, all type st213 isolates were speA positive and produced SpeA. Strains belonging to st3765 were T6 and opacity factor (OF) negative. Individual isolates within OF-positive emm types were associated with unique sof gene sequence types, while OF-negative isolates were sof negative by PCR. This report provides information on new emm sequence types first detected in GAS isolates from a geographic area not extensively surveyed. Such data can contribute to a better understanding of the local and global dynamics of GAS populations and of the epidemiological aspects of GAS infections occurring in tropical regions.
Project description:Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type.
Project description:Despite universal susceptibility to ?-lactams, resistance to second-line antimicrobials (e.g. erythromycin) is increasingly common among group A Streptococcus (GAS). To better understand the frequency of regional GAS antimicrobial resistance, we screened a previously described GAS strain collection from Houston, TX, USA, for resistance to commonly used antimicrobials. A total of 100/929 (10.8?%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial. Tetracycline resistance was identified in 52 (5.6 %) GAS strains. The cumulative frequency of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance [macrolide (M) and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) phenotypes] was greatest among invasive GAS strains (9.9?%) compared to that of strains derived from any other infection type (5.9?%, P=0.045). We identified emm types 11, 75, 77 and 92 as the only emm types with high (e.g. >50?%) within-emm type resistance and contributing to the majority (24/26; 92?%) of erythromycin/clindamycin resistance in invasive GAS. High-frequency resistance emm types were also significantly overrepresented in invasive GAS strains as indicated by invasive index. We performed whole-genome sequencing to define genetic elements associated with resistance among emm types 11, 75, 77 and 92. Diverse mobile elements contributed to GAS resistance including transposons, integrative conjugative elements, prophage and a plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis suggests recent clonal emergence of emm92 GAS strains. Our findings indicate that less frequently encountered GAS emm types disproportionately contribute to resistance phenotypes, are defined by diverse mobile genetic elements and may favour invasive disease.
Project description:Ranked among the top10 infectious causes of death worldwide, group A <i>Streptococcus</i> (GAS) causes small- and large-scale outbreaks, depending on the trigger as transmission of a GAS strain or expansion of predominant clones. In China, GAS infections other than scarlet fever are not notifiable. In Shanghai, an epidemiological investigation was initiated after two successive severe pneumonia cases with one death in a digital factory, from where outbreaks are less widely reported. The investigation was performed using <i>emm</i> typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, superantigen profiling, and genome analysis. This enabled characterization of relatedness among the outbreak isolates and identification of the mobile genetic elements present. Among 57 patients with respiratory symptoms investigated in the factory, <i>emm</i>5 GAS strains were isolated from 8 patients. The eight GAS infection cases comprising one fatal severe pneumonia case, six influenza-like illness cases, and one pharyngitis case. Two risk factors were identified: adult with an age of 18-20 years and close contact with a GAS patient or carrier. GAS attack rate was 14.0% (8/57), and GAS carriage rate was probably around 2.7% (14/521) based on surveys in two nearby districts. All the 10 outbreak associated isolates were assigned to <i>emm</i>5 and sequence type ST-99 (<i>emm</i>5/ST-99), harbored superantigen genes <i>speC, speG</i>, and <i>smeZ</i>, and were assigned to two similar PFGE patterns (clones). Among the outbreak associated isolates, all carried <i>ermA</i> with resistance to erythromycin and inducible resistance to clindamycin, and eight (80%) carried a <i>tetM</i> gene with resistance to tetracycline. Among the 14 carriage isolates, 12 were <i>emm</i>12/ST-36, and 2 were <i>emm</i>1/ST-28, all with superantigen genes <i>speC, speG, ssa</i>, and <i>smeZ</i>. All the carriage isolates harbored <i>ermB</i> and <i>tetM</i> with resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. Genome analysis showed the two outbreak clones were closely related and possessed new prophages carrying virulence gene <i>sdc</i> and antibiotic resistance genes of <i>ermA</i> and <i>tetM</i>, which were not found in the <i>emm</i>5 reference strain Manfredo. This is the first report of a GAS outbreak in this type of workplace. The outbreak was caused by two closely related <i>emm</i>5 clones that differed from the predominant <i>emm</i> types circulating in China.