Multiplicity of virus-encoded helper T-cell epitopes expressed on FBL-3 tumor cells.
ABSTRACT: To identify retroviral antigenic determinants recognized by CD4+ T helper cells during tumor rejection, we established four noncytolytic, helper-type, CD4+ T-cell clones by limiting dilution cultures of mixed lymphocyte-tumor cultures from mice immune to a Friend virus-induced tumor, FBL-3. Among these, three T helper cell clones were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and the fourth was isolated from a (BALB/c x C57BL/6)F1 mouse. All these clones proliferated in response to the immunizing FBL-3 tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted manner. Each clone expressed a distinct T-cell receptor with a characteristic combination of alpha and beta chains. The localization of helper T-cell determinants on viral proteins was analyzed with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) gag or env genes or shorter fragments of the env gene. Epitopes recognized by these T-cell clones were mapped to at least two distinct portions in the env region of the F-MuLV genome. These epitopes were identified more precisely with synthetic peptides derived from the F-MuLV envelope protein sequence. One of these epitopes was common to Friend and Moloney MuLVs and was located in the N-terminal region of the gp70 glycoprotein at amino acids 122 to 141. The second epitope, which was recognized in the context of hybrid I-Eb/d major histocompatibility complex class II molecule, was located close to the C-terminal end of gp70 at amino acids 462 to 479. In addition, a possible third epitope was located in the N-terminal half of the gp70 sequence and differed from the first epitope in that it was not cross-reactive with the Moloney MuLV envelope protein.
Project description:PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a replication-competent, ecotropic type C retrovirus that was isolated after passage of the Friend virus complex through F344 rats. Unlike viruses in the Friend virus complex, it does not cause erythroleukemia but causes a rapidly progressive hind limb paralysis when injected into newborn rats and mice. We have isolated an infectious DNA clone (clone 3d) of this virus which causes neurological disease in animals as efficiently as parental PVC-211 MuLV. The restriction map of clone 3d is very similar to that of the nonneuropathogenic, erythroleukemogenic Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV), suggesting that PVC-211 MuLV is a variant of F-MuLV and that no major structural alteration was involved in its derivation. Studies with chimeric viruses between PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d and wild-type F-MuLV clone 57 indicate that at least one determinant for neuropathogenicity resides in the 2.1-kb XbaI-ClaI fragment containing the gp70 coding region of PVC-211 MuLV. Compared with nonneuropathogenic ecotropic MuLVs, the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV encodes four unique amino acids in the gp70 protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis also revealed a deletion in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d compared with F-MuLV clone 57. In contrast to the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV, particular sequences within the U3 region of the viral LTR do not appear to be required for neuropathogenicity. However, the changes in the LTR of PVC-211 MuLV may be responsible for the failure of this virus to cause erythroleukemia, because chimeric viruses containing the U3 region of F-MuLV clone 57 were erythroleukemogenic whereas those with the U3 of PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d were not.
Project description:Polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are generated by recombination of ecotropic MuLVs with env genes of a family of endogenous proviruses in mice, resulting in viruses with an expanded host range and greater virulence. Inbred mouse strains contain numerous endogenous proviruses that are potential donors of the env gene sequences of polytropic MuLVs; however, the precise identification of those proviruses that participate in recombination has been elusive. Three different structural groups of proviruses in NFS/N mice have been described and different ecotropic MuLVs preferentially recombine with different groups of proviruses. In contrast to other ecotropic MuLVs such as Friend MuLV or Akv that recombine predominantly with a single group of proviruses, Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) recombines with at least two distinct groups. In this study, we determined that only three endogenous proviruses, two of one group and one of another group, are major participants in recombination with M-MuLV. Furthermore, the distinction between the polytropic MuLVs generated by M-MuLV and other ecotropic MuLVs is the result of recombination with a single endogenous provirus. This provirus exhibits a frameshift mutation in the 3' region of the surface glycoprotein-encoding sequences that is excluded in recombinants with M-MuLV. The sites of recombination between the env genes of M-MuLV and endogenous proviruses were confined to a short region exhibiting maximum homology between the ecotropic and polytropic env sequences and maximum stability of predicted RNA secondary structure. These observations suggest a possible mechanism for the specificity of recombination observed for different ecotropic MuLVs.
Project description:Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) is capable of inducing promonocytic leukemia in 50% of adult BALB/c mice that have received peritoneal injections of pristane, but Friend MuLV strain 57 (F-MuLV) is nonleukemogenic under similar conditions. It was shown earlier that these differences could not be mapped to the U3 region of the virus long terminal repeat, indicating the probable influence of structural genes and/or R-U5 sequences. In this study, reciprocal chimeras containing exchanged structural genes and R-U5 sequences from these two closely related viruses were analyzed for differences in ability to induce disease. Results showed that two regions of F-MuLV, psi-gag-PR and env, when substituted for those of M-MuLV were dramatically disease attenuating. The 5'-most region, which is widely distributed, overlaps with the 5' end of the env intron and includes the RNA packaging region, psi, the entire gag coding region, and the viral protease coding region (PR) of pol. It was also found that reciprocal constructs having substitutions of both of these regions of M-MuLV in an F-MuLV background allowed full reestablishment of promonocytic leukemia. These leukemias were positive for c-myb rearrangements which are characteristic of M-MuLV-induced promonocytic leukemias. Neither region alone, however, was sufficient to produce disease with a greater incidence than 13%. Further studies demonstrated that the inability of viruses with psi, gag, PR, or env sequences from F-MuLV to induce leukemia in this model system was not due to their inability to replicate in hematopoietic tissue, to integrate into the c-myb locus early on after infection in vivo, or to express gag-myb mRNA characteristic of M-MuLV-induced preleukemic cells and acute leukemia.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated an essential role of Gag-specific CD4+ T-cell responses for viral control in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. However, little is known about epitope specificities and functional roles of the Gag-specific helper T-cell responses in terms of vaccine-induced protection against a pathogenic retroviral challenge. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) Gag proteins protects mice against the fatal Friend retrovirus (FV) infection. We report here the structure of a protective T helper cell (Th) epitope, (I)VTWEAIAVDPPP, identified in the p15 (MA) region of F-MuLV Gag. In mice immunized with the Th epitope-harboring peptide or a vaccinia virus-expressed native full-length MA protein, FV-induced early splenomegaly regressed rapidly. In these mice, FV-infected cells were eliminated within 4 weeks and the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies was induced rapidly after FV challenge, resulting in strong protection against the virus infection. Interestingly, mice immunized with the whole MA mounted strong CD4+ T-cell responses to the identified Th epitope, whereas mice immunized with mutant MA proteins that were not bound to the plasma membrane failed to mount efficient CD4+ T-cell responses, despite the presence of the Th epitope. These mutant MA proteins also failed to induce strong protection against FV challenge. These data indicate the importance of the properly processible MA molecule for CD4+ T-cell priming and for the resultant induction of an effective immune response against retrovirus infections.
Project description:Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) induce leukemias and lymphomas in mice. We have used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to determine the hematopoietic phenotypes of tumor cells induced by a number of MuLVs. Tumor cells induced by ecotropic Moloney, amphotropic 4070A, and 10A1 MuLVs and by two chimeric MuLVs, Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1), were examined with antibodies to 13 lineage-specific cell surface markers found on myeloid cell, T-cell, and B-cell lineages. The chimeric Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1) MuLVs, consisting of Moloney MuLV with the carboxy half of the Pol region and nearly all of the Env region of 4070A and 10A1, respectively, were constructed to examine the possible influence of these sequences on Moloney MuLV-induced tumor cell phenotypes. In some instances, these phenotypic analyses were supplemented by Southern blot analysis for lymphoid cell-specific genomic DNA rearrangements at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain, the T-cell receptor gamma, and the T-cell receptor beta loci. The results of our analysis showed that Moloney MuLV, 4070A, Mo(4070A), and Mo(10A1) induced mostly T-cell tumors. Moloney MuLV and Mo(4070A) induced a wide variety of T-cell phenotypes, ranging from immature to mature phenotypes, while 4070A induced mostly prothymocyte and double-negative (CD4- CD8-) T-cell tumors. The tumor phenotypes obtained with 10A1 and Mo(10A1) were each less variable than those obtained with the other MuLVs tested. 10A1 uniformly induced a tumor consisting of lineage marker-negative cells that lack lymphoid cell-specific DNA rearrangements and histologically appear to be early undifferentiated erythroid cell-like precursors. The Mo(10A1) chimera consistently induced an intermediate T-cell tumor. The chimeric constructions demonstrated that while 4070A 3' pol and env sequences apparently did not influence the observed tumor cell phenotypes, the 10A1 half of pol and env had a strong effect on the phenotypes induced by Mo(10A1) that resulted in a phenotypic consistency not seen with other viruses. This result implicates 10A1 env in an active role in the tumorigenic process.
Project description:Direct RNA-PCR analyses of T-cell lymphomas that developed in rhesus macaques during a gene transfer experiment revealed the presence of several different recombinant murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). Most prominent was the expected MuLV recombinant, designated MoLTRAmphoenv in which the amphotropic env of the helper packaging virus was joined to the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the Moloney MuLV-derived vector. This retrovirus does not exist in nature. An additional copy of the core enhancer acquired from the vector LTR may have augmented the replicative properties of MoLTRAmphoenv MuLV in several different rhesus cell types compared with the prototype amphotropic MuLV4070A. Unexpectedly, at least two types of mink cell focus-forming MuLV elements, arising from endogenous retroviral sequences expressed in the murine packaging cell line, were also transmitted and highly expressed in one of the macaques. Furthermore, murine virus-like VL-30 sequences were detected in the rhesus lymphomas, but these were not transcribed into RNA. The unanticipated presence of an array of MuLV-related structures in a primate gene transfer recipient demands ever-vigilant scrutiny for the existence of transmissible retroviral elements and replication-competent viruses possessing altered tropic or growth properties in packaging cells producing retroviral vectors.
Project description:PVC-441 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a member of the PVC group of Friend MuLV (F-MuLV)-derived neuropathogenic retroviruses. In order to determine the molecular basis for the difference in neuropathogenicity between PVC-441 and the previously characterized PVC-211 MuLVs, the entire nucleotide sequence of PVC-441 MuLV was determined and compared with those of PVC-211 and F-MuLV. The results suggest that PVC-441 and PVC-211 MuLVs were formed as a result of random mutations of F-MuLV and developed differently. The distinct pathogenicities of PVC-441 and PVC-211 MuLVs were maintained in the viruses regenerated from their molecular clones, and the sequences responsible for the pathological differences observed can be localized to the env gene. The amino acid sequence of PVC-441 deduced from its nucleotide sequence revealed a number of differences from PVC-211, the most striking of which was a difference at position 129 of the SU proteins in the two viruses. Host range studies with a brain capillary endothelial cell line (RTEC-6) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) revealed that PVC-441, like PVC-211, could infect these cells but its efficiency of infection was lower than that of PVC-211. These results may account for the difference in neuropathogenicity between PVC-441 and PVC-211.
Project description:Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, where envelope interferes with the induction of CD8+ T cell responses towards another, simultaneously or subsequently delivered, immunogen.In the Friend retrovirus mouse model, immunization with a plasmid encoding the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) Leader-Gag protein resulted in induction of a strong GagL85-93-specific CD8+ T cell response, while the response was completely abrogated by co-immunization with an F-MuLV Env-encoding plasmid. In order to overcome this interference of retroviral envelope, we employed plasmids encoding the cytokines interleukin (IL) 1?, IL2, IL12, IL15, IL21, IL28A or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as genetic adjuvants. Co-application of plasmids encoding IL2, IL12, IL21, IL28A and especially GM-CSF rescued the induction of GagL85-93-specific CD8+ T cells in mice vaccinated with FV Leader-Gag and Env. Mice that were immunized with plasmids encoding Leader-Gag and Env and the cytokines IL1?, IL12, IL15, IL28A or GM-CSF, but not Leader-Gag and Env without any cytokine, showed significantly reduced viral loads upon a high-dose Friend virus challenge infection.Our data demonstrate the potency of cytokine-encoding vectors as adjuvants and immune modulators in composite vaccines for anti-retroviral immunization.
Project description:Incorporation of immunodominant T-helper epitopes of licensed vaccines into virus-like particles (VLP) allows to harness T-helper cells induced by the licensed vaccines to provide intrastructural help (ISH) for B-cell responses against the surface proteins of the VLPs. To explore whether ISH could also improve antibody responses to calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticle vaccines we loaded the nanoparticle core with a universal T-helper epitope of Tetanus toxoid (p30) and functionalized the surface of CaP nanoparticles with stabilized trimers of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) resulting in Env-CaP-p30 nanoparticles. In contrast to soluble Env trimers, Env containing CaP nanoparticles induced activation of naïve Env-specific B-cells in vitro. Mice previously vaccinated against Tetanus raised stronger humoral immune responses against Env after immunization with Env-CaP-p30 than mice not vaccinated against Tetanus. The enhancing effect of ISH on anti-Env antibody levels was not attended with increased Env-specific IFN-? CD4 T-cell responses that otherwise may potentially influence the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Thus, CaP nanoparticles functionalized with stabilized HIV-1 Env trimers and heterologous T-helper epitopes are able to recruit heterologous T-helper cells induced by a licensed vaccine and improve anti-Env antibody responses by intrastructural help.
Project description:PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a neuropathogenic, weakly leukemogenic variant of the nonneuropathogenic, highly leukemogenic Friend MuLV (F-MuLV). Chimeric viruses constructed from PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d and F-MuLV clone 57 indicate that the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV contains the determinant(s) responsible for pathological changes in the central nervous system. However, sequences within the 5' one-third (AatII-EcoRI region) of the PVC-211 MuLV genome, which include the 5' leader sequence, the gag gene, and the 5' quarter of the pol gene, are also needed in conjunction with the env gene determinant(s) to cause clinically evident neurological disease in the majority of virus-infected animals after a short latency. In the presence of the AatII-EcoRI region of the PVC-211 MuLV genome, the PVC-211 MuLV env gene sequences encoding the amino-terminal half of the SU protein, which contains the receptor-binding region of the protein, were sufficient to cause rapidly progressive neurological disease. When PVC-211 MuLV, F-MuLV, and various chimeric viruses were tested for their ability to replicate in cultured brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC), the primary site of PVC-211 MuLV replication within the central nervous system, there was a direct correlation between the replication efficiency of a virus in BCEC in vitro and its ability to cause neurological disease in vivo. This observation indicates that the sequences in PVC-211 MuLV that render it neuropathogenic affect its replication in BCEC and suggests that rapid and efficient replication of the virus in BCEC is crucial for the pathological changes in the central nervous system that result in development of neurological disease.