The human XRCC9 gene corrects chromosomal instability and mutagen sensitivities in CHO UV40 cells.
ABSTRACT: The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant UV40 cell line is hypersensitive to UV and ionizing radiation, simple alkylating agents, and DNA cross-linking agents. The mutant cells also have a high level of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations and 3-fold elevated sister chromatid exchange. We cloned and sequenced a human cDNA, designated XRCC9, that partially corrected the hypersensitivity of UV40 to mitomycin C, cisplatin, ethyl methanesulfonate, UV, and gamma-radiation. The spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in XRCC9 cDNA transformants were almost fully corrected whereas sister chromatid exchanges were unchanged. The XRCC9 genomic sequence was cloned and mapped to chromosome 9p13. The translated XRCC9 sequence of 622 amino acids has no similarity with known proteins. The 2.5-kb XRCC9 mRNA seen in the parental cells was undetectable in UV40 cells. The mRNA levels in testis were up to 10-fold higher compared with other human tissues and up to 100-fold higher compared with other baboon tissues. XRCC9 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that might operate in a postreplication repair or a cell cycle checkpoint function.
Project description:The eukaryotic Rad51 protein is a structural and functional homolog of Escherichia coli RecA with a role in DNA repair and genetic recombination. Five paralogs of Rad51 have been identified in vertebrates, Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2 and Xrcc3, which are also implicated in recombination and genome stability. Here, we identify a mammalian cell mutant in Rad51C. We show that the Chinese hamster cell mutant, CL-V4B, has a defect in Rad51C. Sequencing of the hamster Rad51C cDNA revealed a 132 bp deletion corresponding to an alternatively spliced transcript with lack of exon 5. CL-V4B was hypersensitive to the interstrand cross-linking agents mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatinum, the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate and the topoisomerase I inhibitor campthotecin and showed impaired Rad51 foci formation in response to DNA damage. The defect in Rad51C also resulted in an increase of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations as well as a lack of induction of sister chromatid exchanges. However, centrosome formation was not affected. Intriguingly, a reduced level of sister chromatid cohesion was found in CL-V4B cells. These results reveal a role for Rad51C that is unique among the Rad51 paralogs.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, the acetyltransferase Eco1/Ctf7 establishes cohesion during DNA replication in S phase and in response to DNA double strand breaks in G2/M phase. In humans two Eco1 orthologs exist: ESCO1 and ESCO2. Both proteins are required for proper sister chromatid cohesion, but their exact function is unclear at present. Since ESCO2 has been identified as the gene defective in the rare autosomal recessive cohesinopathy Roberts syndrome (RBS), cells from RBS patients can be used to elucidate the role of ESCO2. We investigated for the first time RBS cells in comparison to isogenic controls that stably express V5- or GFP-tagged ESCO2. We show that the sister chromatid cohesion defect in the transfected cell lines is rescued and suggest that ESCO2 is regulated by proteasomal degradation in a cell cycle-dependent manner. In comparison to the corrected cells RBS cells were hypersensitive to the DNA-damaging agents mitomycin C, camptothecin and etoposide, while no particular sensitivity to UV, ionizing radiation, hydroxyurea or aphidicolin was found. The cohesion defect of RBS cells and their hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents were not corrected by a patient-derived ESCO2 acetyltransferase mutant (W539G), indicating that the acetyltransferase activity of ESCO2 is essential for its function. In contrast to a previous study on cells from patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome, another cohesinopathy, RBS cells failed to exhibit excessive chromosome aberrations after irradiation in G2 phase of the cell cycle. Our results point at an S phase-specific role for ESCO2 in the maintenance of genome stability.
Project description:Mutations in molecules involved in transcription and splicing can cause chromosome instability such as sister chromatid exchanges. We isolated and characterized responsible genes from mammalian temperature-sensitive mutant cells showing chromosome instability. A mutation in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II affected DNA synthesis in S phase-arrested cells, resulting in abnormal induction of sister chromatid exchanges. The yeast mutant harboring a homologous mutation showed very similar phenotype to that of the mammalian mutant. A mutation in Smu1, which is involved in splicing, also affected DNA synthesis in S and G2 phase-arrested cells, resulting in abnormal induction of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations. These cells showed a connection between defects of RNA metabolism and induction of chromosome instability. Genome instability appeared to be caused by links between RNA metabolism and replication resulting in genomic recombination. RNA metabolism can be regarded as one possible driver of genome modification triggering genome evolution.
Project description:A follow-up study of a cohort of workers from a coke plant compared with a control group from the same industrial area was conducted in 2019. The recruitment and environmental and biomarker measurements were performed during 1993/1994. The environmental concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), B(a)P, pyrene and nitro-PAH were measured. Personal data were collected via an individual semi-structured questionnaire by a trained physician. All biomarkers were measured after a specific blood drawing for every test. Significant risks (ORs) were observed for nitro-PAH (?0.12 µg/m3) [OR = 7.96 (1.01-62.82)], urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpy) (?0.99 µmoles/moles of creatinine) [OR = 11.71 (1.47-92.90)], PAH DNA adducts (P32) (?2.69 adducts/108 nucleotides) [OR = 5.46 (1.17-25.58)], total nitro-PAH hemoglobin adducts (?161.68 fg/µg of Hb) [OR = 5.92 (1.26-27.86)], sister chromatid exchange (SCE) with TCR (?377.84 SCE/cell chromosomes) [OR = 13.06 (3.95-93.10)], sister chromatid exchange with T (?394.72 total SCE) [OR = 13.06 (3.95-93.10)], and sister chromatid exchange with X (?8.19 mean SCE) [OR = 13.06 (3.95-93.10)]. Significant risk of death for all causes and chromosomal aberrations (48 h) (OR = 7.19 [1.19-43.44]) or micronuclei in culture at 48 h (OR = 3.86 [1.04-14.38]) were also found.
Project description:We describe the cloning and function of the human XRCC1 gene, which is the first mammalian gene isolated that affects cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The CHO mutant EM9 has 10-fold-higher sensitivity to ethyl methanesulfonate, 1.8-fold-higher sensitivity to ionizing radiation, a reduced capacity to rejoin single-strand DNA breaks, and a 10-fold-elevated level of sister chromatid exchange compared with the CHO parental cells. The complementing human gene was cloned from a cosmid library of a tertiary transformant. Two cosmid clones produced transformants that showed approximately 100% correction of the repair defect in EM9 cells, as determined by the kinetics of strand break repair, cell survival, and the level of sister chromatid exchange. A nearly full-length clone obtained from the pcD2 human cDNA expression library gave approximately 80% correction of EM9, as determined by the level of sister chromatid exchange. Based on an analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert compared with that of the 5' end of the gene from a cosmid clone, the cDNA clone appeared to be missing approximately 100 bp of transcribed sequence, including 26 nucleotides of coding sequence. The cDNA probe detected a single transcript of approximately 2.2 kb in HeLa polyadenylated RNA by Northern (RNA) blot hybridization. From the open reading frame and the positions of likely start sites for transcription and translation, the size of the putative XRCC1 protein is 633 amino acids (69.5 kDa). The size of the XRCC1 gene is 33 kb, as determined by localizing the endpoints on a restriction endonuclease site map of one cosmid clone. The deduced amino acid sequence did not show significant homology with any protein in the protein sequence data bases examined.
Project description:Rev1 is a deoxycytidyl transferase associated with DNA translesion synthesis (TLS). In addition to its catalytic domain, Rev1 possesses a so-called BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain. Here, we describe cells and mice containing a targeted deletion of this domain. Rev1(B/B) mice are healthy, fertile and display normal somatic hypermutation. Rev1(B/B) cells display an elevated spontaneous frequency of intragenic deletions at Hprt. In addition, these cells were sensitized to exogenous DNA damages. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light induced a delayed progression through late S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and many chromatid aberrations, specifically in a subset of mutant cells, but not enhanced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). UV-C-induced mutagenesis was reduced and mutations at thymidine-thymidine dimers were absent in Rev1(B/B) cells, the opposite phenotype of UV-C-exposed cells from XP-V patients, lacking TLS polymerase eta. This suggests that the enhanced UV-induced mutagenesis in XP-V patients may depend on error-prone Rev1-dependent TLS. Together, these data indicate a regulatory role of the Rev1 BRCT domain in TLS of a limited spectrum of endogenous and exogenous nucleotide damages during a defined phase of the cell cycle.
Project description:Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs). FANCD2, a central factor of the FA pathway, is essential for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) generated during fork collapse at ICLs. While lesions different from ICLs can also trigger fork collapse, the contribution of FANCD2 to the resolution of replication-coupled DSBs generated independently from ICLs is unknown. Intriguingly, FANCD2 is readily activated after UV irradiation, a DNA-damaging agent that generates predominantly intra-strand crosslinks but not ICLs. Hence, UV irradiation is an ideal tool to explore the contribution of FANCD2 to the DNA damage response triggered by DNA lesions other than ICL repair. Here we show that, in contrast to ICL-causing agents, UV radiation compromises cell survival independently from FANCD2. In agreement, FANCD2 depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs generated during the replication of UV-damaged DNA and is dispensable for UV-induced checkpoint activation. Remarkably however, FANCD2 protects UV-dependent, replication-coupled DSBs from aberrant processing by non-homologous end joining, preventing the accumulation of micronuclei and chromatid aberrations including non-homologous chromatid exchanges. Hence, while dispensable for cell survival, FANCD2 selectively safeguards chromosomal stability after UV-triggered replication stress.
Project description:Inactivating mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 cause gross chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosome structural instability in the absence of BRCA2 is thought to result from defective homology-directed DNA repair. Here, we show that BRCA2 links the fidelity of telomere maintenance with genetic integrity. Absence of BRCA2 resulted in signs of dysfunctional telomeres, such as telomere shortening, erosions, and end fusions in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. BRCA2 localized to the telomeres in S phase in an ATR-dependent manner, and its absence resulted in the accumulation of common fragile sites, particularly at the G-rich lagging strand, and increased the telomere sister chromatid exchange in unchallenged cells. The incidence of common fragile sites and telomere sister chromatid exchange increased markedly after treatment with replication inhibitors. Congruently, telomere-induced foci were frequently observed in the absence of Brca2, denoting activation of the DNA damage response and abnormal chromosome end joining. These telomere end fusions constituted a significant portion of chromosome aberrations in Brca2-deficient cells. Our results suggest that BRCA2 is required for telomere homeostasis and may be particularly important for the replication of G-rich telomeric lagging strands.
Project description:Mutations in BLM cause Bloom's syndrome, a disorder associated with cancer predisposition and chromosomal instability. We investigated whether BLM plays a role in ensuring the faithful chromosome segregation in human cells. We show that BLM-defective cells display a higher frequency of anaphase bridges and lagging chromatin than do isogenic corrected derivatives that eptopically express the BLM protein. In normal cells undergoing mitosis, BLM protein localizes to anaphase bridges, where it colocalizes with its cellular partners, topoisomerase IIIalpha and hRMI1 (BLAP75). Using BLM staining as a marker, we have identified a class of ultrafine DNA bridges in anaphase that are surprisingly prevalent in the anaphase population of normal human cells. These so-called BLM-DNA bridges, which also stain for the PICH protein, frequently link centromeric loci, and are present at an elevated frequency in cells lacking BLM. On the basis of these results, we propose that sister-chromatid disjunction is often incomplete in human cells even after the onset of anaphase. We present a model for the action of BLM in ensuring complete sister chromatid decatenation in anaphase.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion is essential for cell viability. We have isolated a novel temperature-sensitive lethal mutant named eso1-H17 that displays spindle assembly checkpoint-dependent mitotic delay and abnormal chromosome segregation. At the permissive temperature, the eso1-H17 mutant shows mild sensitivity to UV irradiation and DNA-damaging chemicals. At the nonpermissive temperature, the mutant is arrested in M phase with a viability loss due to a failure to establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase. The lethal M-phase arrest phenotype, however, is suppressed by inactivation of a spindle checkpoint. The eso1(+) gene is not essential for the onset and progression of DNA replication but has remarkable genetic interactions with those genes regulating the G(1)-S transition and DNA replication. The N-terminal two-thirds of Eso1p is highly homologous to DNA polymerase eta of budding yeast and humans, and the C-terminal one-third is homologous to budding yeast Eco1p (also called Ctf7p), which is required for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Deletion analysis and determination of the mutation site reveal that the function of the Eco1p/Ctf7p-homologous domain is necessary and sufficient for sister chromatid cohesion. On the other hand, deletion of the DNA polymerase eta domain in Eso1p increases sensitivity to UV irradiation. These results indicate that Eso1p plays a dual role during DNA replication. The C-terminal region acts to establish sister chromatid cohesion, and the N-terminal region presumably catalyzes translesion DNA synthesis when template DNA contains lesions that block regular DNA replication.