14-3-3 sigma positively regulates p53 and suppresses tumor growth.
ABSTRACT: The 14-3-3 sigma (sigma) protein, a negative regulator of the cell cycle, is a human mammary epithelium-specific marker that is downregulated in transformed mammary carcinoma cells. It has also been identified as a p53-inducible gene product involved in cell cycle checkpoint control after DNA damage. Although 14-3-3 sigma is linked to p53-regulated cell cycle checkpoint control, detailed mechanisms of how cell cycle regulation occurs remain unclear. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma was recently reported in several types of carcinomas, further suggesting that the negative regulatory role of 14-3-3 sigma in the cell cycle is compromised during tumorigenesis. However, this possible tumor-suppressive role of 14-3-3 sigma has not yet been characterized. Here, we studied the link between 14-3-3 sigma activities and p53 regulation. We found that 14-3-3 sigma interacted with p53 in response to the DNA-damaging agent adriamycin. Importantly, 14-3-3 sigma expression led to stabilized expression of p53. In studying the molecular mechanism of this increased stabilization of p53, we found that 14-3-3 sigma antagonized the biological functions of Mdm2 by blocking Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and nuclear export. In addition, we found that 14-3-3 sigma facilitated the oligomerization of p53 and enhanced p53's transcriptional activity. As a target gene of p53, 14-3-3 sigma appears to have a positive feedback effect on p53 activity. Significantly, we also showed that overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma inhibited oncogene-activated tumorigenicity in a tetracycline-regulated 14-3-3 sigma system. These results defined an important p53 regulatory loop and suggested that 14-3-3 sigma expression can be considered for therapeutic intervention in cancers.
Project description:Normal p53 function is required for optimal arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following certain types of DNA damage. Loss of this cell cycle checkpoint may contribute to tumor development by increasing the number of genetic abnormalities in daughter cells following DNA damage. The MDM2 protein is an endogenous gene product that binds to the p53 protein and is able to block p53-mediated transactivation of cotransfected reporter constructs; thus, interactions between MDM2 and p53 in this checkpoint pathway following ionizing irradiation were examined. Though increases in p53 protein by DNA damage were not abrogated by MDM2 overexpression, increased levels of MDM2, resulting either from endogenous gene amplification or from transfection of an exogenous expression vector, were associated with a reduction in the ability of cells to arrest in G1 following irradiation. In addition, expression of endogenous MDM2 was enhanced by ionizing irradiation at the level of transcription in a p53-dependent fashion. These observations demonstrate that MDM2 overexpression can inhibit p53 function in a known physiologic pathway and are consistent with the hypothesis that MDM2 may function in a "feedback loop" mechanism with p53, possibly acting to limit the length or severity of the p53-mediated arrest following DNA damage.
Project description:In unstressed cells, the tumor suppressor p53 is maintained at low levels by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis mainly through Mdm2. In response to DNA damage, p53 is stabilized and becomes activated to turn on transcriptional programs that are essential for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Activation of p53 leads to accumulation of Mdm2 protein, a direct transcriptional target of p53. It is not understood how p53 is protected from degradation when Mdm2 is up-regulated. Here we report that p53 stabilization in the late phase after ionizing radiation correlates with active ubiquitination. We found that an E3 ubiquitin ligase RFWD3 (RNF201/FLJ10520) forms a complex with Mdm2 and p53 to synergistically ubiquitinate p53 and is required to stabilize p53 in the late response to DNA damage. This process is regulated by the DNA damage checkpoint, because RFWD3 is phosphorylated by ATM/ATR kinases and the phosphorylation mutant fails to stimulate p53 ubiquitination. In vitro experiments suggest that RFWD3 is a p53 E3 ubiquitin ligase and that RFWD3-Mdm2 complex restricts the polyubiquitination of p53 by Mdm2. Our study identifies RFWD3 as a positive regulator of p53 stability when the G(1) cell cycle checkpoint is activated and provides an explanation for how p53 is protected from degradation in the presence of high levels of Mdm2.
Project description:The nucleolar protein nucleostemin (NS) is essential for cell proliferation and early embryogenesis. Both depletion and overexpression of NS reduce cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms underlying this regulation are still unclear. Here, we show that NS regulates p53 activity through the inhibition of MDM2. NS binds to the central acidic domain of MDM2 and inhibits MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitylation and degradation. Consequently, ectopic overexpression of NS activates p53, induces G(1) cell cycle arrest, and inhibits cell proliferation. Interestingly, the knockdown of NS by small interfering RNA also activates p53 and induces G(1) arrest. These effects require the ribosomal proteins L5 and L11, since the depletion of NS enhanced their interactions with MDM2 and the knockdown of L5 or L11 abrogated the NS depletion-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that a p53-dependent cell cycle checkpoint monitors changes of cellular NS levels via the impediment of MDM2 function.
Project description:The tumour suppressor p53, which accumulates in response to DNA damage and induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, has a key function in the maintenance of genome integrity. Under normal conditions, the antiproliferative effects of p53 are inhibited by MDM2, a ubiquitin ligase that promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. MDM2 is also self-ubiquitinated and degraded. Here, we show that the tumour suppressor RASSF1A regulates G(1)-S cell-cycle progression in a p53-dependent manner by promoting MDM2 self-ubiquitination and preventing p53 degradation. Importantly, RASSF1A associates with MDM2 and death-domain-associated protein (DAXX) in the nucleus, thereby disrupting the interactions between MDM2, DAXX, and the deubiquitinase, HAUSP, and enhancing the self-ubiquitin ligase activity of MDM2. Moreover, RASSF1A partially contributes to p53-dependent checkpoint activation at early time points in response to DNA damage. These findings reveal a new and important function for RASSF1A in regulating the p53-MDM2 pathway.
Project description:Mitotic arrest deficient 1 (Mad1) plays a well-characterized role in the mitotic checkpoint. However, interphase roles of Mad1 that do not impact mitotic checkpoint function remain largely uncharacterized. Here we show that upregulation of Mad1, which is common in human breast cancer, prevents stress-induced stabilization of the tumor suppressor p53 in multiple cell types. Upregulated Mad1 localizes to ProMyelocytic Leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies in breast cancer and cultured cells. The C-terminus of Mad1 directly interacts with PML, and this interaction is enhanced by sumoylation. PML stabilizes p53 by sequestering MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation, to the nucleolus. Upregulated Mad1 displaces MDM2 from PML, freeing it to ubiquitinate p53. Upregulation of Mad1 accelerates growth of orthotopic mammary tumors, which show decreased levels of p53 and its downstream effector p21. These results demonstrate an unexpected interphase role for Mad1 in tumor promotion via p53 destabilization.
Project description:The p53 tumor suppressor gene encodes a transcription factor, which is translationally and posttranslationally activated after DNA damage. In a proteomic screen for p53 interactors, we found that the cullin protein Cul7 efficiently associates with p53. After DNA damage, the level of Cul7 protein increased in a caffeine-sensitive, but p53-independent, manner. Down-regulation of Cul7 by conditional microRNA expression augmented p53-mediated inhibition of cell cycle progression. Ectopic expression of Cul7 inhibited activation of p53 by DNA damaging agents and sensitized cells to adriamycin. Although Cul7 recruited the F-box protein FBX29 to p53, the combined expression of Cul7/FBX29 did not promote ubiquitination and degradation of p53 in vivo. Therefore, the inhibition of p53 activity by Cul7 is presumably mediated by alternative mechanisms. The interplay between p53 and Cul7 resembles the negative feedback loop described for p53 and Mdm2. Pharmacological modulation of Cul7 function may allow the sensitization of cancer cells expressing wild-type p53 to genotoxic agents used in cancer therapy.
Project description:Conventional paradigm ascribes the cell proliferative function of the human oncoprotein mouse double minute2 (MDM2) primarily to its ability to degrade p53. Here we report that in the absence of p53, MDM2 induces replication stress eliciting an early S-phase checkpoint response to inhibit further firing of DNA replication origins. Partially synchronized lung cells cultured from p53-/-:MDM2 transgenic mice enter S phase and induce S-phase checkpoint response earlier than lung cells from p53-/- mice and inhibit firing of DNA replication origins. MDM2 activates chk1 phosphorylation, elevates mixed lineage lymphoma histone methyl transferase levels and promotes checkpoint-dependent tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, known to prevent firing of late replication origins at the early S phase. In the absence of p53, a condition that disables inhibition of cyclin A expression by MDM2, MDM2 increases expression of cyclin D2 and A and hastens S-phase entry of cells. Consistently, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases, known to activate DNA replication origins during firing, inhibits MDM2-mediated induction of chk1 phosphorylation indicating the requirement of this activity in MDM2-mediated chk1 phosphorylation. Our data reveal a novel pathway, defended by the intra-S-phase checkpoint, by which MDM2 induces unscheduled origin firing and accelerates S-phase entry of cells in the absence of p53.
Project description:Oncogenic mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that facilitates proteasomal degradation of p53. MDM2 amplification occurs in cancer and has been implicated in accelerated tumor growth, known as hyper-progression, following immune-checkpoint therapy. MDM2 amplification also predicts poor response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors. We sought to evaluate the role of MDM2 in T-cell-mediated immune resistance. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell lines carrying wild-type p53 with low/high MDM2 expression were investigated in a T-cell co-culture system evaluating T-cell-mediated tumor killing. Targeting of MDM2 was achieved by siRNA transfection or a selective MDM2 inhibitor, AMG-232 and tumor cells were tested in the T-cell co-culture system. AMG-232 activated p53 signaling in cancer cells and relative resistance to AMG-232 was observed in high MDM2-expressing cell lines. Cell lines with high MDM2 expression were more resistant to T cell-mediated tumor killing. Targeting MDM2 by gene-silencing or pharmacological blockade with AMG-232 enhanced T-cell killing of cancer cells. AMG-232 potentiated tumor cell killing by T-cells in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody treatment, regardless of changes in PD-L1 expression. The AMG-232 was not toxic to the T-cells. MDM2 inhibition lowered expression of Interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory pro-tumorigenic cytokine. Our data support targeting MDM2 in tumors with overexpression or amplification of MDM2 as a precision therapy approach to overcome drug resistance including hyper-progression in the context of immune checkpoint therapy.
Project description:Splicing and translation are highly regulated steps of gene expression. Altered expression of proteins involved in these processes can be deleterious. Therefore, the cell has many safeguards against such misregulation. We report that the oncogenic splicing factor SRSF1, which is overexpressed in many cancers, stabilizes the tumor suppressor protein p53 by abrogating its MDM2-dependent proteasomal degradation. We show that SRSF1 is a necessary component of an MDM2/ribosomal protein complex, separate from the ribosome, that functions in a p53-dependent ribosomal-stress checkpoint pathway. Consistent with the stabilization of p53, increased SRSF1 expression in primary human fibroblasts decreases cellular proliferation and ultimately triggers oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). These findings underscore the deleterious outcome of SRSF1 overexpression and identify a cellular defense mechanism against its aberrant function. Furthermore, they implicate the RPL5-MDM2 complex in OIS and demonstrate a link between spliceosomal and ribosomal components, functioning independently of their canonical roles, to monitor cellular physiology and cell-cycle progression.