Specific ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colorectal cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has been implicated in growth control of various tumour models. Although colorectal cancers were found to overexpress PBR, the functional role of PBR in colorectal cancer growth has not been addressed to date. Using primary cell cultures of human colorectal cancers and the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HT29, LS174T, and Colo320 DM we studied the involvement of PBR in the growth control and apoptosis of colorectal cancers. Both mRNA and protein expression of PBR were detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunohistochemistry the PBR was localized in the mitochondria. The specific PBR ligands FGIN-1-27, PK 11195, or Ro5-4864 inhibited cell proliferation dose-dependently. FGIN-1-27 decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, which indicates an early event in apoptosis. Furthermore, FGIN-1-27, PK 11195 or Ro5-4864 increased caspase-3 activity. In addition to their apoptosis-inducing effects, PBR ligands induced cell cycle arrest in the G(1)/G(0)-phase. Thus, our data demonstrate a functional involvement of PBR in colorectal cancer growth and qualify the PBR as a possible target for innovative therapeutic approaches in colorectal cancer.
Project description:Specific ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) are known to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in oesophageal cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the transcriptional alterations and activation of protein kinases in response to PBR-specific ligands. Using cDNA arrays, we examined the transcriptional effects of the PBR-specific ligand FGIN-1-27 in two oesophageal cancer cell lines, KYSE-140 (squamous cell carcinoma) and OE-33 (adenocarcinoma). In oesophageal cancer cells, FGIN-1-27 induced extensive changes in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. Both in oesophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE-140, OE-33) we observed a strong upregulation of the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible genes, gadd45 and gadd153, in response to PBR ligands. gadd genes are known to be induced by p38MAPK activation. Using Western blotting we detected a time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation of p38MAPK, which was found to be functionally involved in gadd induction, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, our data indicate that PBR-specific ligands cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by activation of the p38MAPK pathway and induction of gadd45 and gadd153.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic inflammatory disorders that increase the risk for colorectal cancer. The mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) is a high-affinity drug- and cholesterol-binding protein expressed in the colon and its expression is increased in colon cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate TSPO expression in IBD biopsies and to establish an animal model of IBD to examine the role of TSPO. In addition, we evaluated the potential use of TSPO drug ligands in diagnosing and treating IBD.TSPO expression in IBD biopsies was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. IBD was induced in a rat experimental model via treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colon morphology, TSPO expression, and proinflammatory cytokine production were evaluated in addition to the effect of TSPO drug ligands on disease pathology.TSPO protein levels were elevated in the enterocytes of IBD biopsies. TSPO expression was localized to the enterocyte mitochondria. DSS treatment induced a time-dependent phenotype mimicking IBD with tissue injury and subsequent tissue regeneration. Coadministration of DSS and the TSPO drug ligands PK 11195 or Ro5-4864 increased both the rate of colon ulceration and regeneration, whereas administration of the TSPO drug ligand flunitrazepam partially prevented this pathology. These data correlated with changes in proinflammatory cytokine plasma levels, as well as increased cytokine production and secretion from the colon.TSPO may serve as a marker of the IBD repair process, and TSPO drug ligands should be further evaluated for IBD treatment.
Project description:Improving the control of energy homeostasis can lower cardiovascular risk in metabolically compromised individuals. To identify new regulators of whole-body energy control, we conducted a high-throughput screen in transgenic reporter zebrafish for small molecules that modulate the expression of the fasting-inducible gluconeogenic gene pck1. We show that this in vivo strategy identified several drugs that affect gluconeogenesis in humans as well as metabolically uncharacterized compounds. Most notably, we find that the translocator protein ligands PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 are glucose-lowering agents despite a strong inductive effect on pck1 expression. We show that these drugs are activators of a fasting-like energy state and, notably, that they protect high-fat diet-induced obese mice from hepatosteatosis and glucose intolerance, two pathological manifestations of metabolic dysregulation. Thus, using a whole-organism screening strategy, this study has identified new small-molecule activators of fasting metabolism.
Project description:In the brain, translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), previously called peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is a glial protein that has been extensively used as a biomarker of brain injury and inflammation. However, the functional role of TSPO in glial cells is not well characterized. In this study, we show that the TSPO-specific ligands R-PK11195 (PK) and Ro5-4864 (Ro) increased microglia proliferation and phagocytosis with no effect on migration. Both ligands increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and this effect may be mediated by NADPH-oxidase. PK and Ro also produced a small but detectable increase in IL-1? release. We also examined the effect of PK and Ro on the expression of proinflammatory genes and cytokine release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activated microglia. PK or Ro had no effect on LPS-induced increase of pro-inflammatory genes, but they both decreased the ATP-induced increase of COX-2 gene expression. Ro, but not PK, enhanced the LPS-induced release of IL-1?. However, Ro decreased the ATP-induced release of IL-1? and TNF-?, and PK decreased the ATP-induced release of TNF-?. Exposure to Ro in the presence of LPS increased the number of apoptotic microglia, an effect that could be blocked by PK. These findings show that TSPO ligands modulate cellular functions consistent with microglia activation. Further, when microglia are activated, these ligands may have therapeutic potential by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and cytokine release. Finally, Ro-like ligands may be involved in the elimination of activated microglia via apoptosis.
Project description:The outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) protein, the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), formerly named the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), has been proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. To clarify the TSPO function, we identified the Drosophila homolog, CG2789/dTSPO, and studied the effects of its inactivation by P-element insertion, RNAi knockdown, and inhibition by ligands (PK11195, Ro5-4864). Inhibition of dTSPO inhibited wing disk apoptosis in response to ?-irradiation or H2O2 exposure, as well as extended male fly lifespan and inhibited A?42-induced neurodegeneration in association with decreased caspase activation. Therefore, dTSPO is an essential mediator of apoptosis in Drosophila and plays a central role in controlling longevity and neurodegenerative disease, making it a promising drug target.
Project description:Mitochondria play important roles in cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy. Increasing levels of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), are associated with advancing breast cancer stage. In particular, higher TSPO levels are found in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors, compared with ER-positive tumors. In this study, we sought to define the roles of TSPO in the acquisition of breast cancer malignancy. Using a three-dimensional Matrigel culture system, we determined the impact of elevated TSPO levels on mammary epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of TSPO in mammary epithelial MCF10A acini drives proliferation and provides partial resistance to luminal apoptosis, resulting in enlarged acinar structures with partially filled lumen that resemble early stage breast lesions leading to breast cancer. In breast cancer cell lines, TSPO silencing or TSPO overexpression significantly altered the migratory activity. In addition, we found that combination treatment with the TSPO ligands (PK 11195 or Ro5-4864) and lonidamine, a clinical phase II drug targeting mitochondria, decreased viability of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these data demonstrate that increases in TSPO levels at different stages of breast cancer progression results in the acquisition of distinct properties associated with malignancy. Furthermore, targeting TSPO, particularly in combination with other mitochondria-targeting agents, may prove useful for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.
Project description:Activation of mast cells (MCs) can be achieved by the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc?RI) as well as by additional receptors such as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit (stem cell factor [SCF] receptor). Thus, pharmacological interventions which stabilize MCs in response to different receptors would be preferable in diseases with pathological systemic MC activation such as systemic mastocytosis. 1,4-Benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been reported to suppress MC effector functions. In the present study, our aim was to analyze molecularly the effects of BDZs on MC activation by comparison of the effects of the two BDZs Ro5-4864 and clonazepam, which markedly differ in their affinities for the archetypical BDZ recognition sites, i.e., the GABAA receptor and TSPO (previously termed peripheral-type BDZ receptor). Ro5-4864 is a selective agonist at TSPO, whereas clonazepam is a selective agonist at the GABAA receptor. Ro5-4864 suppressed pro-inflammatory MC effector functions in response to antigen (Ag) (degranulation/cytokine production) and LPS and SCF (cytokine production), whereas clonazepam was inactive. Signaling pathway analyses revealed inhibitory effects of Ro5-4864 on Ag-triggered production of reactive oxygen species, calcium mobilization and activation of different downstream kinases. The initial activation of Src family kinases was attenuated by Ro5-4864 offering a molecular explanation for the observed impacts on various downstream signaling elements. In conclusion, BDZs structurally related to Ro5-4864 might serve as multifunctional MC stabilizers without the sedative effect of GABAA receptor-interacting BDZs.
Project description:Translocator protein (TSPO) 18 kDa overexpression has been observed in a large variety of human cancers, especially breast cancers. PK 11195, an isoquinoline analogue, is one of the ligands of highest TSPO binding affinity. Due to the long biological half life of our photosensitizers, there is a need to label them with a long lived radioisotope, for example I-124. Our objectives are to find translocator protein targeted photosensitizers for both tumor imaging (PET) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). I-PK 11195 is conjugated with the tumor avid photosensitizer HPPH. We find that those two tumor avid components complement each other and make the conjugate molecule even more tumor avid; compared to the photosensitizer itself, the conjugate is found to show improved PDT efficacy. It is concluded that I-PK 11195 can be a good vehicle to deliver radionuclide and photosensitizer to TSPO overexpressed tumor regions. Such conjugates could be useful for both tumor imaging (PET) and PDT.
Project description:This series compares the effects that two pharmacologically distinct ligands at the mitochondrial peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (Bzrp). PK11195 (4.0 mg/kg, a presumed antagonist) has no observable adverse effects in pregnant mice on either 8 days post-coitus (d.p.c.) or 9 d.p.c. Furthermore, PK11195 is shown to rescue mouse fetuses from microphthalmia or microphthalmia-microcephaly induced with 2CdA or MeHg, respectively; effects of PK11195 on EtOH-induced craniofacial malformations are not yet unkown. Ro5-4864 (4.0 mg/kg, a presumed agonist) is weakly teratogenic on 8 d.p.c. (effects on 9 d.p.c. unknown) and this Bzrp ligand does not rescue fetuses from malformations induced with either 2CdA or MeHg; effects of Ro5-4864 on EtOH-induced craniofacial malformations is unknown for either sensitive (C57BL/6J) or insensitive (C57BL/6N) strains. The 4.0 mg/kg dose of Bzrp ligands is consistent with pharmacological activity in several studies. Pregnant mice were exposed to these agents on 8 d.p.c. (2CdA, EtOH) or 9 d.p.c. (MeHg). The test dose of 2.5 mg/kg 2CdA was modeled for a 5% increased risk of microphthalmia in term fetuses. Full remediation with PK11195 anticipated. The test dose of 5.0 mg/kg MeHg gives an estimated 20% increased risk of microphthalmia-microcephaly (encephalopathy) in term fetuses. Partial remediation with PK11195 is anticipated to <10% malformations. Again the effects of PK11195 on EtOH teratogenicity is not yet known. The sampling time was chosen as the time of p53 protein induction (3.0h to 4.5h post-treatment). Whereas co-treatment with PK11195 suppresses embryonic p53 protein induction Ro5-4864 does not block this reaction. All measurements were on RNA from the embryonic headfold (8 d.p.c.) or prosencephalon (9 d.p.c.). Keywords = peripheral benzodiazepine receptor Keywords = Bzrp ligands Keywords = PK11195 Keywords = Ro5-4864 Keywords = embryo Keywords = p53 protein induction Keywords: ordered
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Ten percent of humans lack specific binding of [(11)C]PBR28 to 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker for inflammation. "Non-binders" have not been reported using another TSPO radioligand, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195, despite its use for more than two decades. This study asked two questions: (1) What is the cause of non-binding to PBR28? and (2) Why has this phenomenon not been reported using [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195?<h4>Methods</h4>Five binders and five non-binders received whole-body imaging with both [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 and [(11)C]PBR28. In vitro binding was performed using leukocyte membranes from binders and non-binders and the tritiated versions of the ligand. Rhesus monkeys were imaged with [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 at baseline and after blockade of TSPOs.<h4>Results</h4>Using [(11)C]PBR28, uptake in all five organs with high densities of TSPO (lung, heart, brain, kidney, and spleen) was 50% to 75% lower in non-binders than in binders. In contrast, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 distinguished binders and non-binders in only heart and lung. For the in vitro assay, [(3)H]PBR28 had more than 10-fold lower affinity to TSPO in non-binders than in binders. The in vivo specific binding of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 in monkey brain was approximately 80-fold lower than that reported for [(11)C]PBR28.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Based on binding of [(3)H]PK 11195 to leukocyte membranes, both binders and non-binders express TSPO. Non-binding to PBR28 is caused by its low affinity for TSPO in non-binders. Non-binding may be differentially expressed in organs of the body. The relatively low in vivo specific binding of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 may have obscured its detection of non-binding in peripheral organs.