DNA gyrase from the albicidin producer Xanthomonas albilineans has multiple-antibiotic-resistance and unusual enzymatic properties.
ABSTRACT: The sugarcane pathogen Xanthomonas albilineans produces a family of antibiotics and phytotoxins termed albicidins, which inhibit plant and bacterial DNA gyrase supercoiling activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (50 nM) comparable to those of coumarins and quinolones. Here we show that X. albilineans has an unusual, antibiotic-resistant DNA gyrase. The X. albilineans gyrA and gyrB genes are not clustered with previously described albicidin biosynthesis and self-protection genes. The GyrA and GyrB products differ from Escherichia coli homologues through several insertions and through changes in several amino acid residues implicated in quinolone and coumarin resistance. Reconstituted X. albilineans DNA gyrase showed 20- to 25-fold-higher resistance than E. coli DNA gyrase to albicidin and ciprofloxacin and 8-fold-higher resistance to novobiocin in the supercoiling assay. The X. albilineans DNA gyrase is unusual in showing a high degree of distributive supercoiling and little DNA relaxation activity. X. albilineans GyrA (XaA) forms a functional gyrase heterotetramer with E. coli GyrB (EcB) and can account for albicidin and quinolone resistance and low levels of relaxation activity. XaB probably contributes to both coumarin resistance and the distributive supercoiling pattern. Although XaB shows fewer apparent changes relative to EcB, the EcA.XaB hybrid relaxed DNA in the presence or absence of ATP and was unable to supercoil. A fuller understanding of structural differences between albicidin-sensitive and -resistant gyrases may provide new clues into features of the enzyme amenable to interference by novel antibiotics.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases manage chromosome supercoiling and organization in all cells. Gyrase, a prokaryotic type IIA topoisomerase, consumes ATP to introduce negative supercoils through a strand passage mechanism. All type IIA topoisomerases employ a similar set of catalytic domains for function; however, the activity and specificity of gyrase are augmented by a specialized DNA binding and wrapping element, termed the C-terminal domain (CTD), which is appended to its GyrA subunit. We have discovered that a nonconserved, acidic tail at the extreme C terminus of the Escherichia coli GyrA CTD has a dramatic and unexpected impact on gyrase function. Removal of the CTD tail enables GyrA to introduce writhe into DNA in the absence of GyrB, an activity exhibited by other GyrA orthologs, but not by wild-type E. coli GyrA. Strikingly, a "tail-less" gyrase holoenzyme is markedly impaired for DNA supercoiling capacity, but displays normal ATPase function. Our findings reveal that the E. coli GyrA tail regulates DNA wrapping by the CTD to increase the coupling efficiency between ATP turnover and supercoiling, demonstrating that CTD functions can be fine-tuned to control gyrase activity in a highly sophisticated manner.
Project description:Amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to quinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have generally been found within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in the A subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrA) rather than the B subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrB). To clarify the contribution of an amino acid substitution, E540V, in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis, we expressed recombinant DNA gyrases in Escherichia coli and characterized them in vitro. Wild-type and GyrB-E540V DNA gyrases were reconstituted in vitro by mixing recombinant GyrA and GyrB. Correlation between the amino acid substitution and quinolone resistance was assessed by the ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling assay, quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assay, and DNA cleavage assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of eight quinolones against DNA gyrases bearing the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB were 2.5- to 36-fold higher than those against the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the 25% maximum DNA cleavage concentrations were 1.5- to 14-fold higher for the E540V gyrase than for the wild-type enzyme. We further demonstrated that the E540V amino acid substitution influenced the interaction between DNA gyrase and the substituent(s) at R-7, R-8, or both in quinolone structures. This is the first detailed study of the contribution of the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis.
Project description:The genes encoding the DNA gyrase A and B subunits of Bacteroides fragilis were cloned and sequenced. The gyrA and gyrB genes code for proteins of 845 and 653 amino acids, respectively. These proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the combination of GyrA and GyrB exhibited ATP-dependent supercoiling activity. To analyze the role of DNA gyrase in quinolone resistance of B. fragilis, we isolated mutant strains by stepwise selection for resistance to increasing concentrations of levofloxacin. We analyzed the resistant mutants and showed that Ser-82 of GyrA, equivalent to resistance hot spot Ser-83 of GyrA in E. coli, was in each case replaced with Phe. These results suggest that DNA gyrase is an important target for quinolones in B. fragilis.
Project description:DNA gyrase is an essential type II topoisomerase that is composed of two subunits, GyrA and GyrB, and has an A<sub>2</sub> B<sub>2</sub> structure. Although the A and B subunits are required in equal proportions to form DNA gyrase, the gyrA and gyrB genes that encode them in Salmonella (and in many other bacteria) are at separate locations on the chromosome, are under separate transcriptional control, and are present in different copy numbers in rapidly growing bacteria. In wild-type Salmonella, gyrA is near the chromosome's replication terminus, while gyrB is near the origin. We generated a synthetic gyrBA operon at the oriC-proximal location of gyrB to test the significance of the gyrase gene position for Salmonella physiology. Although the strain producing gyrase from an operon had a modest alteration to its DNA supercoiling set points, most housekeeping functions were unaffected. However, its SPI-2 virulence genes were expressed at a reduced level and its survival was reduced in macrophage. Our data reveal that the horizontally acquired SPI-2 genes have a greater sensitivity to disturbance of DNA topology than the core genome and we discuss its significance in the context of Salmonella genome evolution and the gyrA and gyrB gene arrangements found in other bacteria.
Project description:The phytotoxin and polyketide antibiotic albicidin produced by Xanthomonas albilineans is a highly potent DNA gyrase inhibitor. Low yields of albicidin production have slowed studies of its chemical structure. Heterologous expression of albicidin biosynthetic genes in X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria resulted in a sixfold increase in albicidin production, offering promising strategies for engineering overproduction.
Project description:DNA gyrase is the bacterial DNA topoisomerase (topo) that supercoils DNA by using the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. The enzyme, an A(2)B(2) tetramer encoded by the gyrA and gyrB genes, catalyses topological changes in DNA during replication and transcription, and is the only topo that is able to introduce negative supercoils. Gyrase is essential in bacteria and apparently absent from eukaryotes and is, consequently, an important target for antibacterial agents (e.g., quinolones and coumarins). We have identified four putative gyrase genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; one gyrA and three gyrB homologues. DNA gyrase protein A (GyrA) has a dual translational initiation site targeting the mature protein to both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and there are individual targeting sequences for two of the DNA gyrase protein B (GyrB) homologues. N-terminal fusions of the organellar targeting sequences to GFPs support the hypothesis that one enzyme is targeted to the chloroplast and another to the mitochondrion, which correlates with supercoiling activity in isolated organelles. Treatment of seedlings and cultured cells with gyrase-specific drugs leads to growth inhibition. Knockout of A. thaliana gyrA is embryo-lethal whereas knockouts in the gyrB genes lead to seedling-lethal phenotypes or severely stunted growth and development. The A. thaliana genes have been cloned in Escherichia coli and found to complement gyrase temperature-sensitive strains. This report confirms the existence of DNA gyrase in eukaryotes and has important implications for drug targeting, organelle replication, and the evolution of topos in plants.
Project description:Prokaryotes have an essential gene-gyrase-that catalyzes negative supercoiling of plasmid and chromosomal DNA. Negative supercoils influence DNA replication, transcription, homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, genetic transposition and sister chromosome segregation. Although E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium are close relatives with a conserved set of essential genes, E. coli DNA has a supercoil density 15% higher than Salmonella, and E. coli cannot grow at the supercoil density maintained by wild type (WT) Salmonella. E. coli is addicted to high supercoiling levels for efficient chromosomal folding. In vitro experiments were performed with four gyrase isoforms of the tetrameric enzyme (GyrA₂:GyrB₂). E. coli gyrase was more processive and faster than the Salmonella enzyme, but Salmonella strains with chromosomal swaps of E. coli GyrA lost 40% of the chromosomal supercoil density. Reciprocal experiments in E. coli showed chromosomal dysfunction for strains harboring Salmonella GyrA. One GyrA segment responsible for dis-regulation was uncovered by constructing and testing GyrA chimeras in vivo. The six pinwheel elements and the C-terminal 35⁻38 acidic residues of GyrA controlled WT chromosome-wide supercoiling density in both species. A model of enzyme processivity modulated by competition between DNA and the GyrA acidic tail for access to β-pinwheel elements is presented.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases manage chromosome supercoiling and organization in all forms of life. Gyrase, a prokaryotic heterotetrameric type IIA topo, introduces negative supercoils into DNA by an ATP-dependent strand passage mechanism. All gyrase orthologs rely on a homologous set of catalytic domains for function; however, these enzymes also can possess species-specific auxiliary regions. The gyrases of many gram-negative bacteria harbor a 170-amino acid insertion of unknown architecture and function in the metal- and DNA-binding TOPRIM domain of the GyrB subunit. We have determined the structure of the 212?kDa Escherichia coli gyrase DNA binding and cleavage core containing this insert to 3.1?Å resolution. We find that the insert adopts a novel, extended fold that braces the GyrB TOPRIM domain against the coiled-coil arms of its partner GyrA subunit. Structure-guided deletion of the insert greatly reduces the DNA binding, supercoiling and DNA-stimulated ATPase activities of gyrase. Mutation of a single amino acid at the contact point between the insert and GyrA more modestly impairs supercoiling and ATP turnover, and does not affect DNA binding. Our data indicate that the insert has two functions, acting as a steric buttress to pre-configure the primary DNA-binding site, and serving as a relay that may help coordinate communication between different functional domains.
Project description:DNA gyrase is a bacterial DNA topoisomerase that catalyzes ATP-dependent negative DNA supercoiling and DNA decatenation. The enzyme is a heterotetramer comprising two GyrA and two GyrB subunits. Its overall architecture is conserved, but species-specific elements in the two subunits are thought to optimize subunit interaction and enzyme function. Toward understanding the roles of these different elements, we compared the activities of <i>Bacillus subtilis</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, and <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> gyrases and of heterologous enzymes reconstituted from subunits of two different species. We show that <i>B. subtilis</i> and <i>E. coli</i> gyrases are proficient DNA-stimulated ATPases and efficiently supercoil and decatenate DNA. In contrast, <i>M. tuberculosis</i> gyrase hydrolyzes ATP only slowly and is a poor supercoiling enzyme and decatenase. The heterologous enzymes are generally less active than their homologous counterparts. The only exception is a gyrase reconstituted from mycobacterial GyrA and <i>B. subtilis</i> GyrB, which exceeds the activity of <i>M. tuberculosis</i> gyrase and reaches the activity of the <i>B. subtilis</i> gyrase, indicating that the activities of enzymes containing mycobacterial GyrB are limited by ATP hydrolysis. The activity pattern of heterologous gyrases is in agreement with structural features present: <i>B. subtilis</i> gyrase is a minimal enzyme, and its subunits can functionally interact with subunits from other bacteria. In contrast, the specific insertions in <i>E. coli</i> and mycobacterial gyrase subunits appear to prevent efficient functional interactions with heterologous subunits. Understanding the molecular details of gyrase adaptations to the specific physiological requirements of the respective organism might aid in the development of species-specific gyrase inhibitors.
Project description:Xanthomonas albilineans causes leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. Compared to other species of Xanthomonas, X. albilineans exhibits distinctive pathogenic mechanisms, ecology and taxonomy. Its genome, which has experienced significant erosion, has unique genomic features. It lacks two loci required for pathogenicity in other plant pathogenic species of Xanthomonas: the xanthan gum biosynthesis and the Hrp-T3SS (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity-type three secretion system) gene clusters. Instead, X. albilineans harbors in its genome an SPI-1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island-1) T3SS gene cluster usually found in animal pathogens. X. albilineans produces a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor called albicidin, which blocks chloroplast differentiation, resulting in the characteristic white foliar stripe symptoms. The antibacterial activity of albicidin also confers on X. albilineans a competitive advantage against rival bacteria during sugarcane colonization. Recent chemical studies have uncovered the unique structure of albicidin and allowed us to partially elucidate its fascinating biosynthesis apparatus, which involves an enigmatic hybrid PKS/NRPS (polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase) machinery.