Multiple roles of the novel protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP3 during Dictyostelium growth and development.
ABSTRACT: PTP3, the third nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase identified in Dictyostelium discoideum, has a single catalytic protein tyrosine phosphatase domain. Recombinant PTP3 exhibited phosphatase activity that was inhibited by vanadate. PTP3 is expressed at a moderate level during growth. The level of transcripts increased between growth and 8 h of development and declined thereafter. Expression of lacZ under the control of the PTP3 promoter indicated a spatial localization of PTP3 in the anterior-like and prestalk cell types. There are two copies of the PTP3 gene in this haploid organism. Disruption of one copy led to a slow-growth phenotype. We were unable to obtain a strain with disruptions in both PTP3 genes. Overexpression of wild-type PTP3 led to slower growth rates and the formation of large aggregation streams. These streams split into smaller aggregates, many of which then arrested in development. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutation (Cys to Ser) had no effect on growth rate; however, this strain also formed large aggregation streams that later split up into large and small mound structures and became fruiting bodies of various sizes. Antiphosphotyrosine Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of total cell proteins showed that the pattern of protein tyrosine phosphorylation was specifically altered in PTP3 mutants. Addition of growth medium to starving cells and a subsequent replacement with nonnutrient buffer led to reciprocal changes in the pattern of several phosphotyrosine proteins, including a protein of approximately 130 kDa. Analysis of strains overexpressing active or inactive PTP3 suggested that p130 is a potential substrate of PTP3. A transient posttranslational phosphorylation of PTP3 further supported the role of PTP3 in these processes. The data obtained strongly suggest new regulatory functions for PTP3 that are distinct from those described earlier for D. discoideum PTP1 and PTP2.
Project description:We have cloned a gene encoding a second Dictyostelium discoideum protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP2) whose catalytic domain has approximately 30 to 39% amino acid identity with those of other PTPs and a 41% amino acid identity with D. discoideum PTP1. Like PTP1, PTP2 is a nonreceptor PTP with the catalytic domain located at the C terminus of the protein. PTP2 has a predicted molecular weight of 43,000 and possesses an acidic 58-amino-acid insertion 24 amino acids from the N terminus of the conserved catalytic domain. PTP2 transcripts are expressed at moderate levels in vegetative cells and are induced severalfold at the onset of development. Studies with a PTP2-lacZ reporter gene fusion indicate that PTP2, like PTP1, is preferentially expressed in prestalk and anterior-like cell types during the multicellular stages of development. PTP2 gene disruptants (ptp2 null cells) are not detectably altered in growth and show a temporal pattern of development similar to that of wild-type cells. ptp2 null slugs and fruiting bodies, however, are significantly larger than those of wild-type slugs, suggesting a role for PTP2 in regulating multicellular structures. D. discoideum strains overexpressing PTP2 from the PTP2 promoter exhibit growth rate and developmental abnormalities, the severity of which corresponds to the level of PTP2 overexpression. Strains with high overexpression of the PTP2 gene grow slowly on bacterial lawns and produce small cells in axenic medium. When development is initiated in these strains, cells are able to aggregate but then stop further morphogenesis for 6 to 8 h, after which time a variable fraction of these aggregates continue with normal timing, producing diminutive fruiting bodies. These disruption and overexpression phenotypes for PTP2 are distinct from the corresponding mutant PTP1 phenotypes. Immunoprobing PTP2 mutant strains during growth and development with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies reveals several changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in PTP2 mutant strains compared with that in wild-type cells. These changes are different from those identified in the previously characterized corresponding PTP1 disruption and overexpression mutant strains. Thus, although PTP2 and PTP1 are nonreceptor PTPs with similar spatial patterns of expression, our findings suggest that they possess distinct regulatory functions in controlling D. discoideum growth and development.
Project description:Tyrosine phosphorylation is controlled by the opposing actions of tyrosine kinases and phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). src homology 2 domains (SH2) are found in several types of signaling proteins, including some tyrosine kinases. These domains bind phosphotyrosyl proteins and thus help promote signal transduction. Using mixed oligonucleotide-directed polymerase chain reactions, two previously undescribed rat PTP cDNA fragments were generated. Through subsequent screening of rat megakaryocyte and human erythroleukemia libraries, we obtained a full-length coding sequence for one of these fragments. This cDNA, SH-PTP1, encodes a tyrosine phosphatase containing two highly conserved SH2 domains. SH-PTP1, with a 2.4-kilobase mRNA, a predicted open reading frame of 595 amino acids, and a structure suggesting a nontransmembrane protein, is expressed primarily in hematopoietic and epithelial cells. When expressed in Escherichia coli, SH-PTP1 possesses PTP activity. The structure of SH-PTP1 establishes an additional branch of the tyrosine phosphatase family and suggests mechanisms through which tyrosine phosphatases might participate in signal transduction pathways.
Project description:Two protein tyrosine phosphatase genes, PTP1 and PTP2, are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the functions of these tyrosine phosphatases are unknown, because mutations in either or both phosphatase genes have no clear phenotypic effects. In this report, we demonstrate that although ptp2 has no obvious phenotype by itself, it has a profound effect on cell growth when combined with mutations in a novel protein phosphatase gene. Using a colony color sectoring assay, we isolated 25 mutants in which the expression of PTP1 or PTP2 is required for growth. Complementation tests of the mutants showed that they have a mutation in one of three genes. Cloning and sequence determination of one of these gene, PTC1, indicated that it encodes a homolog of the mammalian protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2C (PP2C). The amino acid sequence of the PTC1 product is approximately 35% identical to PP2C. Disruption of PTC1 indicated that the PTC1 function is nonessential. In contrast, ptc1 ptp2 double mutants showed a marked growth defect. To examine whether PTC1 encodes an active protein phosphatase, a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PTC1 fusion gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified GST-PTC1 fusion protein hydrolyzed a serine phosphorylated substrate in the presence of the divalent cation Mg2+ or Mn2+. GST-PTC1 also had weak (approximately 0.5% of its serine phosphatase activity) protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.
Project description:The Dictyostelium transcription factor STATc is tyrosine phosphorylated and accumulates in the nucleus when cells are exposed either to hyper-osmotic stress or to the prestalk-inducing polyketide DIF-1. In the case of stress STAT activation is mediated by regulated dephosphorylation; whereby two serine residues on PTP3, the tyrosine phosphatase that de-activates STATc, become phosphorylated after exposure to stress so inhibiting enzymatic activity. We now show that the more highly regulated of the two PTP3 serine residues, S747, is also phosphorylated in response to DIF-1, suggesting a common activation mechanism. Hyper-osmotic stress causes a re-distribution of F-actin to the cortex, cell rounding and shrinkage and we show that DIF-1 induces a similar but transient F-actin re-distribution and rounding response. We also find that two mechanistically distinct inhibitors of actin polymerization, latrunculin A and cytochalasin A induce phosphorylation at S747 of PTP3 and activate STATc. We suggest that PTP3 phosphorylation, and consequent STATc activation, are regulated by changes in F-actin polymerization status during stress and DIF-induced cytoskeletal remodelling.
Project description:The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play critical roles in many signal transduction processes. Several MAPKs have been found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including Fus3 in the mating pathway and Hog1 in the osmotic-stress response pathway. Cells lacking Fus3 or Hog1 activity are deficient in mating or adaptation to osmotic shock, respectively. However, constitutive activation of either Fus3 or Hog1 is lethal. Therefore, yeast cells have to tightly regulate both the activation and inactivation of Fus3 and Hog1 MAPKs, which are controlled mainly by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Previous studies have shown that Fus3 activity is negatively regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptp3. In contrast, the Hog1 MAPK is mainly dephosphorylated by Ptp2 even though the two phosphatases share a high degree of sequence similarity. To understand the mechanisms of MAPK regulation, we examined the molecular basis underlying the in vivo substrate specificity between phosphatases and MAPKs. We observed that the amino-terminal noncatalytic domain of Ptp3 directly interacts with Fus3 via CH2 (Cdc25 homology) domain conserved among yeast PTPases and mammalian MAP kinase phosphatases and is responsible for the in vivo substrate selectivity of the phosphatase. Interaction between Ptp3 and Fus3 is required for dephosphorylation and inactivation of Fus3 under physiological conditions. Mutations in either Ptp3 or Fus3 that abolish this interaction cause a dysregulation of the Fus3 MAPK. Our data demonstrate that the specificity of MAP kinase inactivation in vivo by phosphatases is determined by specific protein-protein interactions outside of the phosphatase catalytic domain.
Project description:Low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and actin rearrangement mediated by several receptor tyrosine kinases, including platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Here we identify the Xenopus laevis homolog of LMW-PTP1 (XLPTP1) as an additional positive regulator in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway during Xenopus development. XLPTP1 has an expression pattern that displays substantial overlap with FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) during Xenopus development. Using morpholino antisense technology, we show that inhibition of endogenous XLPTP1 expression dramatically restricts anterior and posterior structure development and inhibits mesoderm formation. In ectodermal explants, loss of XLPTP1 expression dramatically blocks the induction of the early mesoderm gene, Xbrachyury (Xbra), by FGF and partially blocks Xbra induction by Activin. Moreover, FGF-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is also inhibited by XLPTP1 morpholino antisense oligonucleotides; however, introduction of RNA encoding XLPTP1 is able to rescue morphological and biochemical effects of antisense inhibition. Inhibition of FGF-induced MAP kinase activity due to loss of XLPTP1 is also rescued by an active Ras, implying that XLPTP1 may act upstream of or parallel to Ras. Finally, XLPTP1 physically associates only with an activated FGFR1, and this interaction requires the presence of SNT1/FRS-2 (FGFR substrate 2). Although LMW-PTP1 has been shown to participate in other receptor systems, the data presented here also reveal XLPTP1 as a new and important component of the FGF signaling pathway.
Project description:When Dictyostelium cells are hyperosmotically stressed, STATc is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Unusually, activation is regulated by serine phosphorylation and consequent inhibition of a tyrosine phosphatase: PTP3. The identity of the cognate tyrosine kinase is unknown, and we show that two tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) enzymes, Pyk2 and Pyk3, share this function; thus, for stress-induced STATc activation, single null mutants are only marginally impaired, but the double mutant is nonactivatable. When cells are stressed, Pyk2 and Pyk3 undergo increased autocatalytic tyrosine phosphorylation. The site(s) that are generated bind the SH2 domain of STATc, and then STATc becomes the target of further kinase action. The signaling pathways that activate Pyk2 and Pyk3 are only partially overlapping, and there may be a structural basis for this difference because Pyk3 contains both a TKL domain and a pseudokinase domain. The latter functions, like the JH2 domain of metazoan JAKs, as a negative regulator of the kinase domain. The fact that two differently regulated kinases catalyze the same phosphorylation event may facilitate specific targeting because under stress, Pyk3 and Pyk2 accumulate in different parts of the cell; Pyk3 moves from the cytosol to the cortex, whereas Pyk2 accumulates in cytosolic granules that colocalize with PTP3.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) serve as key negative-feedback regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. However, their roles and regulatory mechanisms in human fungal pathogens remain elusive. In this study, we characterized the functions of two PTPs, Ptp1 and Ptp2, in Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes fatal meningoencephalitis. PTP1 and PTP2 were found to be stress-inducible genes, which were controlled by the MAPK Hog1 and the transcription factor Atf1. Ptp2 suppressed the hyperphosphorylation of Hog1 and was involved in mediating vegetative growth, sexual differentiation, stress responses, antifungal drug resistance, and virulence factor regulation through the negative-feedback loop of the HOG pathway. In contrast, Ptp1 was not essential for Hog1 regulation, despite its Hog1-dependent induction. However, in the absence of Ptp2, Ptp1 served as a complementary PTP to control some stress responses. In differentiation, Ptp1 acted as a negative regulator, but in a Hog1- and Cpk1-independent manner. Additionally, Ptp1 and Ptp2 localized to the cytosol but were enriched in the nucleus during the stress response, affecting the transient nuclear localization of Hog1. Finally, Ptp1 and Ptp2 played minor and major roles, respectively, in the virulence of C. neoformans. Taken together, our data suggested that PTPs could be exploited as novel antifungal targets.
Project description:Cellular adaptation to changes in environmental osmolarity is crucial for cell survival. In Dictyostelium, STATc is a key regulator of the transcriptional response to hyperosmotic stress. Its phosphorylation and consequent activation is controlled by two signaling branches, one cGMP- and the other Ca(2+)-dependent, of which many signaling components have yet to be identified. The STATc stress signalling pathway feeds back on itself by upregulating the expression of STATc and STATc-regulated genes. Based on microarray studies we chose two tyrosine-kinase like proteins, Pyk3 and Phg2, as possible modulators of STATc phosphorylation and generated single and double knock-out mutants to them. Transcriptional regulation of STATc and STATc dependent genes was disturbed in pyk3(-), phg2(-), and pyk3(-)/phg2(-) cells. The absence of Pyk3 and/or Phg2 resulted in diminished or completely abolished increased transcription of STATc dependent genes in response to sorbitol, 8-Br-cGMP and the Ca(2+) liberator BHQ. Also, phospho-STATc levels were significantly reduced in pyk3(-) and phg2(-) cells and even further decreased in pyk3(-)/phg2(-) cells. The reduced phosphorylation was mirrored by a significant delay in nuclear translocation of GFP-STATc. The protein tyrosine phosphatase 3 (PTP3), which dephosphorylates and inhibits STATc, is inhibited by stress-induced phosphorylation on S448 and S747. Use of phosphoserine specific antibodies showed that Phg2 but not Pyk3 is involved in the phosphorylation of PTP3 on S747. In pull-down assays Phg2 and PTP3 interact directly, suggesting that Phg2 phosphorylates PTP3 on S747 in vivo. Phosphorylation of S448 was unchanged in phg2(-) cells. We show that Phg2 and an, as yet unknown, S448 protein kinase are responsible for PTP3 phosphorylation and hence its inhibition, and that Pyk3 is involved in the regulation of STATc by either directly or indirectly activating it. Our results add further complexities to the regulation of STATc, which presumably ensure its optimal activation in response to different environmental cues.
Project description:The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can support replication of Legionella pneumophila. Here we identify the dupA gene, encoding a putative tyrosine kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase, in a screen for D. discoideum mutants altered in allowing L. pneumophila intracellular replication. Inactivation of dupA resulted in depressed L. pneumophila growth and sustained hyperphosphorylation of the amoebal MAP kinase ERK1, consistent with loss of a phosphatase activity. Bacterial challenge of wild-type amoebae induced dupA expression and resulted in transiently increased ERK1 phosphorylation, suggesting that dupA and ERK1 are part of a response to bacteria. Indeed, over 500 of the genes misregulated in the dupA(-) mutant were regulated in response to L. pneumophila infection, including some thought to have immune-like functions. MAP kinase phosphatases are known to be highly upregulated in macrophages challenged with L. pneumophila. Thus, DupA may regulate a MAP kinase response to bacteria that is conserved from amoebae to mammals.