Phospholamban oligomerization, quaternary structure, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase binding measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells.
ABSTRACT: Phospholamban (PLB) oligomerization, quaternary structure, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) binding were quantified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in an intact cellular environment. FRET between cyan fluorescent protein-PLB and yellow fluorescent protein-PLB in AAV-293 cells showed hyperbolic dependence on protein concentration, with a maximum efficiency of 45.1 +/- 1.3%. The observed FRET corresponds to a probe separation distance of 58.7 +/- 0.5A(,) according to a computational model of intrapentameric FRET. This is consistent with models of the PLB pentamer in which cytoplasmic domains fan out from the central bundle of transmembrane helices. An I40A mutation of PLB did not alter pentamer conformation but increased the concentration of half-maximal FRET (K(D)) by >4-fold. This is consistent with the previous observation that this putatively monomeric mutant still oligomerizes in intact membranes but forms more dynamic pentamers than wild type PLB. PLB association with SERCA, measured by FRET between cyan fluorescent protein-SERCA and yellow fluorescent protein-PLB, was increased by the I40A mutation without any detectable change in probe separation distance. The data indicate that the regulatory complex conformation is not altered by the I40A mutation. A naturally occurring human mutation (L39Stop) greatly reduced PLB oligomerization and SERCA binding and caused mislocalization of PLB to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Overall, the data suggest that the PLB pentamer adopts a "pinwheel" shape in cell membranes, as opposed to a more compact "bellflower" conformation. I40A mutation decreases oligomerization and increases PLB binding to SERCA. Truncation of the transmembrane domain by L39Stop mutation prevents anchoring of the protein in the membrane, greatly reducing PLB binding to itself or its regulatory target, SERCA.
Project description:To determine the structural and regulatory role of the C-terminal residues of phospholamban (PLB) in the membranes of living cells, we fused fluorescent protein tags to PLB and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Alanine substitution of PLB C-terminal residues significantly altered fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PLB to PLB and SERCA to PLB, suggesting a change in quaternary conformation of PLB pentamer and SERCA-PLB regulatory complex. Val to Ala substitution at position 49 (V49A) had particularly large effects on PLB pentamer structure and PLB-SERCA regulatory complex conformation, increasing and decreasing probe separation distance, respectively. We also quantified a decrease in oligomerization affinity, an increase in binding affinity of V49A-PLB for SERCA, and a gain of inhibitory function as quantified by calcium-dependent ATPase activity. Notably, deletion of only a few C-terminal residues resulted in significant loss of PLB membrane anchoring and mislocalization to the cytoplasm and nucleus. C-terminal truncations also resulted in progressive loss of PLB-PLB FRET due to a decrease in the apparent affinity of PLB oligomerization. We quantified a similar decrease in the binding affinity of truncated PLB for SERCA and loss of inhibitory potency. However, despite decreased SERCA-PLB binding, intermolecular FRET for Val(49)-stop (V49X) truncation mutant was paradoxically increased as a result of an 11.3-Å decrease in the distance between donor and acceptor fluorophores. We conclude that PLB C-terminal residues are critical for localization, oligomerization, and regulatory function. In particular, the PLB C terminus is an important determinant of the quaternary structure of the SERCA regulatory complex.
Project description:To investigate the effect of phosphorylation on the interactions of phospholamban (PLB) with itself and its regulatory target, SERCA, we measured FRET from CFP-SERCA or CFP-PLB to YFP-PLB in live AAV-293 cells. Phosphorylation of PLB was mimicked by mutations S16E (PKA site) or S16E/T17E (PKA+CaMKII sites). FRET increased with protein concentration up to a maximum (FRET(max)) that was taken to represent the intrinsic FRET of the bound complex. The concentration dependence of FRET yielded dissociation constants (K(D)) for the PLB-PLB and PLB-SERCA interactions. PLB-PLB FRET data suggest pseudo-phosphorylation of PLB increased oligomerization of PLB but did not alter PLB pentamer quaternary structure. PLB-SERCA FRET experiments showed an apparent decrease in binding of PLB to SERCA and an increase in the apparent PLB-SERCA binding cooperativity. It is likely that these changes are secondary effects of increased oligomerization of PLB; a change in the inherent affinity of monomeric PLB for SERCA was not detected. In addition, PLB-SERCA complex FRET(max) was reduced by phosphomimetic mutations, suggesting the conformation of the regulatory complex is significantly altered by PLB phosphorylation.
Project description:We have detected directly the interactions of sarcolipin (SLN) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fusion proteins labeled with cyan fluorescent protein (donor) and yellow fluorescent protein (acceptor). SLN is a membrane protein that helps control contractility by regulating SERCA activity in fast-twitch and atrial muscle. Here we used FRET microscopy and spectroscopy with baculovirus expression in insect cells to provide direct evidence for: 1) oligomerization of SLN and 2) regulatory complex formation between SLN and the fast-twitch muscle Ca-ATPase (SERCA1a isoform). FRET experiments demonstrated that SLN monomers self-associate into dimers and higher order oligomers in the absence of SERCA, and that SLN monomers also bind to SERCA monomers in a 1:1 binary complex when the two proteins are coexpressed. FRET experiments further demonstrated that the binding affinity of SLN for itself is similar to that for SERCA. Mutating SLN residue isoleucine-17 to alanine (I17A) decreased the binding affinity of SLN self-association and converted higher order oligomers into monomers and dimers. The I17A mutation also decreased SLN binding affinity for SERCA but maintained 1:1 stoichiometry in the regulatory complex. Thus, isoleucine-17 plays dual roles in determining the distribution of SLN homo-oligomers and stabilizing the formation of SERCA-SLN heterodimers. FRET results for SLN self-association were supported by the effects of SLN expression in bacterial cells. We propose that SLN exists as multiple molecular species in muscle, including SERCA-free (monomer, dimer, oligomer) and SERCA-bound (heterodimer), with transmembrane zipper residues of SLN serving to stabilize oligomeric interactions.
Project description:The recently-discovered single-span transmembrane proteins endoregulin (ELN), dwarf open reading frame (DWORF), myoregulin (MLN), and another-regulin (ALN) are reported to bind to the SERCA calcium pump in a manner similar to that of known regulators of SERCA activity, phospholamban (PLB) and sarcolipin (SLN). To determine how micropeptide assembly into oligomers affects the availability of the micropeptide to bind to SERCA in a regulatory complex, we used co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to quantify micropeptide oligomerization and SERCA-binding. Micropeptides formed avid homo-oligomers with high-order stoichiometry (n?>?2 protomers per homo-oligomer), but it was the monomeric form of all micropeptides that interacted with SERCA. In view of these two alternative binding interactions, we evaluated the possibility that oligomerization occurs at the expense of SERCA-binding. However, even the most avidly oligomeric micropeptide species still showed robust FRET with SERCA, and there was a surprising positive correlation between oligomerization affinity and SERCA-binding. This comparison of micropeptide family members suggests that the same structural determinants that support oligomerization are also important for binding to SERCA. Moreover, the unique oligomerization/SERCA-binding profile of DWORF is in harmony with its distinct role as a PLB-competing SERCA activator, in contrast to the inhibitory function of the other SERCA-binding micropeptides.
Project description:The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) undergoes conformational changes while transporting calcium, but the details of the domain motions are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to measure distances between the cytoplasmic domains of SERCA2a in order to reveal the magnitude and direction of conformational changes. Using fluorescence microscopy of live cells, we measured intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a donor fluorescent protein fused to the SERCA N-terminus to an acceptor fluorescent protein fused to either the N-, P-, or transmembrane domain. The "2-color" SERCA constructs were catalytically active as indicated by ATPase activity in vitro and Ca uptake in live cells. All constructs exhibited dynamic FRET changes in response to the pump ligands calcium and thapsigargin (Tg). These FRET changes were quantified as an index of SERCA conformational changes. Intramolecular FRET decreased with Tg for the two N-domain fusion sites (at residue 509 or 576), while the P- (residue 661) and TM-domain (C-terminus) fusions showed increased FRET with Tg. The magnitude of the Tg-dependent conformational change was not decreased by coexpression of phospholamban (PLB), nor did PLB slow the kinetics of Tg binding. FRET in ionophore-permeabilized cells was lower in EGTA than in saturating calcium for all constructs, indicating a decrease in domain separation distance with the structural transition from E2 (Ca-free) to E1 (Ca-bound). The data suggest closure of the cytoplasmic headpiece with Ca-binding. The present results provide insight into the structural dynamics of the Ca-ATPase. In addition, the 2-color SERCA constructs developed for this study may be useful for evaluating candidate small molecule regulators of Ca uptake activity.
Project description:We have used time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) to characterize the interaction between phospholamban (PLB) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca-ATPase (SERCA) under conditions that relieve SERCA inhibition. Unphosphorylated PLB inhibits SERCA in cardiac SR, but inhibition is relieved by either micromolar Ca(2+) or PLB phosphorylation. In both cases, it has been proposed that inhibition is relieved by dissociation of the complex. To test this hypothesis, we attached fluorophores to the cytoplasmic domains of SERCA and PLB, and reconstituted them functionally in lipid bilayers. TR-FRET, which permitted simultaneous measurement of SERCA-PLB binding and structure, was measured as a function of PLB phosphorylation and [Ca(2+)]. In all cases, two structural states of the SERCA-PLB complex were resolved, probably corresponding to the previously described T and R structural states of the PLB cytoplasmic domain. Phosphorylation of PLB at S16 completely relieved inhibition, partially dissociated the SERCA-PLB complex, and shifted the T/R equilibrium within the bound complex toward the R state. Since the PLB concentration in cardiac SR is at least 10 times that in our FRET measurements, we calculate that most of SERCA contains bound phosphorylated PLB in cardiac SR, even after complete phosphorylation. 4 ?M Ca(2+) completely relieved inhibition but did not induce a detectable change in SERCA-PLB binding or cytoplasmic domain structure, suggesting a mechanism involving structural changes in SERCA's transmembrane domain. We conclude that Ca(2+) and PLB phosphorylation relieve SERCA-PLB inhibition by distinct mechanisms, but both are achieved primarily by structural changes within the SERCA-PLB complex, not by dissociation of that complex.
Project description:We have used a biosynthetically incorporated fluorescent probe to monitor domain movements involved in ion transport by the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) from rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle. X-ray crystal structures suggest that the nucleotide-binding (N) and actuator (A) domains of SERCA move apart by several nanometers upon Ca binding. To test this hypothesis, cDNA constructs were created to fuse cyan-fluorescent protein (CFP) to the N terminus of SERCA (A domain). This CFP-SERCA fluorescent fusion protein retained activity when expressed in Sf21 insect cells using the baculovirus system. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to monitor the A-N interdomain distance for CFP-SERCA selectively labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) at Lys 515 in the N domain. At low [Ca (2+)] (E2 biochemical state), the measured FRET efficiency between CFP (donor in A domain) and FITC (acceptor in N domain) was 0.34 +/- 0.03, indicating a mean distance of 61.6 +/- 2.0 A between probes on the two domains. An increase of [Ca (2+)] to 0.1 mM (E1-Ca biochemical state) decreased the FRET efficiency by 0.06 +/- 0.03, indicating an increase in the mean distance by 3.0 +/- 1.2 A. Quantitative molecular modeling of dual-labeled SERCA, including an accurate calculation of the orientation factor, shows that the FRET data observed in the absence of Ca is consistent with the E2 crystal structure, but the increase in distance (decrease in FRET) induced by Ca is much less than predicted by the E1 crystal structure. We conclude that the E1 crystal structure does not reflect the predominant structure of SERCA under physiological conditions in a functional membrane bilayer.
Project description:Phospholamban (PLB) is a membrane protein that regulates heart muscle relaxation rates via interactions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). When PLB is phosphorylated or Arg9Cys (R9C) is mutated, inhibition of SERCA is relieved. (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy is utilized to investigate conformational changes of PLB upon phosphorylation and R9C mutation. (13)C═O NMR spectra of the cytoplasmic domain reveal two α-helical structural components with population changes upon phosphorylation and R9C mutation. The appearance of an unstructured component is observed on domain Ib. (15)N NMR spectra indicate an increase in backbone dynamics of the cytoplasmic domain. Wild-type PLB (WT-PLB), Ser16-phosphorylated PLB (P-PLB), and R9C-mutated PLB (R9C-PLB) all have a very dynamic domain Ib, and the transmembrane domain has an immobile component. (15)N NMR spectra indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of R9C-PLB adopts an orientation similar to P-PLB and shifts away from the membrane surface. Domain Ib (Leu28) of P-PLB and R9C-PLB loses the alignment. The R9C-PLB adopts a conformation similar to P-PLB with a population shift to a more extended and disordered state. The NMR data suggest the more extended and disordered forms of PLB may relate to inhibition relief.
Project description:The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) establishes the intracellular calcium gradient across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. It has been proposed that SERCA forms homooligomers that increase the catalytic rate of calcium transport. We investigated SERCA dimerization in rabbit left ventricular myocytes using a photoactivatable cross-linker. Western blotting of cross-linked SERCA revealed higher-molecular-weight species consistent with SERCA oligomerization. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements in cells transiently transfected with fluorescently labeled SERCA2a revealed that SERCA readily forms homodimers. These dimers formed in the absence or presence of the SERCA regulatory partner, phospholamban (PLB) and were unaltered by PLB phosphorylation or changes in calcium or ATP. Fluorescence lifetime data are compatible with a model in which PLB interacts with a SERCA homodimer in a stoichiometry of 1:2. Together, these results suggest that SERCA forms constitutive homodimers in live cells and that dimer formation is not modulated by SERCA conformational poise, PLB binding, or PLB phosphorylation.
Project description:To characterize the conformational dynamics of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium pump (SERCA) we performed molecular dynamics simulations beginning with several different high-resolution structures. We quantified differences in structural disorder and dynamics for an open conformation of SERCA versus closed structures and observed that dynamic motions of SERCA cytoplasmic domains decreased with decreasing domain-domain separation distance. The results are useful for interpretation of recent intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) distance measurements obtained for SERCA fused to fluorescent protein tags. Those previous physical measurements revealed several discrete structural substates and suggested open conformations of SERCA are more dynamic than compact conformations. The present simulations support this hypothesis and provide additional details of SERCA molecular mechanisms. Specifically, all-atoms simulations revealed large-scale translational and rotational motions of the SERCA N-domain relative to the A- and P-domains during the transition from an open to a closed headpiece conformation over the course of a 400 ns trajectory. The open-to-closed structural transition was accompanied by a disorder-to-order transition mediated by an initial interaction of an N-domain loop (Nβ5-β6, residues 426-436) with residues 133-139 of the A-domain. Mutation of three negatively charged N-domain loop residues abolished the disorder-to-order transition and prevented the initial domain-domain interaction and subsequent closure of the cytoplasmic headpiece. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were in harmony with all-atoms simulations and physical measurements and revealed a close communication between fluorescent protein tags and the domain to which they were fused. The data indicate that previous intramolecular FRET distance measurements report SERCA structure changes with high fidelity and suggest a structural mechanism that facilitates the closure of the SERCA cytoplasmic headpiece.