Bach proteins belong to a novel family of BTB-basic leucine zipper transcription factors that interact with MafK and regulate transcription through the NF-E2 site.
ABSTRACT: Members of the small Maf family (MafK, MafF, and MafG) are basic region leucine zipper (bZip) proteins that can function as transcriptional activators or repressors. The dimer compositions of their DNA binding forms determine whether the small Maf family proteins activate or repress transcription. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a GAL4-MafK fusion protein, we have identified two novel bZip transcription factors, Bach1 and Bach2, as heterodimerization partners of MafK. In addition to a Cap'n'collar-type bZip domain, these Bach proteins possess a BTB domain which is a protein interaction motif; Bach1 and Bach2 show significant similarity to each other in these regions but are otherwise divergent. Whereas expression of Bach1 appears ubiquitous, that of Bach2 is restricted to monocytes and neuronal cells. Bach proteins bind in vitro to NF-E2 binding sites, recognition elements for the hematopoietic transcription factor NF-E2, by forming heterodimers with MafK. Furthermore, a DNA binding complex that contained MafK as well as Bach2 or a protein related closely to Bach2 was found to be present in mouse brain cells. Bach1 and Bach2 function as transcription repressors in transfection assays using fibroblast cells, but they function as a transcriptional activator and repressor, respectively, in cultured erythroid cells. The results suggest that members of the Bach family play important roles in coordinating transcription activation and repression by MafK.
Project description:The small Maf proteins (sMafs) are basic region leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factors. The basic region of the Maf family is unique among the bZIP factors, and it contributes to the distinct DNA-binding mode of this class of proteins. MafF, MafG and MafK are the three vertebrate sMafs, and no functional differences have been observed among them in terms of their bZIP structures. sMafs form homodimers by themselves, and they form heterodimers with cap 'n' collar (CNC) proteins (p45 NF-E2, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3) and also with Bach proteins (Bach1 and Bach2). Because CNC and Bach proteins cannot bind to DNA as monomers, sMafs are indispensable partners that are required by CNC and Bach proteins to exert their functions. sMafs lack the transcriptional activation domain; hence, their homodimers act as transcriptional repressors. In contrast, sMafs participate in transcriptional activation or repression depending on their heterodimeric partner molecules and context. Mouse genetic analyses have revealed that various biological pathways are under the regulation of CNC-sMaf heterodimers. In this review, we summarize the history and current progress of sMaf studies in relation to their partners.
Project description:The maf oncogene encodes a bZip nuclear protein which recognizes sequences related to an AP-1 site either as a homodimer or as heterodimers with Fos and Jun. We describe here a novel maf-related gene, mafG, which shows extensive homology with two other maf-related genes, mafK and mafF. These three maf-related genes encode small basic-leucine zipper proteins lacking the trans-activator domain of v-Maf. Bacterially expressed small Maf proteins bind to DNA as homodimers with a sequence recognition profile that is virtually identical to that of v-Maf. As we have previously described, the three small Maf proteins also dimerize with the large subunit of NF-E2 (p45) to form an erythroid cell-specific transcription factor, NF-E2, which has distinct DNA-binding specificity. This study shows that the small Maf proteins can also dimerize among themselves and with Fos and a newly identified p45-related molecule (Ech) but not with v-Maf or Jun. Although the small Maf proteins preferentially recognize the consensus NF-E2 sequence as heterodimers with either NF-E2 p45, Ech, or Fos, these heterodimers seemed to be different in their transactivation potentials. Coexpression of Fos and small Mafs could not activate a promoter with tandem repeats of the NF-E2 site. These results raise the possibility that tissue-specific gene expression and differentiation of erythroid cells are regulated by competition among Fos, NF-E2 p45, and Ech for small Maf proteins and for binding sites.
Project description:Heme controls expression of genes involved in the synthesis of globins and heme. The mammalian transcription factor Bach1 functions as a repressor of the Maf recognition element (MARE) by forming antagonizing hetero-oligomers with the small Maf family proteins. We show here that heme binds specifically to Bach1 and regulates its DNA-binding activity. Deletion studies demonstrated that a heme-binding region of Bach1 is confined within its C-terminal region that possesses four dipeptide cysteine-proline (CP) motifs. Mutations in all of the CP motifs of Bach1 abolished its interaction with heme. The DNA-binding activity of Bach1 as a MafK hetero-oligomer was markedly inhibited by heme in gel mobility shift assays. The repressor activity of Bach1 was lost upon addition of hemin in transfected cells. These results suggest that increased levels of heme inactivate the repressor Bach1, resulting in induction of a host of genes with MARES:
Project description:Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has multiple functions in embryogenesis, adult homeostasis, tissue repair, and development of cancer. Here, we report that TGF-? suppresses the transcriptional activation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene, which is implicated in protection against oxidative injury and lung carcinogenesis. HO-1 is a target of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor Nrf2. TGF-? did not affect the stabilization or nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 after stimulation with electrophiles. Instead, TGF-? induced expression of transcription factors MafK and Bach1. Enhanced expression of either MafK or Bach1 was enough to suppress the electrophile-inducible expression of HO-1 even in the presence of accumulated Nrf2 in the nucleus. Knockdown of MafK and Bach1 by siRNA abolished TGF-?-dependent suppression of HO-1. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Nrf2 substitutes for Bach1 at the antioxidant response elements (E1 and E2), which are responsible for the induction of HO-1 in response to oxidative stress. On the other hand, pretreatment with TGF-? suppressed binding of Nrf2 to both E1 and E2 but marginally increased the binding of MafK to E2 together with Smads. As TGF-? is activated after tissue injury and in the process of cancer development, these findings suggest a novel mechanism by which damaged tissue becomes vulnerable to oxidative stress and xenobiotics.
Project description:Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects cells from various insults including oxidative stress. Transcriptional activators, including the Nrf2/Maf heterodimer, have been the focus of studies on the inducible expression of ho-1. Here we show that a heme-binding factor, Bach1, is a critical physiological repressor of ho-1. Bach1 bound to the multiple Maf recognition elements (MAREs) of ho-1 enhancers with MafK in vitro and repressed their activity in vivo, while heme abrogated this repressor function of Bach1 by inhibiting its binding to the ho-1 enhancers. Gene targeting experiments in mice revealed that, in the absence of Bach1, ho-1 became expressed constitutively at high levels in various tissues under normal physiological conditions. By analyzing bach1/nrf2 compound-deficient mice, we documented antagonistic activities of Bach1 and Nrf2 in several tissues. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that small Maf proteins participate in both repression and activation of ho-1. Thus, regulation of ho-1 involves a direct sensing of heme levels by Bach1 (by analogy to lac repressor sensitivity to lactose), generating a simple feedback loop whereby the substrate effects repressor-activator antagonism.
Project description:The transcriptional repressors BCL6 and BACH2 are crucial regulators of germinal center (GC) B-cell fate, and are known to interact and repress transcription of PRDM1, a key driver of plasma cell differentiation. How these factors cooperate is not fully understood. Herein, we show that GC formation is only minimally impaired in Bcl6(+/-) or Bach2(+/-) mice, although double heterozygous Bcl6(+/-)Bach2(+/-) mice exhibit profound reduction in GC formation. Splenic B cells from Bcl6(+/-) Bach2(+/-) mice display accelerated plasmacytic differentiation and high expression of key plasma cell genes such as Prdm1, Xbp1, and CD138. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing revealed that in B cells, BACH2 is mostly bound to genes together with its heterodimer partner MAFK. The BACH2-MAFK complex binds to sets of genes known to be involved in the GC response, 60% of which are also targets of BCL6. Approximately 30% of BACH2 peaks overlap with BCL6, including cis-regulatory sequences of the PRDM1 gene. BCL6 also modulates BACH2 protein stability and their protein levels are positively correlated in GC B cells. Therefore, BCL6 and BACH2 cooperate to orchestrate gene expression patterning in GC B cells through both transcriptional and biochemical mechanisms, which collectively determine the proper initiation and timing of terminal differentiation.
Project description:The transcriptional repressors BCL6 and BACH2 are crucial regulators of germinal center (GC) B-cell fate, and are known to interact and repress transcription of PRDM1, a key driver of plasma cell differentiation. How these factors cooperate is not fully understood. Herein we show that while GC formation is only minimally impaired in Bcl6+/- or Bach2+/- mice, double heterozygous Bcl6+/-Bach2+/- mice exhibit profound reduction in GC formation. Splenic B-cells from Bcl6+/- Bach2+/- mice display accelerated plasmacytic differentiation and high expression of key plasma cell genes such as Prdm1, Xbp1 and CD138. ChIP-seq revealed that in B-cells BACH2 is mostly bound to genes together with its heterodimer partner MAFK. The BACH2-MAFK complex binds to sets of genes known to be involved in the GC response, 60% of which are also targets of BCL6. Approximately 30% of BACH2 peaks overlap with BCL6 including cis-regulatory sequences of the PRDM1 gene. BCL6 also modulates BACH2 protein stability and their protein levels are positively correlated in GC B-cells. Therefore, BCL6 and BACH2 cooperate to orchestrate gene expression patterning in GC B cells through both transcriptional and biochemical mechanisms, which collectively determine the proper initiation and timing of terminal differentiation. ChIP-seq using P18 antibodies in OCI-Ly7 cells
Project description:Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective degradative process for cytosolic proteins that contributes to the maintenance of proteostasis. The signaling mechanisms that control CMA are not fully understood but might involve response to stress conditions including oxidative stress. Considering the role of CMA in redoxtasis and proteostasis, we sought to determine if the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2) has an impact on CMA modulation. In this work, we identified and validated 2 NFE2L2 binding sequences in the LAMP2 gene and demonstrated in several human and mouse cell types that NFE2L2 deficiency and overexpression was linked to reduced and increased LAMP2A levels, respectively. Accordingly, lysosomal LAMP2A levels were drastically reduced in nfe2l2-knockout hepatocytes, which also displayed a marked decrease in CMA activity. Oxidant challenge with paraquat or hydrogen peroxide, or pharmacological activation of NFE2L2 with sulforaphane or dimethyl fumarate also increased LAMP2A levels and CMA activity. Overall, our study identifies for the first time basal and inducible regulation of LAMP2A, and consequently CMA activity, by NFE2L2.<h4>Abbreviations</h4>ACTB: actin, beta, ARE: antioxidant response element; ATG5: autophagy related 5; BACH1: BTB domain and CNC homolog 1; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; DHE: dihydroethidium; DMF: dimethyl fumarate; ENCODE: Encyclopedia of DNA elements at the University of California, Santa Cruz; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GBA: glucosylceramidase beta; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HMOX1: heme oxygenase 1; H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>: hydrogen peroxide; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; KEAP1: kelch like ECH associated protein 1; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; LAMP2B: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2B; LAMP2C: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2C; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAFF: MAF bZIP transcription factor F; MAFK: MAF bZIP transcription factor K; NFE2L2/NRF2: nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; NQO1: NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1; PQ: paraquat; PI: protease inhibitors; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; RNASE: ribonuclease A family member; SFN: sulforaphane; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TBP: TATA-box binding protein.
Project description:The mouse beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR), located upstream of the beta-globin gene cluster, is essential for the activated transcription of genes in the cluster. The LCR contains multiple binding sites for transactivators, including Maf-recognition elements (MAREs). However, little is known about the specific proteins that bind to these sites or the time at which they bind during erythroid differentiation. We have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments to determine the recruitment of the erythroid-specific transactivator p45 NF-E2/MafK (p18 NF-E2) heterodimer and small Maf proteins to various regions in the globin gene locus before and after the induction of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cell differentiation. We report that, before induction, the LCR is occupied by small Maf proteins, and, on erythroid maturation, the NF-E2 complex is recruited to the LCR and the active globin promoters, even though the promoters do not contain MAREs. This differentiation-coupled recruitment of NF-E2 complex correlates with a greater than 100-fold increase in beta-major globin transcription, but is not associated with a significant change in locus-wide histone H3 acetylation. These findings suggest that the beta-globin gene locus exists in a constitutively open chromatin conformation before terminal differentiation, and we speculate that recruitment of NF-E2 complex to the LCR and active promoters may be a rate-limiting step in the activation of beta-globin gene expression.
Project description:The MAF family transcription factors are homologs of v-Maf, the oncogenic component of the avian retrovirus AS42. They are subdivided into 2 groups, small and large MAF proteins, according to their structure, function, and molecular size. MAFK is a member of the small MAF family and acts as a dominant negative form of large MAFs. In previous research we generated transgenic mice that overexpress MAFK in order to suppress the function of large MAF proteins in pancreatic ?-cells. These mice developed hyperglycemia in adulthood due to impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of ?-cell-specific Mafk overexpression in endocrine cell development. The developing islets of Mafk-transgenic embryos appeared to be disorganized with an inversion of total numbers of insulin+ and glucagon+ cells due to reduced ?-cell proliferation. Gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR revealed decreased levels of ?-cell-related genes whose expressions are known to be controlled by large MAF proteins. Additionally, these changes were accompanied with a significant increase in key ?-cell transcription factors likely due to compensatory mechanisms that might have been activated in response to the ?-cell loss. Finally, microarray comparison of gene expression profiles between wild-type and transgenic pancreata revealed alteration of some uncharacterized genes including Pcbd1, Fam132a, Cryba2, and Npy, which might play important roles during pancreatic endocrine development. Taken together, these results suggest that Mafk overexpression impairs endocrine development through a regulation of numerous ?-cell-related genes. The microarray analysis provided a unique data set of differentially expressed genes that might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis that governs the development and function of endocrine pancreas.