Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Deregulated expression of genes encoding members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins has been associated with the malignant progression of multiple tumour types. Using a pharmacological expression reactivation approach, we screened 16 S100 genes for evidence of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. Four family members (S100A2, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A10) demonstrated evidence of upregulated expression in multiple medulloblastoma cell lines, following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Subsequent analysis revealed methylation of critical CpG sites located within these four genes in an extended cell line panel. Assessment of these genes in the non-neoplastic cerebellum (from which medulloblastomas develop) revealed strong somatic methylation affecting S100A2 and S100A4, whereas S100A6 and S100A10 were unmethylated. Assessed against these normal tissue-specific methylation states, S100A6 and S100A10 demonstrated tumour-specific hypermethylation in medulloblastoma primary tumours (5 out of 40 and 4 out of 35, respectively, both 12%) and cell lines (both 7 out of 9, 78%), which was associated with their transcriptional silencing. Moreover, S100A6 hypermethylation was significantly associated with the aggressive large cell/anaplastic morphophenotype (P=0.026). In contrast, pro-metastatic S100A4 displayed evidence of hypomethylation relative to the normal cerebellum in a significant proportion primary tumours (7 out of 41, 17%) and cell lines (3 out of 9, 33%), which was associated with its elevated expression. In summary, these data characterise complex patterns of somatic methylation affecting S100 genes in the normal cerebellum and demonstrate their disruption causing epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 family members in medulloblastoma development. Epigenetic events affecting S100 genes have potential clinical utility and merit further investigation as molecular biomarkers for this disease.
Project description:Gain of 1q is one of the most common alterations in cancer and has been associated with adverse clinical behaviour in ependymoma. The aim of this study was to investigate this region to gain insight into the role of 1q genes in intracranial paediatric ependymoma. To address this issue we generated profiles of eleven ependymoma, including two relapse pairs and seven primary tumours, using comparative genome hybridisation and serial analysis of gene expression. Analysis of 656 SAGE tags mapping to 1q identified CHI3L1 and S100A10 as the most upregulated genes in the relapse pair with de novo 1q gain upon recurrence. Moreover, three more members of the S100 family had distinct gene expression profiles in ependymoma. Candidates (CHI3L1, S100A10, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A2) were validated using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 74 paediatric ependymoma. In necrotic cases, CHI3L1 demonstrated a distinct staining pattern in tumour cells adjacent to the areas of necrosis. S100A6 significantly correlated with supratentorial tumours (P<0.001) and S100A4 with patients under the age of 3 years at diagnosis (P=0.038). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that S100A6 and S100A4 are differentially expressed in clinically relevant subgroups, and also demonstrates a link between CHI3L1 protein expression and necrosis in intracranial paediatric ependymoma.
Project description:It is well established that calcium binding leads to conformational changes in S100 proteins. These conformational changes are thought to activate the protein and render a protein conformation that is capable of binding other proteins. The basic quaternary structural motif of S100 proteins is a homodimer, however there is little information if higher order non-covalent oligomers are also formed and whether these oligomers are of functional relevance. To this end we performed equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments for 16 S100 proteins (S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, S100A12, S100A13, S100B, S100P, and S100Z) under reducing conditions in the absence and presence of calcium ions. We show that the addition of calcium promotes the formation of tetrameric structures which could be further enhanced under in vivo conditions where there is an additional effect of molecular crowding.
Project description:p53 binds to some members of the S100 family (S100B, S100A4, S100A2, and S100A1). We previously showed that both S100B and S100A4 bind to the p53 tetramerization domain, and consequently control its oligomerization state, but only S100B binds to the C-terminal negative regulatory domain (NRD). Here, we investigate other binding partners for p53 within the S100 family (S100A6 and S100A11), and show that binding to the p53 tetramerization domain seems to be a general feature of the S100 family, while binding to the NRD is a characteristic of a subset of the family.
Project description:Candidate gene investigations have indicated a significant role for epigenetic events in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. To assess the medulloblastoma epigenome more comprehensively, we undertook a genomewide investigation to identify genes that display evidence of methylation-dependent regulation. Expression microarray analysis of medulloblastoma cell lines following treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor revealed deregulation of multiple transcripts (3%-6% of probes per cell line). Eighteen independent genes demonstrated >3-fold reactivation in all cell lines tested. Bisulfite sequence analysis revealed dense CpG island methylation associated with transcriptional silencing for 12 of these genes. Extension of this analysis to primary tumors and the normal cerebellum revealed three major classes of epigenetically regulated genes: (1) normally methylated genes (DAZL, ZNF157, ASN) whose methylation reflects somatic patterns observed in the cerebellum, (2) X-linked genes (MSN, POU3F4, HTR2C) that show disruption of their sex-specific methylation patterns in tumors, and (3) tumor-specific methylated genes (COL1A2, S100A10, S100A6, HTATIP2, CDH1, LXN) that display enhanced methylation levels in tumors compared with the cerebellum. Detailed analysis of COL1A2 supports a key role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis; dense biallelic methylation associated with transcriptional silencing was observed in 46 of 60 cases (77%). Moreover, COL1A2 status distinguished infant medulloblastomas of the desmoplastic histopathological subtype, indicating that distinct molecular pathogenesis may underlie these tumors and their more favorable prognosis. These data reveal a more diverse and expansive medulloblastoma epi genome than previously understood and provide strong evidence that the methylation status of specific genes may contribute to the biological subclassification of medulloblastoma.
Project description:We investigated the ways S100B, S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, and S100A6 bind to the different oligomeric forms of the tumor suppressor p53 in vitro, using analytical ultracentrifugation and multiangle light scattering. It is established that members of the S100 protein family bind to the tetramerization domain (residues 325-355) of p53 when it is uncovered in the monomer, and so binding can disrupt the tetramer. We found a stoichiometry of one dimer of S100 bound to a monomer of p53. We discovered that some S100 proteins could also bind to the tetramer. S100B bound the tetramer and also disrupted the dimer by binding monomeric p53. S100A2 bound monomeric p53 as well as tetrameric, whereas S100A1 only bound monomeric p53. S100A6 bound more tightly to tetrameric than to monomeric p53. We also identified an additional binding site for S100 proteins in the transactivation domain (1-57) of p53. Based on our results and published observations in vivo, we propose a model for the binding of S100 proteins to p53 that can explain both activation and inhibition of p53-mediated transcription. Depending on the concentration of p53 and the member of the S100 family, binding can alter the balance between monomer and tetramer in either direction.
Project description:Mounting evidence demonstrates a causal role for S100 proteins in tumourigenesis and several S100 isoforms have shown utility as biomarkers of several types of cancer. The S100 family is comprised of 21 small isoforms, many of them implicated in important cellular functions such as proliferation, motility and survival. Furthermore, in vivo experiments have proven the role of S100 proteins in tumour growth and disease progression, while other studies have shown their prognostic value and involvement in resistance to chemotherapy drugs. Taken together, all these aspects highlight S100 proteins as potential therapeutic targets and as a promising panel of cancer biomarkers. In this work, we have developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for the multiplexed and specific analysis of the entire S100 protein family in tumour tissues and have applied it to investigate the expression of S100 isoforms in the context of thyroid cancer, the main endocrine malignancy.Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM)-MS and stable isotope labelling/label-free analysis were employed to investigate the expression of the 21 S100 protein isoforms in thyroid tissue samples. Specimens included 9 normal thyroid tissues and 27 tumour tissues consisting of 9 follicular adenomas (FA), 8 follicular carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary carcinomas (PTC).The multiplexed and targeted mass spectrometry method led to the detection of eleven S100 protein isoforms across all tissues. Label- and label-free analyses showed the same significant differences and results were confirmed by western blot. S100A6, S100A11 and its putative interaction partner annexin A1 showed the highest overexpression in PTC compared to normal thyroid. S100A13 was also elevated in PTC. Reduced S100A4 expression was observed in FA compared to all other tissues. FA and FTC showed reduction of S100A10 and annexin A2 expression.Targeted mass spectrometry allows the multiplexed and specific analysis of S100 protein isoforms in tumour tissue specimens. It revealed S100A13 as a novel candidate PTC biomarker. Results show that S100A6, S100A11 and Annexin A1 could help discriminate follicular and papillary tumours. The diagnostic and functional significance of S100A4 and S100A10 reduction in follicular tumours requires further investigation.
Project description:S100A2 and S100A6 interact with several target proteins in a Ca2+-regulated manner. However, the exact intracellular roles of the S100 proteins are unclear. In this study we identified Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop) and kinesin light chain (KLC) as novel targets of S100A2 and S100A6. Hop directly associates with Hsp70 and Hsp90 through the tetratricopeptide (TPR) domains and regulates Hop-Hsp70 and Hop-Hsp90 complex formation. We have found that S100A2 and S100A6 bind to the TPR domain of Hop, resulting in inhibition of the Hop-Hsp70 and Hop-Hsp90 interactions in vitro. Although endogenous Hsp70 and Hsp90 interact with Hop in resting Cos-7 cells, but not with S100A6, stimulation of these cells with ionomycin caused a Hop-S100A6 interaction, resulting in the dissociation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 from Hop. Similarly, glutathione S-transferase pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that S100A6 binds to the TPR domain of KLC, resulting in inhibition of the KLC-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein 1 (JIP-1) interaction in vitro. The transiently expressed JIP-1 interacts with KLC in resting Cos-7 cells but not with S100A6. Stimulation of these cells with ionomycin also caused a KLC-S100A6 interaction, resulting in dissociation of JIP-1 from KLC. These results strongly suggest that the S100 proteins modulate Hsp70-Hop-Hsp90 multichaperone complex formation and KLC-cargo interaction via Ca2+-dependent S100 protein-TPR protein complex formation in vivo as well as in vitro. Moreover, we have shown that S100A2 and S100A6 interact with another TPR protein Tom70 and regulate the Tom70-ligand interaction in vitro. Thus, our findings suggest a new intracellular Ca2+-signaling pathway via S100 proteins-TPR motif interactions.
Project description:Defective intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) handling is implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Novel approaches targeting both cardiac Ca(2+) release and reuptake processes, such as S100A1, have the potential to rescue the function of failing cardiac myocytes. Here, we show that two members of the S100 Ca(2+) binding protein family, S100A2 and S100A6 that share high sequence homology, differentially influence cardiac Ca(2+) handling and contractility. Cardiac gene expression of S100A2 significantly enhanced both contractile and relaxation performance of rodent and canine cardiac myocytes, mimicking the functional effects of its cardiac homologue, S100A1. To interrogate mechanism, Ca(2+) spark frequency, a measure of the gating of the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel, was found to be significantly increased by S100A2. Therapeutic testing showed that S100A2 rescued the contractile defects of failing cardiac myocytes. In contrast, cardiac expression of S100A6 had no significant effects on contractility or Ca(2+) handling. These data reveal novel differential effects of S100 proteins on cardiac myocyte performance that may be useful in application to diseased cardiac muscle.
Project description:ObjectiveExhibiting high consistence in sequence and structure, S100 family members are interchangeable in function and they show a wide spectrum of biological processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, inflammation and differentiation and the like. While the prognostic value of each individual S100 in ovarian cancer is still elusive. In current study, we investigated the prognostic value of S100 family members in the ovarian cancer.MethodsWe used the Kaplan Meier plotter (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information are from 1657 ovarian cancer patients, to assess the relevance of individual S100 family mRNA expression to overall survival in various ovarian cancer subtypes and different clinicopathological features.ResultsIt was found that high expression of S100A2 (HR?=?1.18, 95%CI: 1.04–1.34, P?=?0.012), S100A7A (HR?=?1.3, 95%CI: 1.04–1.63, P?=?0.02),S100A10 (HR?=?1.2, 95%CI: 1.05–1.38, P?=?0.0087),and S100A16 (HR?=?1.23, 95%CI: 1–1.51, P?=?0.052) were significantly correlated with worse OS in all ovarian cancer patients, while the expression of S100A1 (HR?=?0.87, 95%CI: 0.77–0.99, P?=?0.039), S100A3 (HR?=?0.83, 95%CI: 0.71–0.96, P?=?0.0011), S100A5 (HR?=?0.84, 95%CI: 0.73–0.97, P?=?0.017), S100A6 (HR?=?0.84, 95%CI: 0.72–0.98, P?=?0.024), S100A13 (HR?=?0.85, 95%CI:0.75–0.97, P?=?0.014) and S100G (HR?=?0.86, 95%CI: 0.74–0.99, P?=?0.041) were associated with better prognosis. Furthermore, we assessed the prognostic value of S100 expression in different subtypes and the clinicopathological features, including pathological grades, clinical stages and TP53 mutation status, of ovarian cancer patients.ConclusionComprehensive understanding of the S100 family members may have guiding significance for the diagnosis and outcome of ovarian cancer patients.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12885-018-5170-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:The S100 proteins make up a family of dimeric calcium binding proteins that function in response to changing calcium levels. Several S100 binding proteins have been identified; however, the exact biological functions of the S100 proteins are largely unknown as there are several factors which modulate their functions. To address these issues, the specificity of binding of representative members of the human S100 proteins to short N-terminal peptides of annexin I (AnI) and annexin II (AnII) was investigated under controlled experimental conditions. AnI and AnII have been shown previously to interact with S100A11 and S100A10, respectively. This provided a unique opportunity to determine their binding specificity with the other members of the human S100 protein family. It was found that AnI binds S100A6 or S100A11 while AnII binds S100A10 or S100A11. This is the first report of the interaction between S100A6 and AnI. The fact that AnI and AnII bind to selected members of the S100 protein family shows that these interactions are specific and that the mode of binding is different from that of calmodulin, as it was found not to bind AnI or AnII. From the analysis of the thermodynamics of interactions, the binding seems to be entropically driven. It was found that both AnI and AnII undergo a coil-to-helix transition upon binding to their respective binding partners. The observation that there is an overlap in functionality is not surprising due to considerable sequence homology between S100 protein family members. In fact, the functional overlap can explain previous failures of S100 knockout constructs to show any detectable changes in phenotype despite numerous implications of these proteins in important cellular processes.