Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the mouse asparagine synthetase gene: relationship to asparaginase sensitivity in lymphoma cells. Partial methylation in normal cells.
ABSTRACT: We have sequenced the promoter region of the murine asparagine synthetase gene and examined its methylation profile in the CpG islands of L-asparaginase-sensitive 6C3HED cells (asparagine auxotrophs) and resistant variants (prototrophs). In the former, complete methylation of the CpG island is correlated with failure of expression of mRNA: cells of the latter possess both methylated and unmethylated alleles, as do cells of the intrinsically asparagine-independent lines L1210 and EL4. A similar phenomenon was seen in normal splenic cells of adult mice. This was age related: no methylation was found in weanlings, but up to 45% of gene copies in animals 18 weeks or older were methylated. It was also tissue related, with methylation occurring rarely in liver cells. The relationship of these changes to oncogenesis is considered.
Project description:Karyotype is an important prognostic factor in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), but the underlying pharmacogenomics remain unknown. Asparaginase is an integral component in current chemotherapy for childhood BCP-ALL. Asparaginase therapy depletes serum asparagine. Normal hematopoietic cells can produce asparagine by asparagine synthetase (ASNS) activity, but ALL cells are unable to synthesize adequate amounts of asparagine. The ASNS gene has a typical CpG island in its promoter. Thus, methylation of the ASNS CpG island could be one of the epigenetic mechanisms for ASNS gene silencing in BCP-ALL. To gain deep insights into the pharmacogenomics of asparaginase therapy, we investigated the association of ASNS methylation status with asparaginase sensitivity. The ASNS CpG island is largely unmethylated in normal hematopoietic cells, but it is allele-specifically methylated in BCP-ALL cells. The ASNS gene is located at 7q21, an evolutionally conserved imprinted gene cluster. ASNS methylation in childhood BCP-ALL is associated with an aberrant methylation of the imprinted gene cluster at 7q21. Aberrant methylation of mouse Asns and a syntenic imprinted gene cluster is also confirmed in leukemic spleen samples from ETV6-RUNX1 knockin mice. In 3 childhood BCP-ALL cohorts, ASNS is highly methylated in BCP-ALL patients with favorable karyotypes but is mostly unmethylated in BCP-ALL patients with poor prognostic karyotypes. Higher ASNS methylation is associated with higher L-asparaginase sensitivity in BCP-ALL through lower ASNS gene and protein expression levels. These observations demonstrate that silencing of the ASNS gene as a result of aberrant imprinting is a pharmacogenetic mechanism for the leukemia-specific activity of asparaginase therapy in BCP-ALL.
Project description:Cancer microenvironment is complex and consists of various immune cells. There is evidence for mast cell (MC) infiltration of tumors, but their role thereof is poorly understood. In this study, we explored the effects of mast cell and their mediators on the growth of hematological cancer cells. The affect is demonstrated using RBL-2H3 MCs, and YAC-1, EL4 and L1210 as hematological cancer cell lines. Direct contact with MCs or stimulation by their mediators caused growth inhibition of YAC-1 cells, growth enhancement of EL4 cells and no change in growth of L1210 cells. This effect was confirmed by cancer cell recovery, cell viability, mitochondrial health, and cell cycle analysis. MCs showed mediator release in direct contact with tumor cells. MC mediators' treatment to YAC-1 and EL4 yielded exactly opposite modulations of survival markers, Survivin and COX-2 and apoptosis markers, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, in the two cell lines. Histamine being an important MC mediator, effect of histamine on cell recovery, survival markers and expression of various histamine receptors and their modulation in cancer cells was studied. Again, YAC-1 and EL4 cells showed contrary histamine receptor expression modulation in response to MC mediators. Histamine receptor antagonist co-treatment with MC mediators to the cancer cells suggested a major involvement of H2 and H4 receptor in growth inhibition in YAC-1 cells, and contribution of H1, H2, and H4 receptors in cell growth enhancement in EL4 cells. L1210 showed changes in the histamine receptors' expression but no effect on treatment with receptor antagonists. It can be concluded that anti-cancerous action of MCs or their mediators may include direct growth inhibition, but their role may differ depending on the tumor.
Project description:Global DNA hypomethylation in CD4+ cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis. To identify new methylation-sensitive genes, we integrated genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA profiling data in CD4+ cells of MRL/lpr (MRL) and C57BL6/J (B6) mice. We identified Cathepsin E (Ctse), in which 13 methyl-CpGs within 583?bp region of intron 1 were hypomethylated, and Ctse mRNA upregulated in MRL compared with B6 mice. One of methyl-CpGs, mCGCG was 93.3?±?2.05% methylated in B6 mice, while 80.0?±?6.2% methylated and mutated to CGGG in MRL mice. Kaiso is known to bind to mCGCG and we hypothesized that it represses expression of Ctse in B6 mice. The binding of Kaiso to mCGCG site in B6 mice was reduced in MRL mice revealed by ChIP-PCR. EL4 cells treated with 5-azaC and/or Trichostatin A showed the suppression of binding of Kaiso to mCGCG motif by ChIP-PCR and the overexpression of Ctse was demonstrated by qPCR. Ctse gene silencing by siRNA in EL4 cells resulted in reduction of IL-10 secretion. The hypomethylation of mCGCG motif, reduced recruitment of Kaiso, and increased expression of Ctse and Il-10 in CD4+ cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:We propose that tetraploidy induces epigentic changes including DNA methylation due to the abnormal chromatin in the cells. To test our hypothesis, we employed methylated CpG island recovery assay (MIRA) assisted microarray to determine the DNA methylation profiles in both diploid and tetraploid cells. First, we conducted a methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA). Briefly, we enriched for methylated CpG islands with methylated DNA binding proteins, MBD2/MBD3L1. The pulled down DNA fragments containing CpG islands and input DNA fragments were amplified with real-time PCR. After labeling, they were hybridized to CpG island promoter array. Data were collected and analyzed.
Project description:Mammalian CpG islands (CGIs) normally escape DNA methylation in all adult tissues and developmental stages. However, in our previous study we unexpectedly identified many methylated CGIs in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Methylated CpG dinucleotides convert to TpG dinucleotides through deaminization of their cytosine bases more frequently than hypomethylated CpG dinucleotides. Therefore, we wondered how methylated CGIs in germline or non-germline cells maintain their CpG-rich sequences. It is known that events such as germline hypomethylation, CpG selection, biased gene conversion (BGC), and frequent CpG fixation can contribute to the maintenance of CpG-rich sequences in methylated CGIs in germline or non-germline cells. However, it has not been investigated which of the processes maintain CpG-rich sequences of methylated CGIs in each genomic position.In this study, we comprehensively examined the contribution of the processes described above to the maintenance of CpG-rich sequences in methylated CGIs in germline and non-germline cells which were classified by genomic positions. Approximately 60-80% of CGIs with high methylation in H1 cell line (H1-HM) in all the genomic positions showed a low average CpG?TpG/CpA substitution rate. In contrast, fewer than half the numbers of CGIs with H1-HM in all the genomic positions showed a low average CpG?TpG/CpA substitution rate and low levels of methylation in sperm cells (SPM-LM). Furthermore, a small fraction of CGIs with a low average CpG?TpG/CpA substitution rate and high levels of methylation in sperm cells (SPM-HM) showed CpG selection. On the other hand, independent of the positions in genes, most CGIs with SPM-HM showed a slightly higher average TpG/CpA?CpG substitution rate compared with those with SPM-LM.Relatively high numbers (approximately 60-80%) of CGIs with H1-HM in all the genomic positions preserve their CpG-rich sequences by a low CpG?TpG/CpA substitution rate caused mainly by their SPM-LM, and for those with SPM-HM partly by CpG selection and TpG/CpA?CpG fixation. BGC has little contribution to the maintenance of CpG-rich sequences of CGIs with SPM-HM which were classified by genomic positions.
Project description:DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs.
Project description:Differential DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of imprinted genes. The differentially methylated state of the imprinting control region is inherited via the gametes at fertilization, and is stably maintained in somatic cells throughout development, influencing the expression of genes across the imprinting cluster. In contrast, DNA methylation patterns are more labile at secondary differentially methylated regions which are established at imprinted loci during post-implantation development. To investigate the nature of these more variably methylated secondary differentially methylated regions, we adopted a hairpin linker bisulfite mutagenesis approach to examine CpG dyad methylation at differentially methylated regions associated with the murine Dlk1/Gtl2 imprinting cluster on both complementary strands.We observed homomethylation at greater than 90% of the methylated CpG dyads at the IG-DMR, which serves as the imprinting control element. In contrast, homomethylation was only observed at 67-78% of the methylated CpG dyads at the secondary differentially methylated regions; the remaining 22-33% of methylated CpG dyads exhibited hemimethylation.We propose that this high degree of hemimethylation could explain the variability in DNA methylation patterns at secondary differentially methylated regions associated with imprinted loci. We further suggest that the presence of 5-hydroxymethylation at secondary differentially methylated regions may result in hemimethylation and methylation variability as a result of passive and/or active demethylation mechanisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previous studies of individual genes have shown that in a self-enforcing way, dimethylation at histone 3 lysine 9 (dimethyl-H3K9) and DNA methylation cooperate to maintain a repressive mode of inactive genes. Less clear is whether this cooperation is generalized in mammalian genomes, such as mouse genome. Here we use epigenomic tools to simultaneously interrogate chromatin modifications and DNA methylation in a mouse leukemia cell line, L1210.<h4>Results</h4>Histone modifications on H3K9 and DNA methylation in L1210 were profiled by both global CpG island array and custom mouse promoter array analysis. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray (ChIP-chip) to examine acetyl-H3K9 and dimethyl-H3K9. We found that the relative level of acetyl-H3K9 at different chromatin positions has a wider range of distribution than that of dimethyl-H3K9. We then used differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and the restriction landmark genome scanning (RLGS) to analyze the DNA methylation status of the same targets investigated by ChIP-chip. The results of epigenomic profiling, which have been independently confirmed for individual loci, show an inverse relationship between DNA methylation and histone acetylation in regulating gene silencing. In contrast to the previous notion, dimethyl-H3K9 seems to be less distinct in specifying silencing for the genes tested.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrates in L1210 leukemia cells a diverse relationship between histone modifications and DNA methylation in the maintenance of gene silencing. Acetyl-H3K9 shows an inverse relationship between DNA methylation and histone acetylation in regulating gene silencing as expected. However, dimethyl-H3K9 seems to be less distinct in relation to promoter methylation. Meanwhile, a combination of epigenomic tools is of help in understanding the heterogeneity of epigenetic regulation, which may further our vision accumulated from single-gene studies.
Project description:DNA methylation is a covalent modification of the nucleotide cytosine that is stably inherited at the dinucleotide CpG by somatic cells, and 70% of CpG dinucleotides in the genome are methylated. The exception to this pattern of methylation are CpG islands, CpG-rich sequences that are protected from methylation, and generally are thought to be methylated only on the inactive X-chromosome and in tumors, as well as differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the vicinity of imprinted genes. To identify chromosomal regions that might harbor imprinted genes, we devised a strategy for isolating a library of normally methylated CpG islands. Most of the methylated CpG islands represented high copy number dispersed repeats. However, 62 unique clones in the library were characterized, all of which were methylated and GC-rich, with a GC content >50%. Of these, 43 clones also showed a CpG(obs)/CpG(exp) >0.6, of which 30 were studied in detail. These unique methylated CpG islands mapped to 23 chromosomal regions, and 12 were differentially methylated regions in uniparental tissues of germline origin, i.e., hydatidiform moles (paternal origin) and complete ovarian teratomas (maternal origin), even though many apparently were methylated in somatic tissues. We term these sequences gDMRs, for germline differentially methylated regions. At least two gDMRs mapped near imprinted genes, HYMA1 and a novel homolog of Elongin A and Elongin A2, which we term Elongin A3. Surprisingly, 18 of the methylated CpG islands were methylated in germline tissues of both parental origins, representing a previously uncharacterized class of normally methylated CpG islands in the genome, and which we term similarly methylated regions (SMRs). These SMRs, in contrast to the gDMRs, were significantly associated with telomeric band locations (P =.0008), suggesting a potential role for SMRs in chromosome organization. At least 10 of the methylated CpG islands were on average 85% conserved between mouse and human. These sequences will provide a valuable resource in the search for novel imprinted genes, for defining the molecular substrates of the normal methylome, and for identifying novel targets for mammalian chromatin formation.
Project description:Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context.