Synthesis, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding, and pharmacological properties of 3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidine analogs.
ABSTRACT: A series of 3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidine analogs (5a-j) were synthesized. The alpha4beta2( *) and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding properties and functional activity in the tail-flick, hot-plate, locomotor, and body temperature tests in mice of 5a-j were compared to those of the nAChR agonist, nicotine (1), epibatidine (4), and deschloroepibatidine (13), the partial agonist, varenicline (3), and the antagonist 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidine analogs (7a-j). Unlike epibatidine and deschloroepibatidine, which are potent agonists in the tail-flick test, 5a-k show no or very low antinociceptive activity in the tail-flick or hot-plate test. However, they are potent antagonists in nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick test, but weaker than the corresponding 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidines.
Project description:2'-Fluoro-3-(substituted pyridine)epibatidine analogues 7a-e and 8a-e were synthesized, and their in vitro and in vivo nAChR properties were determined. 2'-Fluoro-3'-(4?-pyridinyl)deschloroepibatidine (7a) and 2'-fluoro-3'-(3?-pyridinyl)deschloroepibatidine (8a) were synthesized as bioisosteres of the 4'-nitrophenyl lead compounds 5a and 5g. Comparison of the in vitro nAChR properties of 7a and 8a to those of 5a and 5g showed that 7a and 8a had in vitro nAChR properties similar to those of 5a and 5g but both were more selective for the ?4?2-nAChR relative to the ?3?4- and ?7-nAChRs than 5a and 5g. The in vivo nAChR properties in mice of 7a were similar to those of 5a. In contrast, 8a was an agonist in all four mouse acute tests, whereas 5g was active only in a spontaneous activity test. In addition, 5g was a nicotine antagonist in both the tail-flick and hot-plate tests, whereas 8a was an antagonist only in the tail-flick test.
Project description:Herein, we report the synthesis and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidines 5b-g, analogues of 3'-(4-nitrophenyl) compound 5a. All compounds had high affinity for ?4?2-nAChR and low affinity for ?7-nAChR. Initial electrophysiological studies showed that all analogues were antagonists at ?4?2-, ?3?4-, and ?7-nAChRs. The 4-carbamoylphenyl analogue 5g was highly selective for ?4?2-nAChR over ?3?4- and ?7-nAChRs. All the analogues were antagonists of nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick test. Molecular modeling docking studies using the agonist-bound form of the X-ray crystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein suggested several different binding modes for epibatidine, varenicline, and 5a-g. In particular, a unique binding mode for 5g was suggested by these docking simulations. The high binding affinity, in vitro efficacy, and selectivity of 5g for ?4?2-nAChR combined with its nAChR functional antagonist properties suggest that 5g will be a valuable pharmacological tool for studying the nAChR and may have potential as a pharmacotherapy for addiction and other central nervous system disorders.
Project description:Over the last several years we have synthesized and studied the in vitro and in vivo nAChR pharmacological properties of epibatidine (4) analogs. In this study we report the synthesis, nAChR in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of 3'-(substituted pyridinyl)-deschloroepibatidine analogs (5a-e and 6a-e). All of the analogs had high binding affinity for ?4?2(?)-nAChRs. Several of the analogs were potent antagonists of ?4?2-nAChRs in in vitro efficacy tests and were potent antagonists of nicotine-induced antinociception in the mouse tail-flick test. Compound 6b had a Ki = 0.13 nM in the binding assay, 25- and 46-fold selectivity for the ?4?2(?)-nAChR relative to the ?3?4- and ?7-nAChR, respectively, in the in vitro efficacy test and an AD50 = 0.13 ?g/kg in the tail-flick test. Combined with favorable calculated physiochemical properties compared to varenicline, our findings suggest that 6b should be considered for development as a potential pharmacotherapy for treating nicotine addiction and other CNS disorders.
Project description:Toward development of smoking cessation aids superior to bupropion (2), we describe synthesis of 2-(substituted phenyl)-3,5,5-trimethylmorpholine analogues 5a-5h and their effects on inhibition of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin uptake, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, acute actions of nicotine, and nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Several analogues encompassing aryl substitutions, N-alkylation, and alkyl extensions of the morpholine ring 3-methyl group provided analogues more potent in vitro than (S,S)-hydroxybupropion (4a) as inhibitors of dopamine or norepinephrine uptake and antagonists of nAChR function. All of the new (S,S)-5 analogues had better potency than (S,S)-4a as blockers of acute nicotine analgesia in the tail-flick test. Two analogues with highest potency at ?3?4*-nAChR and among the most potent transporter inhibitors have better potency than (S,S)-4a in blocking nicotine-CPP. Collectively, these findings illuminate mechanisms of action of 2 analogues and identify deshydroxybupropion analogues 5a-5h as possibly superior candidates as aids to smoking cessation.
Project description:The tobacco-dependence pharmacotherapies varenicline and cytisine act as partial ?4?2 nAChR agonists. However, the extent to which ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate their in-vivo effects remains unclear. Nicotine, varenicline, cytisine, and epibatidine were studied in male C57BL/6J mice for their effects on rates of fixed ratio responding and rectal temperature alone and in combination with the nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine and the ?4?2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-?-erythroidine. The effects of nicotine, varenicline, cytisine, epibatidine, and cocaine were assessed before and during chronic nicotine treatment. The rate-decreasing and hypothermic effects of nicotine, varenicline, cytisine, and epibatidine were antagonized by mecamylamine (1?mg/kg), but only the effects of nicotine and epibatidine were antagonized by dihydro-?-erythroidine (3.2?mg/kg). Chronic nicotine produced 4.7 and 5.1-fold rightward shifts in the nicotine dose-effect functions to decrease response rate and rectal temperature, respectively. Nicotine treatment decreased the potency of epibatidine to decrease response rate and rectal temperature 2.2 and 2.9-fold, respectively, and shifted the varenicline dose-effect functions 2.0 and 1.7-fold rightward, respectively. Cross-tolerance did not develop from nicotine to cytisine. These results suggest that the in-vivo pharmacology of tobacco cessation aids cannot be attributed to a single nAChR subtype; instead, multiple receptor subtypes differentially mediate their effects.
Project description:The role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing the ?4 subunit in tolerance development and nicotinic binding site levels following chronic nicotine treatment was investigated. Mice differing in expression of the ?4-nAChR subunit [wild-type (?4(++)), heterozygote (?4(+-)) and null mutant (?4(--))] were chronically treated for 10 days with nicotine (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg/h) by constant intravenous infusion. Chronic nicotine treatment elicited dose-dependent tolerance development. ?4(--) mice developed significantly more tolerance than either ?4(++) or ?4(+-) mice which was most evident following treatment with 4.0mg/kg/h nicotine. Subsets of [(125)I]-epibatidine binding were measured in several brain regions. Deletion of the ?4 subunit had little effect on initial levels of cytisine-sensitive [(125)I]-epibatidine binding (primarily ?4?2-nAChR sites) or their response (generally increased binding) to chronic nicotine treatment. In contrast, ?4 gene-dose-dependent decreases in expression 5IA-85380 resistant [(125)I]-epibatidine binding sites (primarily ?4*-nAChR) were observed. While these ?4*-nAChR sites were generally resistant to regulation by chronic nicotine treatment, significant increases in binding were noted for habenula and hindbrain. Comparison of previously published tolerance development in ?2(--) mice (less tolerance) to that of ?4(--) mice (more tolerance) supports a differential role for these receptor subtypes in regulating tolerance following chronic nicotine treatment.
Project description:[(125)I]-Epibatidine binds to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes with high affinity. In this study, [(125)I]-epibatidine was used to label and characterize a novel nAChR subtype found in mouse brain inferior colliculus, interpeduncular nucleus, and olfactory bulb homogenates. Binding of [(125)I]-epibatidine was saturable and apparently monophasic in each brain region (K:(D:)=71+/-12 pM mean+/-s.e.mean across regions) but inhibition of [(125)I]-epibatidine binding (200 pM) by A85380, cytisine and (-)-nicotine was biphasic, indicating the presence of multiple binding sites. The sites with lower agonist affinity comprised 30.0+/-2.2, 58.6+/-0.1 and 48.7+/-3.3% of specific [(125)I]-epibatidine (200 pM) binding in inferior colliculus, interpeduncular nucleus, and olfactory bulb homogenates, respectively. The affinity difference between A85380-sensitive and -resistant binding sites was particularly marked (approximately 1000 fold). Thus A85380 was used to differentiate agonist-sensitive and -resistant sites. The pharmacological profiles of the A85380-resistant sites in each region were assessed with inhibition binding experiments, using 14 agonists and five antagonists. The profiles were indistinguishable across regions, implying that A85380-resistant [(125)I]-epibatidine binding sites in inferior colliculus, interpeduncular nucleus, and olfactory bulb represent a single nAChR subtype. The pharmacological profile of the A85380-resistant sites is very different from that previously reported for high affinity (-)-[(3)H]-nicotine-, [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin-, or [(125)I]-alpha-conotoxin MII-binding sites, suggesting that they represent a novel nAChR population in mouse brain.
Project description:To create potentially superior aids to smoking cessation and/or antidepressants and to elucidate bupropion's possible mechanisms of action(s), 23 analogues based on its active hydroxymetabolite (2S,3S)-4a were synthesized and tested for their abilities to inhibit monoamine uptake and nAChR subtype activities in vitro and acute effects of nicotine in vivo. The 3',4'-dichlorophenyl [(+/-)-4n], naphthyl (4r), and 3-chlorophenyl or 3-propyl analogues 4s and 4t, respectively, had higher inhibitory potency and/or absolute selectivity than (2S,3S)-4a for inhibition of DA, NE, or 5HT uptake. The 3'-fluorophenyl, 3'-bromophenyl, and 4-biphenyl analogues 4c, 4d, and 4l, respectively, had higher potency for antagonism of alpha4beta2-nAChR than (2S,3S)-4a. Several analogues also had higher potency than (2S,3S)-4a as antagonists of nicotine-mediated antinociception in the tail-flick assay. The results suggest that compounds acting via some combination of DA, NE, or 5HT inhibition and/or antagonism of alpha4beta2-nAChR can potentially be new pharmacotherapeutics for treatment of nicotine dependence.
Project description:Genomic and pharmacologic data have suggested the involvement of the ?3?4 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in drug seeking to nicotine and other drugs of abuse. In order to better examine this receptor subtype, we have identified and characterized the first high affinity and selective ?3?4 nAChR antagonist, AT-1001, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first reported compound with a Ki below 10 nM at ?3?4 nAChR and >90-fold selectivity over the other major subtypes, the ?4?2 and ?7 nAChR. AT-1001 competes with epibatidine, allowing for [³H]epibatidine binding to be used for structure-activity studies, however, both receptor binding and ligand-induced Ca²? flux are not strictly competitive because increasing ligand concentration produces an apparent decrease in receptor number and maximal Ca²? fluorescence. AT-1001 also potently and reversibly blocks epibatidine-induced inward currents in HEK cells transfected with ?3?4 nAChR. Importantly, AT-1001 potently and dose-dependently blocks nicotine self-administration in rats, without affecting food responding. When tested in a nucleus accumbens (NAcs) synaptosomal preparation, AT-1001 inhibits nicotine-induced [³H]dopamine release poorly and at significantly higher concentrations compared with mecamylamine and conotoxin MII. These results suggest that its inhibition of nicotine self-administration in rats is not directly due to a decrease in dopamine release from the NAc, and most likely involves an indirect pathway requiring ?3?4 nAChR. In conclusion, our studies provide further evidence for the involvement of ?3?4 nAChR in nicotine self-administration. These findings suggest the utility of this receptor as a target for smoking cessation medications, and highlight the potential of AT-1001 and congeners as clinically useful compounds.
Project description:Bupropion (2a) analogues were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit monoamine uptake and to antagonize the effects of human alpha3beta4*, alpha4beta2, alpha4beta4, and alpha1* nAChRs. The analogues were evaluated for their ability to block nicotine-induced effects in four tests in mice. Nine analogues showed increased monoamine uptake inhibition. Similar to 2a, all but one analogue show inhibition of nAChR function selective for human alpha3beta4*-nAChR. Nine analogues have higher affinity at alpha3beta4*-nAChRs than 2a. Four analogues also had higher affinity for alpha4beta2 nAChR. Analogues 2r, 2m, and 2n with AD(50) values of 0.014, 0.015, and 0.028 mg/kg were 87, 81, and 43 times more potent than 2a in blocking nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick test. Analogue 2x with IC(50) values of 31 and 180 nM for DA and NE, respectively, and with IC(50) of 0.62 and 9.8 microm for antagonism of alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs had the best overall in vitro profile relative to 2a.