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Cloning and characterization of FAD1, the structural gene for flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

ABSTRACT: The FAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been selected from a genomic library on the basis of its ability to partially correct the respiratory defect of pet mutants previously assigned to complementation group G178. Mutants in this group display a reduced level of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and an increased level of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in mitochondria. The restoration of respiratory capability by FAD1 is shown to be due to extragenic suppression. FAD1 codes for an essential yeast protein, since disruption of the gene induces a lethal phenotype. The FAD1 product has been inferred to be yeast FAD synthetase, an enzyme that adenylates FMN to FAD. This conclusion is based on the following evidence. S. cerevisiae transformed with FAD1 on a multicopy plasmid displays an increase in FAD synthetase activity. This is also true when the gene is expressed in Escherichia coli. Lastly, the FAD1 product exhibits low but significant primary sequence similarity to sulfate adenyltransferase, which catalyzes a transfer reaction analogous to that of FAD synthetase. The lower mitochondrial concentration of FAD in G178 mutants is proposed to be caused by an inefficient exchange of external FAD for internal FMN. This is supported by the absence of FAD synthetase activity in yeast mitochondria and the presence of both extramitochondrial and mitochondrial riboflavin kinase, the preceding enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. A lesion in mitochondrial import of FAD would account for the higher concentration of mitochondrial FMN in the mutant if the transport is catalyzed by an exchange carrier. The ability of FAD1 to suppress impaired transport of FAD is explained by mislocalization of the synthetase in cells harboring multiple copies of the gene. This mechanism of suppression is supported by the presence of mitochondrial FAD synthetase activity in S. cerevisiae transformed with FAD1 on a high-copy-number plasmid but not in mitochondrial of a wild-type strain.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC231949 | BioStudies | 1995-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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