Decreased blood pressure response in mice deficient of the alpha1b-adrenergic receptor.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the functional role of different alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) subtypes in vivo, we have applied a gene targeting approach to create a mouse model lacking the alpha1b-AR (alpha1b-/-). Reverse transcription-PCR and ligand binding studies were combined to elucidate the expression of the alpha1-AR subtypes in various tissues of alpha1b +/+ and -/- mice. Total alpha1-AR sites were decreased by 98% in liver, 74% in heart, and 42% in cerebral cortex of the alpha1b -/- as compared with +/+ mice. Because of the large decrease of alpha1-AR in the heart and the loss of the alpha1b-AR mRNA in the aorta of the alpha1b-/- mice, the in vivo blood pressure and in vitro aorta contractile responses to alpha1-agonists were investigated in alpha1b +/+ and -/- mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that the alpha1b-AR is a mediator of the blood pressure and the aorta contractile responses induced by alpha1 agonists. This was demonstrated by the finding that the mean arterial blood pressure response to phenylephrine was decreased by 45% in alpha1b -/- as compared with +/+ mice. In addition, phenylephrine-induced contractions of aortic rings also were decreased by 25% in alpha1b-/- mice. The alpha1b-AR knockout mouse model provides a potentially useful tool to elucidate the functional specificity of different alpha1-AR subtypes, to better understand the effects of adrenergic drugs, and to investigate the multiple mechanisms involved in the control of blood pressure.
Project description:alpha1-adrenergic receptors (alpha1-ARs) play adaptive roles in the heart and protect against the development of heart failure. The 3 alpha1-AR subtypes, alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D, have distinct physiological roles in mouse heart, but very little is known about alpha1 subtypes in human heart. Here, we test the hypothesis that the alpha1A and alpha1B subtypes are present in human myocardium, similar to the mouse, and are not downregulated in heart failure.Hearts from transplant recipients and unused donors were failing (n=12; mean ejection fraction, 24%) or nonfailing (n=9; mean ejection fraction, 59%) and similar in age ( approximately 44 years) and sex ( approximately 70% male). We measured the alpha1-AR subtypes in multiple regions of both ventricles by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and radioligand binding. All 3 alpha1-AR subtype mRNAs were present, and alpha1A mRNA was most abundant ( approximately 65% of total alpha1-AR mRNA). However, only alpha1A and alpha1B binding were present, and the alpha1B was most abundant (60% of total). In failing hearts, alpha1A and alpha1B binding was not downregulated, in contrast with beta1-ARs.Our data show for the first time that the alpha1A and alpha1B subtypes are both present in human myocardium, but alpha1D binding is not, and the alpha1 subtypes are not downregulated in heart failure. Because alpha1 subtypes in the human heart are similar to those in the mouse, where adaptive and protective effects of alpha1 subtypes are most convincing, it might become feasible to treat heart failure with a drug targeting the alpha1A and/or alpha1B.
Project description:We previously identified an alpha1-AR-ERK (alpha1A-adrenergic receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase) survival signaling pathway in adult cardiac myocytes. Here, we investigated localization of alpha1-AR subtypes (alpha1A and alpha1B) and how their localization influences alpha1-AR signaling in cardiac myocytes. Using binding assays on myocyte subcellular fractions or a fluorescent alpha1-AR antagonist, we localized endogenous alpha1-ARs to the nucleus in wild-type adult cardiac myocytes. To clarify alpha1 subtype localization, we reconstituted alpha1 signaling in cultured alpha1A- and alpha1B-AR double knockout cardiac myocytes using alpha1-AR-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. Similar to endogenous alpha1-ARs and alpha1A- and alpha1B-GFP colocalized with LAP2 at the nuclear membrane. alpha1-AR nuclear localization was confirmed in vivo using alpha1-AR-GFP transgenic mice. The alpha1-signaling partners Galphaq and phospholipase Cbeta1 also colocalized with alpha1-ARs only at the nuclear membrane. Furthermore, we observed rapid catecholamine uptake mediated by norepinephrine-uptake-2 and found that alpha1-mediated activation of ERK was not inhibited by a membrane impermeant alpha1-blocker, suggesting alpha1 signaling is initiated at the nucleus. Contrary to prior studies, we did not observe alpha1-AR localization to caveolae, but we found that alpha1-AR signaling initiated at the nucleus led to activated ERK localized to caveolae. In summary, our results show that nuclear alpha1-ARs transduce signals to caveolae at the plasma membrane in cardiac myocytes.
Project description:The alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity in Rat 1 fibroblasts transfected to express either the wild-type hamster alpha1B-adrenoceptor or a constitutively active mutant (CAM) form of this receptor. The EC50 for agonist stimulation of PLD activity was substantially lower at the CAM receptor than at the wild-type receptor as previously noted for phenylephrine stimulation of phosphoinositidase C activity. Sustained treatment of cells expressing the CAM alpha1B-adrenoceptor with phentolamine resulted in a marked up-regulation in levels of this receptor with half-maximal effects produced within 24 h and with an EC50 of approx. 40 nM. Such an up-regulation could be produced with a range of other ligands generally viewed as alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists but equivalent treatment of cells expressing the wild-type alpha1B-adrenoceptor was unable to mimic these effects. After sustained treatment of the CAM alpha1B-adrenoceptor expressing cells with phentolamine, basal PLD activity was increased and phenylephrine was now able to stimulate PLD activity to greater levels than in vehicle-treated CAM alpha1B-adrenoceptor-expressing cells. The EC50 for phenylephrine stimulation of PLD activity was not altered, however, by phentolamine pretreatment and the associated up-regulation of the receptor. After phentolamine-induced up-regulation of basal PLD activity, a range of alpha1-antagonists were shown to possess the characteristics of inverse agonists of the CAM alpha1B-adrenoceptor as they were able to substantially decrease the elevated basal PLD activity.
Project description:alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) play a major role in blood pressure regulation. The three alpha 1-AR subtypes (A/C, B, and D) stimulate contraction of isolated arteries, but it is uncertain how different subtypes contribute to blood pressure regulation in the intact animal. We studied the role of the alpha 1A/C subtype by using gene knockout. alpha 1A/C knockout (KO) mice were viable and overtly normal. The LacZ reporter gene replaced alpha 1A/C coding sequence in the KO, and beta-galactosidase staining was present in resistance arteries and arterioles, but not in the thoracic aorta or its main branches. By tail cuff manometer and arterial catheter in conscious mice, alpha 1A/C KO mice were hypotensive at rest, with an 8-12% reduction of blood pressure dependent on alpha 1A/C gene copy number. A61603, an alpha 1A/C-selective agonist, caused a pressor response that was lost in the KO and reduced but significant in heterozygous mice with a single copy of the alpha 1A/C. A subtype-nonselective agonist [phenylephrine (PE)] caused a pressor response in KO mice, but the final arterial pressure was only 85% of wild type. The baroreflex was reset in the KO, and heart rate variability was decreased. After baroreflex blockade with atropine, PE increased blood pressure but did not change heart rate. Cardiac and vascular responses to the beta-AR agonist isoproterenol were unchanged, and the arterial lumen area was not altered. We conclude that the alpha 1A/C-AR subtype is a vasopressor expressed in resistance arteries and is required for normal arterial blood pressure regulation. alpha 1A/C-selective antagonists might be desirable antihypertensive agents.
Project description:An alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) antagonist increased heart failure in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), but it is unknown whether this adverse result was due to alpha1-AR inhibition or a nonspecific drug effect. We studied cardiac pressure overload in mice with double KO of the 2 main alpha1-AR subtypes in the heart, alpha 1A (Adra1a) and alpha 1B (Adra1b). At 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC), KO mouse survival was only 60% of WT, and surviving KO mice had lower ejection fractions and larger end-diastolic volumes than WT mice. Mechanistically, final heart weight and myocyte cross-sectional area were the same after TAC in KO and WT mice. However, KO hearts after TAC had increased interstitial fibrosis, increased apoptosis, and failed induction of the fetal hypertrophic genes. Before TAC, isolated KO myocytes were more susceptible to apoptosis after oxidative and beta-AR stimulation, and beta-ARs were desensitized. Thus, alpha1-AR deletion worsens dilated cardiomyopathy after pressure overload, by multiple mechanisms, indicating that alpha1-signaling is required for cardiac adaptation. These results suggest that the adverse cardiac effects of alpha1-antagonists in clinical trials are due to loss of alpha1-signaling in myocytes, emphasizing concern about clinical use of alpha1-antagonists, and point to a revised perspective on sympathetic activation in heart failure.
Project description:In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (?1) - adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes (?1A-, ?1B-, and ?1D-AR). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH), contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific ?1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m) and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m). Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n?=?5; P<0.05) in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE). LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific ?1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05) ?1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by ?1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on ?1-AR subtype expression and function.
Project description:Blood pressure is regulated by extrinsic factors including noradrenaline, the sympathetic neurotransmitter that controls cardiovascular functions through adrenergic receptors. However, the fine-tuning system of noradrenaline signaling is relatively unknown. We here show that l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a precursor of catecholamines, sensitizes the vascular adrenergic receptor alpha1 (ADRA1) through activation of L-DOPA receptor GPR143. In WT mice, intravenous infusion of the ADRA1 agonist phenylephrine induced a transient elevation of blood pressure. This response was attenuated in Gpr143 gene-deficient (Gpr143-/y) mice. Specific knockout of Gpr143 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) also showed a similar phenotype, indicating that L-DOPA directly modulates ADRA1 signaling in the VSMCs. L-DOPA at nanomolar concentrations alone produced no effect on the VSMCs, but it enhanced phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and intracellular Ca2+ responses. Phenylephrine also augmented the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in cultured VSMCs from WT but not Gpr143-/y mice. In WT mice, blood pressure increased during the transition from light-rest to dark-active phases. This elevation was not observed in Gpr143-/y mice. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for L-DOPA/GPR143 signaling that exerts precursor control of sympathetic neurotransmission through sensitizing vascular ADRA1.
Project description:In rodents, drugs of abuse induce locomotor hyperactivity, and repeating injections enhances this response. This effect, called behavioral sensitization, persists many months after the last administration, thus mimicking long-term sensitivity to drugs observed in human addicts. We show here that, in naïve animals, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, besides their behavioral activating effects, inhibit each other by means of the stimulation of alpha1b-adrenergic and 5-HT(2A) receptors and that this mutual inhibition vanishes with repeated injections of d-amphetamine; this uncoupling may be responsible for behavioral sensitization and for an increased reactivity of dopaminergic neurons. First, after repeated d-amphetamine injections, a d-amphetamine challenge induces a dramatic increase in cortical extracellular norepinephrine (NE) levels. This increased cortical NE release still occurs after 1 month of withdrawal but is diminished or blocked if sensitization is performed in the presence of prazosin, SR46349B, or both alpha1-adrenergic and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists, respectively. A strong correlation between increases in cortical extracellular NE levels and the expression of behavioral sensitization was found. Second, repeated d-amphetamine injections induce an increased reactivity of serotonergic neurons measured by cortical extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels after the administration of a 5-HT releaser, p-chloroamphetamine. Third, knockout mice for alpha1b-adrenergic (alpha1b-AR KO) or 5-HT(2A) (5-HT(2A)-R KO) receptor, respectively, exhibit a behavioral and biochemical hyperreactivity to the acute injection of p-chloroamphetamine (alpha1b-AR KO; 5-HT levels) and d-amphetamine (5-HT(2A)-R KO; NE levels). Uncoupling between noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons may occur not only in addiction but also during chronic stressful situations, thus facilitating the onset of mental illness.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ??-adrenoceptor family plays a critical role in regulating ocular perfusion by mediating responses to catecholamines. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of individual ??-adrenoceptor subtypes to adrenergic vasoconstriction of retinal arterioles using gene-targeted mice deficient in one of the three adrenoceptor subtypes (??A-AR(-/-), ??B-AR(-/-) and ??D-AR(-/-) respectively). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using real-time PCR, mRNA expression for individual ??-adrenoceptor subtypes was determined in murine retinal arterioles. To assess the functional relevance of the three ??-adrenoceptor subtypes for mediating vascular responses, retinal vascular preparations from wild-type mice and mice deficient in individual ??-adrenoceptor subtypes were studied in vitro using video microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Retinal arterioles expressed mRNA for all three ??-adrenoceptor subtypes. In functional studies, arterioles from wild-type mice with intact endothelium responded only negligibly to the ??-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. In endothelium-damaged arterioles from wild-type mice, phenylephrine evoked concentration-dependent constriction that was attenuated by the ??-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin. Strikingly, phenylephrine only minimally constricted endothelium-damaged retinal arterioles from ??B-AR(-/-) mice, whereas arterioles from ??A -AR(-/-) and ??D-AR(-/-) mice constricted similarly to arterioles from wild-type mice. Constriction to U46619 was similar in endothelium-damaged retinal arterioles from all four mouse genotypes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that ??-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in murine retinal arterioles is buffered by the endothelium. When the endothelium is damaged, a vasoconstricting role of the ??B-adrenoceptor subtype is unveiled. Hence, the ??B-adrenoceptor may represent a target to selectively modulate retinal blood flow in ocular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.
Project description:The alpha1B (?1B)-adrenergic receptors contribute to vasoconstriction in humans. We tested the hypothesis that variation in the ADRA1B gene contributes to interindividual variability and ethnic differences in adrenergic vasoconstriction. We measured dorsal hand vein responses to increasing doses of phenylephrine in 64 Caucasians and 41 African Americans and genotyped 34 ADRA1B variants. We validated findings in another model of catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction, the increase in mean arterial pressure (?MAP) during a cold pressor test (CPT). One ADRA1B variant, rs10070745, present in 14 African-American heterozygotes but not in Caucasians, was associated with a lower phenylephrine ED50 (geometric mean (95% confidence interval), 144 (69-299)?ng?ml-1) compared with 27 African-American non-carriers (208 (130-334)?ng?ml-1; P=0.015) and contributed to the ethnic differences in ED50. The same variant was also associated with a greater ?MAP during CPT (P=0.008). In conclusion, ADRA1B rs10070745 was significantly associated with vasoconstrictor responses after adrenergic stimulation and contributed to the ethnic difference in phenylephrine sensitivity.