Rearrangement of mouse immunoglobulin kappa deleting element recombining sequence promotes immune tolerance and lambda B cell production.
ABSTRACT: The recombining sequence (RS) of mouse and its human equivalent, the immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa deleting element (IGKDE), are sequences found at the 3' end of the Ig kappa locus (Igk) that rearrange to inactivate Igk in developing B cells. RS recombination correlates with Ig lambda (Iglambda) light (L) chain expression and likely plays a role in receptor editing by eliminating Igk genes encoding autoantibodies. A mouse strain was generated in which the recombination signal of RS was removed, blocking RS-mediated Igk inactivation. In RS mutant mice, receptor editing and self-tolerance were impaired, in some cases leading to autoantibody formation. Surprisingly, mutant mice also made fewer B cells expressing lambda chain, whereas lambda versus kappa isotype exclusion was only modestly affected. These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells.
Project description:Allelic exclusion is established in development through a feedback mechanism in which the assembled immunoglobulin (Ig) suppresses further V(D)J rearrangement. But Ig expression sometimes fails to prevent further rearrangement. In autoantibody transgenic mice, reactivity of immature B cells with autoantigen can induce receptor editing, in which allelic exclusion is transiently prevented or reversed through nested light chain gene rearrangement, often resulting in altered B cell receptor specificity. To determine the extent of receptor editing in a normal, non-Ig transgenic immune system, we took advantage of the fact that lambda light chain genes usually rearrange after kappa genes. This allowed us to analyze kappa loci in IgMlambda+ cells to determine how frequently in-frame kappa genes fail to suppress lambda gene rearrangements. To do this, we analyzed recombined VkappaJkappa genes inactivated by subsequent recombining sequence (RS) rearrangement. RS rearrangements delete portions of the kappa locus by a V(D)J recombinase-dependent mechanism, suggesting that they play a role in receptor editing. We show that RS recombination is frequently induced by, and inactivates, functionally rearranged kappa loci, as nearly half (47%) of the RS-inactivated VkappaJkappa joins were in-frame. These findings suggest that receptor editing occurs at a surprisingly high frequency in normal B cells.
Project description:Unlike most vertebrates, the shark IgL gene organization precludes secondary rearrangements that delete self-reactive VJ rearranged genes. Nurse sharks express four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2, encoded by 35 functional minigenes or clusters. The sequence of gene activation/expression and receptor editing of these isotypes have not been studied. We therefore investigated the extent of isotypic exclusion in separated B cell subpopulations. Surface Ig (sIg)κ-expressing cells, isolated with mAb LK14 that recognizes Cκ, carry predominantly nonproductive rearrangements of other L chain isotypes. Conversely, after depletion with LK14, sIgM+ cells contained largely nonproductive κ and enrichment for in-frame VJ of the others. Because some isotypic inclusion was observed at the mRNA level, expression in the BCR was examined. Functional λ mRNA was obtained, as expected, from the LK14-depleted population, but was also in sIgκ+ splenocytes. Whereas λ somatic mutants from the depleted sample displayed evidence of positive selection, the λ genes in sIgκ+ cells accumulated bystander mutations indicating a failure to express their products at the cell surface in association with the BCR H chain. In conclusion, a shark B cell expresses one L chain isotype at the surface and other isotypes as nonproductive VJ, sterile transcripts, or in-frame VJ whose products may not associate with the H chain. Based on the mRNA content found in the B cell subpopulations, an order of L chain gene activation is suggested as: σ-2 followed by κ, then σ and λ.
Project description:Derivatives of the mu-producing Abelson line P8 have been analyzed for L chain gene rearrangements. Two of seven clones studied assembled their V lambda genes while growing in culture. V lambda gene rearrangements occurred only in those Abelson subclones that either were rearranging or had rearranged their recombining sequence (RS) element on both Ig kappa alleles. Our data suggest that (a) RS rearrangements are preferentially initiated in kappa- pre-B cells; and (b) the deletion or inactivation of sequences lying between J kappa and RS is a requirement for the activation of the Ig lambda locus.
Project description:Germline variation at immunoglobulin (IG) loci is critical for pathogen-mediated immunity, but establishing complete haplotype sequences in these regions has been problematic because of complex sequence architecture and diploid source DNA. We sequenced BAC clones from the effectively haploid human hydatidiform mole cell line, CHM1htert, across the light chain IG loci, kappa (IGK) and lambda (IGL), creating single haplotype representations of these regions. The IGL haplotype generated here is 1.25 Mb of contiguous sequence, including four novel IGLV alleles, one novel IGLC allele, and an 11.9-kb insertion. The CH17 IGK haplotype consists of two 644 kb proximal and 466 kb distal contigs separated by a large gap of unknown size; these assemblies added 49 kb of unique sequence extending into this gap. Our analysis also resulted in the characterization of seven novel IGKV alleles and a 16.7-kb region exhibiting signatures of interlocus sequence exchange between distal and proximal IGKV gene clusters. Genetic diversity in IGK/IGL was compared with that of the IG heavy chain (IGH) locus within the same haploid genome, revealing threefold (IGK) and sixfold (IGL) higher diversity in the IGH locus, potentially associated with increased levels of segmental duplication and the telomeric location of IGH.
Project description:The discovery of a fourth immunoglobulin (Ig) light (L) chain isotype in sharks has revealed the origins and natural history of all vertebrate L chains. Phylogenetic comparisons have established orthology between this new shark L chain and the unique Xenopus L chain isotype sigma. More importantly, inclusion of this new L chain family in phylogenetic analyses showed that all vertebrate L chains can be categorized into four ancestral clans originating prior to the emergence of cartilaginous fish: one restricted to elasmobranchs (sigma-cart/type I), one found in all cold-blooded vertebrates (sigma/teleost type 2/elasmobranch type IV), one in all groups except bony fish (lambda/elasmobranch type II), and one in all groups except birds (kappa/elasmobranch type III/teleost type 1 and 3). All four of these primordial L chain isotypes (sigma, sigma-cart, lambda and kappa) have maintained separate V region identities since their emergence at least 450 million years ago, suggestive of an ancient physiological distinction of the L chains. We suggest that, based upon unique, discrete sizes of complementarity determining regions 1 and 2 and other features of the V region sequences, the different L chain isotypes arose to provide different functional conformations in the Ig binding site when they pair with heavy chains.
Project description:The phylogenetic relationships of Ig light chain (IGL) genes are difficult to resolve, because these genes are short and evolve relatively fast. Here, we classify the IGL sequences from 12 tetrapod species into three distinct groups (kappa, lambda, and sigma isotypes) using conserved amino acid residues, recombination signal sequences, and genomic organization of IGL genes as cladistic markers. From the distribution of the markers we conclude that the earliest extant tetrapods, the amphibians, possess three IGL isotypes: kappa, lambda, and sigma. Of these, two (kappa and lambda) are also found in reptiles and some mammals. The lambda isotype is found in all tetrapods tested to date, whereas the kappa isotype seems to have been lost at least in some birds and in the microbat. Conservation of the cladistic molecular markers suggests that they are associated with functional specialization of the three IGL isotypes. The genomic maps of IGL loci reveal multiple gene rearrangements that occurred in the evolution of tetrapod species. These rearrangements have resulted in interspecific variation of the genomic lengths of the IGL loci and the number and order of IGL constituent genes, but the overall organization of the IGL loci has not changed.
Project description:V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (IgH) and light chain genes occurs sequentially in the pro- and pre-B cells. To identify cis-elements that dictate this order of rearrangement, we replaced the endogenous matrix attachment region/Igk intronic enhancer (MiE(kappa)) with its heavy chain counterpart (Emu) in mice. This replacement, denoted EmuR, substantially increases the accessibility of both V(kappa) and J(kappa) loci to V(D)J recombinase in pro-B cells and induces Igk rearrangement in these cells. However, EmuR does not support Igk rearrangement in pre-B cells. Similar to that in MiE(kappa)(-/-) pre-B cells, the accessibility of V(kappa) segments to V(D)J recombinase is considerably reduced in EmuR pre-B cells when compared with wild-type pre-B cells. Therefore, Emu and MiE(kappa) play developmental stage-specific roles in maintaining the sequential rearrangement of IgH and Igk loci by promoting the accessibility of V, D, and J loci to the V(D)J recombinase.
Project description:B cell development requires the coordinated rearrangement of Ig heavy (IgH) and light chain loci (IgL). Most mature B cells express a single B cell receptor of unique specificity, and a central question in immunology concerns the mechanisms that prevent the productive rearrangement of >1 IgH and IgL allele per cell. Probabilistic models of allelic exclusion maintain that simultaneous rearrangement of both alleles is rare, because the likelihood of undergoing rearrangement is low for a given Ig allele. Strong support for this idea came from studies in which a GFP marker was inserted into the Igk locus. In this system, the probability of high-level germ-line transcription and subsequent locus rearrangement appeared to be low in pre-B cells. Readdressing the validity of GFP expression as a reporter for the level of germ-line transcription, we found a striking discordance between GFP transcript and protein levels at the pre-B cell stage, which is explained at least in part by the developmentally regulated usage of 2 alternative Igk-J germ-line promoters. These results question the validity of the kappa-GFP system as evidence for probabilistic models of allelic exclusion.
Project description:The activation signaling of transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) plays central role for immune system. One of key kinase mediating this pathway is TAK1 in adaptive and innate immunity. However, role of TAK1 in bone marrow B cell is still unclear. To know effects of TAK1-deletion, the gene expression of Ig-lambda/kappa positive cells were analyzed in comparison of wild type with TAK1-deficient bone marrow B cells. Overall design: Bone marrow B cells were purified by depleting CD3+/Ter119+/CD11b+/DX5+/Gr1+ cells.Purified B Cells were stained with anti-Iglambda or kappa and sorted on a FACSAria (BD Biosciences ). Two replicated samples were analyzed.
Project description:The principles of allelic exclusion state that each B cell expresses a single light and heavy chain pair. Here, we show that B cells with both kappa and lambda light chains (Ig? and Ig?) are enriched in some patients with the systemic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but not in the systemic autoimmune disease control granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Detection of dual Ig? and Ig? expression by flow cytometry could not be abolished by acid washing or by DNAse treatment to remove any bound polyclonal antibody or complexes, and was retained after two days in culture. Both surface and intracytoplasmic dual light chain expression was evident by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. We observed reduced frequency of rearrangements of the kappa-deleting element (KDE) in SLE and an inverse correlation between the frequency of KDE rearrangement and the frequency of dual light chain expressing B cells. We propose that dual expression of Ig? and Ig? by a single B cell may occur in some patients with SLE when this may be a consequence of reduced activity of the KDE.