Molecular anatomy of the recombination mediator function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52.
ABSTRACT: A helical filament of Rad51 on single-strand DNA (ssDNA), called the presynaptic filament, catalyzes DNA joint formation during homologous recombination. Rad52 facilitates presynaptic filament assembly, and this recombination mediator activity is thought to rely on the interactions of Rad52 with Rad51, the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, and ssDNA. The N-terminal region of Rad52, which has DNA binding activity and an oligomeric structure, is thought to be crucial for mediator activity and recombination. Unexpectedly, we find that the C-terminal region of Rad52 also harbors a DNA binding function. Importantly, the Rad52 C-terminal portion alone can promote Rad51 presynaptic filament assembly. The middle portion of Rad52 associates with DNA-bound RPA and contributes to the recombination mediator activity. Accordingly, expression of a protein species that harbors the middle and C-terminal regions of Rad52 in the rad52 Delta327 background enhances the association of Rad51 protein with a HO-made DNA double-strand break and partially complements the methylmethane sulfonate sensitivity of the mutant cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for rationalizing the multi-faceted role of Rad52 in recombination and DNA repair.
Project description:Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double-stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single-stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic-complex assembly. Here we use single-molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA, Rad52 and Rad51 during presynaptic-complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA-ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 binding extends the ssDNA, and Rad52-RPA clusters remain interspersed along the presynaptic complex. These clusters promote additional binding of RPA and Rad52. Our work illustrates the spatial and temporal progression of the association of RPA and Rad52 with the presynaptic complex and reveals a new RPA-Rad52-Rad51-ssDNA intermediate, with implications for how the activities of Rad52 and RPA are coordinated with Rad51 during the later stages of recombination.
Project description:Yeast Rad52 (yRad52) has two important functions at homologous DNA recombination (HR); annealing complementary single-strand DNA (ssDNA) molecules and recruiting Rad51 recombinase onto ssDNA (recombination mediator activity). Its human homolog (hRAD52) has a lesser role in HR, and apparently lacks mediator activity. Here we show that yRad52 can load human Rad51 (hRAD51) onto ssDNA complexed with yeast RPA in vitro. This is biochemically equivalent to mediator activity because it depends on the C-terminal Rad51-binding region of yRad52 and on functional Rad52-RPA interaction. It has been reported that the N-terminal two thirds of both yRad52 and hRAD52 is essential for binding to and annealing ssDNA. Although a second DNA binding region has been found in the C-terminal region of yRad52, its role in ssDNA annealing is not clear. In this paper, we also show that the C-terminal region of yRad52, but not of hRAD52, is involved in ssDNA annealing. This suggests that the second DNA binding site is required for the efficient ssDNA annealing by yRad52. We propose an updated model of Rad52-mediated ssDNA annealing.
Project description:Rad51, Rad52, and RPA play central roles in homologous DNA recombination. Rad51 mediates DNA strand exchange, a key reaction in DNA recombination. Rad52 has two distinct activities: to recruit Rad51 onto single-strand (ss)DNA that is complexed with the ssDNA-binding protein, RPA, and to anneal complementary ssDNA complexed with RPA. Here, we report that Rad52 promotes annealing of the ssDNA strand that is displaced by DNA strand exchange by Rad51 and RPA, to a second ssDNA strand. An RPA that is recombination-deficient (RPA(rfa1-t11)) failed to support annealing, explaining its in vivo phenotype. Escherichia coli RecO and SSB proteins, which are functional homologues of Rad52 and RPA, also facilitated the same reaction, demonstrating its conserved nature. We also demonstrate that the two activities of Rad52, recruiting Rad51 and annealing DNA, are coordinated in DNA strand exchange and second ssDNA capture.
Project description:Homologous recombination is associated with the dynamic assembly and disassembly of DNA-protein complexes. Assembly of a nucleoprotein filament comprising ssDNA and the RecA homolog, Rad51, is a key step required for homology search during recombination. The budding yeast Srs2 DNA translocase is known to dismantle Rad51 filament in vitro. However, there is limited evidence to support the dismantling activity of Srs2 in vivo. Here, we show that Srs2 indeed disrupts Rad51-containing complexes from chromosomes during meiosis. Overexpression of Srs2 during the meiotic prophase impairs meiotic recombination and removes Rad51 from meiotic chromosomes. This dismantling activity is specific for Rad51, as Srs2 Overexpression does not remove Dmc1 (a meiosis-specific Rad51 homolog), Rad52 (a Rad51 mediator), or replication protein A (RPA; a single-stranded DNA-binding protein). Rather, RPA replaces Rad51 under these conditions. A mutant Srs2 lacking helicase activity cannot remove Rad51 from meiotic chromosomes. Interestingly, the Rad51-binding domain of Srs2, which is critical for Rad51-dismantling activity in vitro, is not essential for this activity in vivo. Our results suggest that a precise level of Srs2, in the form of the Srs2 translocase, is required to appropriately regulate the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament dynamics during meiosis.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein is essential for efficient homologous recombination (HR). An important role of Rad52 in HR is the loading of Rad51 onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is referred to as the recombination mediator activity. In vitro, Rad52 displays additional activities, including self-association, DNA binding and ssDNA annealing. Although Rad52 has been a subject of extensive genetic, biochemical and structural studies, the mechanisms by which these activities are coordinated in the various roles of Rad52 in HR remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that an isolated C-terminal half of Rad52 disrupted the Rad51 oligomer and formed a heterodimeric complex with Rad51. The Rad52 fragment inhibited the binding of Rad51 to double-stranded DNA, but not to ssDNA. The phenylalanine-349 and tyrosine-409 residues present in the C-terminal half of Rad52 were critical for the interaction with Rad51, the disruption of Rad51 oligomers, the mediator activity of the full-length protein and for DNA repair in vivo in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate. Our studies suggested that phenylalanine-349 and tyrosine-409 are key residues in the C-terminal half of Rad52 and probably play an important role in the mediator activity.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 performs multiple functions during the recombinational repair of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks (DSBs). It mediates assembly of Rad51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is complexed with replication protein A (RPA); the resulting nucleoprotein filament pairs with homologous dsDNA to form joint molecules. Rad52 also catalyzes the annealing of complementary strands of ssDNA, even when they are complexed with RPA. Both Rad51 and Rad52 can be envisioned to promote "second-end capture," a step that pairs the ssDNA generated by processing of the second end of a DSB to the joint molecule formed by invasion of the target dsDNA by the first processed end. Here, we show that Rad52 promotes annealing of complementary ssDNA that is complexed with RPA to the displaced strand of a joint molecule, to form a complement-stabilized joint molecule. RecO, a prokaryotic homolog of Rad52, cannot form complement-stabilized joint molecules with RPA-ssDNA complexes, nor can Rad52 promote second-end capture when the ssDNA is bound with either human RPA or the prokaryotic ssDNA-binding protein, SSB, indicating a species-specific process. We conclude that Rad52 participates in second-end capture by annealing a resected DNA break, complexed with RPA, to the joint molecule product of single-end invasion event. These studies support a role for Rad52-promoted annealing in the formation of Holliday junctions in DSB repair.
Project description:The conserved budding yeast Rad51 paralogues, including Rad55, Rad57, Csm2 and Psy3 are indispensable for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated chromosome damage repair. Rad55 and Rad57 are associated in a heterodimer, while Csm2 and Psy3 form the Shu complex with Shu1 and Shu2. Here we show that Rad55 bridges an interaction between Csm2 with Rad51 and Rad52 and, using a fully reconstituted system, demonstrate that the Shu complex synergizes with Rad55-Rad57 and Rad52 to promote nucleation of Rad51 on single-stranded DNA pre-occupied by replication protein A (RPA). The csm2-F46A allele is unable to interact with Rad55, ablating the ability of the Shu complex to enhance Rad51 presynaptic filament assembly in vitro and impairing HR in vivo. Our results reveal that Rad55-Rad57, the Shu complex and Rad52 act as a functional ensemble to promote Rad51-filament assembly, which has important implications for understanding the role of the human RAD51 paralogues in Fanconi anaemia and cancer predisposition.
Project description:RAD52 protein has an important role in homology-directed DNA repair by mediating RAD51 nucleoprotein filament formation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) protected by replication protein-A (RPA) and annealing of RPA-coated ssDNA. In human, cellular response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of RAD52 by c-ABL kinase at tyrosine 104. To address how this phosphorylation modulates RAD52 function, we used an amber suppressor technology to substitute tyrosine 104 with chemically stable phosphotyrosine analogue (p-Carboxymethyl-L-phenylalanine, pCMF). The RAD52(Y104pCMF) retained ssDNA-binding activity characteristic of unmodified RAD52 but showed lower affinity for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding. Single-molecule analyses revealed that RAD52(Y104pCMF) specifically targets and wraps ssDNA. While RAD52(Y104pCMF) is confined to ssDNA region, unmodified RAD52 readily diffuses into dsDNA region. The Y104pCMF substitution also increased the ssDNA annealing rate and allowed overcoming the inhibitory effect of dsDNA. We propose that phosphorylation at Y104 enhances ssDNA annealing activity of RAD52 by attenuating dsDNA binding. Implications of phosphorylation-mediated activation of RAD52 annealing activity are discussed.
Project description:Homologous DNA recombination (HR) by the RAD51 recombinase enables error-free DNA break repair. To execute HR, RAD51 first forms a presynaptic filament on single-stranded (ss) DNA, which catalyses pairing with homologous double-stranded (ds) DNA. Here, we report a structure for the presynaptic human RAD51 filament at 3.5-5.0Å resolution using electron cryo-microscopy. RAD51 encases ssDNA in a helical filament of 103Å pitch, comprising 6.4 protomers per turn, with a rise of 16.1Å and a twist of 56.2°. Inter-protomer distance correlates with rotation of an ?-helical region in the core catalytic domain that is juxtaposed to ssDNA, suggesting how the RAD51-DNA interaction modulates protomer spacing and filament pitch. We map Fanconi anaemia-like disease-associated RAD51 mutations, clarifying potential phenotypes. We predict binding sites on the presynaptic filament for two modules present in each BRC repeat of the BRCA2 tumour suppressor, a critical HR mediator. Structural modelling suggests that changes in filament pitch mask or expose one binding site with filament-inhibitory potential, rationalizing the paradoxical ability of the BRC repeats to either stabilize or inhibit filament formation at different steps during HR. Collectively, our findings provide fresh insight into the structural mechanism of HR and its dysregulation in human disease.
Project description:RADX is a mammalian single-stranded DNA-binding protein that stabilizes telomeres and stalled replication forks. Cellular biology studies have shown that the balance between RADX and Replication Protein A (RPA) is critical for DNA replication integrity. RADX is also a negative regulator of RAD51-mediated homologous recombination at stalled forks. However, the mechanism of RADX acting on DNA and its interactions with RPA and RAD51 are enigmatic. Using single-molecule imaging of the key proteins in vitro, we reveal that RADX condenses ssDNA filaments, even when the ssDNA is coated with RPA at physiological protein ratios. RADX compacts RPA-coated ssDNA filaments via higher-order assemblies that can capture ssDNA in trans. Furthermore, RADX blocks RPA displacement by RAD51 and prevents RAD51 loading on ssDNA. Our results indicate that RADX is an ssDNA condensation protein that inhibits RAD51 filament formation and may antagonize other ssDNA-binding proteins on RPA-coated ssDNA.