Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Ca 2+-loaded calbindin-D28k.
ABSTRACT: Calbindin-D28k is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the troponin C superfamily. It is expressed in many tissues, including brain, intestine, kidney and pancreas, and performs roles as both a calcium buffer and a calcium sensor and carries out diverse physiological functions of importance. In order to resolve the crystal structure of human calbindin-D28k and to gain a better understanding of its biological functions, recombinant human calbindin-D28k was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as precipitant and a 2.4 A resolution X-ray data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.1, b = 28.2, c = 70.6 A, beta = 107.8 degrees . The presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit is presumed, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 1.75 A(3) Da(-1).
Project description:Calbindin-D28K is a widely expressed calcium-buffering cytoplasmic protein that is involved in many physiological processes. It has been shown to interact with other proteins, suggesting a role as a calcium sensor. Many of the targets of calbindin-D28K are of therapeutic interest: for example, inositol monophosphatase, the putative target of lithium therapy in bipolar disorder. Presented here is the first crystal structure of human calbindin-D28K. There are significant deviations in the tertiary structure when compared with the NMR structure of rat calbindin-D28K (PDB entry 2g9b), despite 98% sequence identity. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates that the crystal structure better predicts the properties of calbindin-D28K in solution compared with the NMR structure. Here, the first direct visualization of the calcium-binding properties of calbindin-D28K is presented. Four of the six EF-hands that make up the secondary structure of the protein contain a calcium-binding site. Two distinct conformations of the N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding site were identified using long-wavelength calcium single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD). This flexible region has previously been recognized as a protein-protein interaction interface. SAXS data collected in both the presence and absence of calcium indicate that there are no large structural differences in the globular structure of calbindin-D28K between the calcium-loaded and unloaded proteins.
Project description:1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is known to modulate Ca2+ metabolism in several cell types. Vitamin-D-dependent calcium binding proteins such as calbindin-D28K (28 kDa calcium binding proteins) have been shown to be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 but the mechanisms controlling calbindin synthesis are still poorly understood in human osteoblast cell culture models. The human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) described in this paper developed a calcified matrix, expressed osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and responded to 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and all of the osteoblastic markers, e.g. OC and OP. It was demonstrated by dot-immunodetection using immunological probes, and by in situ hybridization using labelled cDNA probes. Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. Uptake of 45Ca induced into the matrix by 1,25(OH)2D3 supports the hypothesis that the calcium-enriched matrix could trap calbindin-D proteins. In conclusion, the studies in vitro described in the present paper indicate, for the first time, a possible role of calbindin-D28K in mineralized matrix formation in HBMSC.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy is a common diabetic complication that is associated with alterations in the expression of several renal proteins and abnormal calcium homeostasis. We performed proteomic analysis to screen for global changes of renal protein expression in diabetic kidney. Proteins extracted from the whole kidney of 120-day-old OVE26 (a transgenic model of Type 1 diabetes) and FVB (non-diabetic background strain) mice were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (n = 5 in each group). Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 41 differentially expressed proteins, of which 30 were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) followed by peptide mass fingerprinting. One of the altered proteins with the greatest magnitude of change was the calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28k, whose expression was increased 6.7-fold in diabetic kidney. We confirmed the increase in calbindin-D28k expression in diabetic kidney by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that calbindin-D28k expression was markedly increased in tubular epithelial cells of distal convoluted tubules (DCT), collecting ducts (CD), and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) in diabetic kidney. Calbindin-D28k plays a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. The elevation in renal calbindin-D28k expression in our model may indicate a compensatory mechanism to overcome hypercalciuria in diabetes.
Project description:Calbindin-D28k is a calcium binding protein with six EF hand domains. Calbindin-D28k is unique in that it functions as both a calcium buffer and a sensor protein. It is found in many tissues, including brain, pancreas, kidney, and intestine, playing important roles in each. Calbindin-D28k is known to bind four calcium ions and upon calcium binding undergoes a conformational change. The structure of apo calbindin-D28k is in an ordered state, transitioning into a disordered state as calcium is bound. Once fully loaded with four calcium ions, it again takes on an ordered state. The solution structure of disulfide-reduced holo-calbindin-D28k has been determined by NMR, while the structure of apo calbindin-D28k has yet to be determined. Differential surface modification of lysine and histidine residues analyzed by mass spectrometry has been used in this study to identify, for the first time, the specific regions of calbindin-D28k undergoing conformational changes between the holo and apo states. Using differential surface modification in combination with mass spectrometry, EF hands 1 and 4 as well as the linkers before EF hand 1 and the linkers between EF hands 4 and 5 and EF hands 5 and 6 were identified as regions of conformational change between apo and holo calbindin-D28k. Under the experimental conditions employed, EF hands 2 and 6, which are known not to bind calcium, were unaffected in either form. EF hand 2 is highly accessible; however, EF hand 6 was determined not to be surface accessible in either form. Previous research has identified a disulfide bond between cysteines 94 and 100 in the holo state. Until now, it was unknown whether this bond also exists in the apo form. Our data confirm the presence of the disulfide bond between cysteines 94 and 100 in the holo form and indicate that there is predominantly no disulfide bond between these residues in the apoprotein.
Project description:Pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and death contribute to the onset of diabetes, and novel strategies of ?-cell function and survival under diabetogenic conditions need to be explored. We previously demonstrated that Isx9, a small molecule based on the isoxazole scaffold, drives neuroendocrine phenotypes by increasing the expression of genes required for ?-cell function and improves glycemia in a model of ? cell regeneration. We further investigated the role of Isx9 in ?-cell survival. We find that Isx9 drives the expression of Calbindin-D28K (D28K), a key regulator of calcium homeostasis, and plays a cytoprotective role through its calcium buffering capacity in ? cells. Isx9 increased the activity of the calcineurin (CN)/cytoplasmic nuclear factor of the activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factor, a key regulator of D28K, and improved the recruitment of NFATc1, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p300 to the D28K promoter. We found that nutrient stimulation increased D28K plasma membrane enrichment and modulated calcium channel activity in order to regulate glucose-induced insulin secretion. Isx9-mediated expression of D28K protected ? cells against chronic stress induced by serum withdrawal or chronic inflammation by reducing caspase 3 activity. Consequently, Isx9 improved human islet function after transplantation in NOD-SCID mice in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. In summary, Isx9 significantly regulates expression of genes relevant to ? cell survival and function, and may be an attractive therapy to treat diabetes and improve islet function post-transplantation.
Project description:The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k is critical for hippocampal function and cognition, but its expression is markedly decreased in various neurological disorders associated with epileptiform activity and seizures. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsy, both of which are accompanied by recurrent seizures, the severity of cognitive deficits reflects the degree of calbindin reduction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, despite the importance of calbindin in both neuronal physiology and pathology, the regulatory mechanisms that control its expression in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Here we report an epigenetic mechanism through which seizures chronically suppress hippocampal calbindin expression and impair cognition. We demonstrate that ?FosB, a highly stable transcription factor, is induced in the hippocampus in mouse models of AD and seizures, in which it binds and triggers histone deacetylation at the promoter of the calbindin gene (Calb1) and downregulates Calb1 transcription. Notably, increasing DG calbindin levels, either by direct virus-mediated expression or inhibition of ?FosB signaling, improves spatial memory in a mouse model of AD. Moreover, levels of ?FosB and calbindin expression are inversely related in the DG of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or AD and correlate with performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We propose that chronic suppression of calbindin by ?FosB is one mechanism through which intermittent seizures drive persistent cognitive deficits in conditions accompanied by recurrent seizures.
Project description:We have examined the 5' flanking region of the mouse calbindin-D28k gene and identified a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3]-responsive element by deletion mutant analysis of the native promoter as well as by studies with a heterologous thymidine kinase (TK) promoter. The segment between residues -200 and -169 was found to confer a dose-dependent 1,25-(OH)2D3 responsiveness through the TK promoter in Ros 17/2.8 cells as well as in CV-1 cells cotransfected with pAV-hVDR (human vitamin D receptor expression vector). This region contains sequences homologous to the rat osteocalcin vitamin D response element (VDRE). Incubation of this element with nuclear extracts from 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated Ros 17/2.8 cells or from 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated COS cells that had been transfected with pAV-hVDR resulted in a specific protein-DNA interaction. In addition to 1,25-(OH)2D3, sodium butyrate, a differentiating agent, has also been found to modulate expression of calbindin-D28k. Deletion analysis of the mouse calbindin-D28k promoter as well as studies with a heterologous TK promoter resulted in identification of a butyrate-responsive element between -180 and -150 that was found to bind specifically to nuclear factors from butyrate-treated Ros 17/2.8 cells. This butyrate-responsive element may represent a genetic element acted upon by enhancer binding proteins. In summary, the 5' flanking region of the mouse calbindin-D28k gene contains responsive elements that interact with nuclear factors and may mediate, at least in part, the enhanced expression of this gene by 1,25-(OH)2D3 and butyrate.
Project description:Calbindin-D28k (CB), one of the major calcium-binding and buffering proteins, has a critical role in preventing a neuronal death as well as maintaining calcium homeostasis. Although marked reductions of CB expression have been observed in the brains of mice and humans with Alzheimer disease (AD), it is unknown whether these changes contribute to AD-related dysfunction. To determine the pathogenic importance of CB depletions in AD models, we crossed 5 familial AD mutations (5XFAD; Tg) mice with CB knock-out (CBKO) mice and generated a novel line CBKO·5XFAD (CBKOTg) mice. We first identified the change of signaling pathways and differentially expressed proteins globally by removing CB in Tg mice using mass spectrometry and antibody microarray. Immunohistochemistry showed that CBKOTg mice had significant neuronal loss in the subiculum area without changing the magnitude (number) of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) plaques deposition and elicited significant apoptotic features and mitochondrial dysfunction compared with Tg mice. Moreover, CBKOTg mice reduced levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein at Ser-133 and synaptic molecules such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDA receptor 1), NMDA receptor 2A, PSD-95 and synaptophysin in the subiculum compared with Tg mice. Importantly, this is the first experimental evidence that removal of CB from amyloid precursor protein/presenilin transgenic mice aggravates AD pathogenesis, suggesting that CB has a critical role in AD pathogenesis.
Project description:The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28K, or calb1, is expressed at higher levels by dopamine (DA) neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) than in the adjacent substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Calb1 has received attention for a potential role in neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. The underlying physiological roles for calb1 are incompletely understood. We used cre-loxP technology to knock down calb1 in mouse DA neurons to test whether calb1 governs axonal release of DA in the striatum, detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry ex vivo. In the ventral but not dorsal striatum, calb1 knockdown elevated DA release and modified the spatiotemporal coupling of Ca2+ entry to DA release. Furthermore, calb1 knockdown enhanced DA uptake but attenuated the impact of DA transporter (DAT) inhibition by cocaine on underlying DA release. These data reveal that calb1 acts through a range of mechanisms underpinning both DA release and uptake to limit DA transmission in the ventral but not dorsal striatum.
Project description:Relatively little is known about the molecular control of midbrain dopamine release. Using high-fidelity imaging of pHluorin-tagged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in dopamine neurons, we found that exocytosis was more loosely coupled to calcium entry than in fast synapses. In ventral tegmental area neurons, this allows exocytosis to be efficiently controlled by a native fast calcium buffer, calbindin-D28k, maintaining a lower vesicular release probability compared with substantia nigra neurons.