Identification and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EXO1, a gene encoding an exonuclease that interacts with MSH2.
ABSTRACT: A two-hybrid screen was used to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding proteins that interact with MSH2. One gene was found to encode a homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe EXO1, a double-stranded DNA-specific 5'-3' exonuclease. S. cerevisiae EXO1 interacted with both S. cerevisiae and human MSH2 in two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. exo1 mutants showed a mutator phenotype, and epistasis analysis was consistent with EXO1 functioning in the MSH2-dependent mismatch repair pathway. exo1 mutations were lethal in combination with rad27 mutations, and overexpression of EXO1 suppressed both the temperature sensitive and mutator phenotypes of rad27 mutants.
Project description:Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) involves both exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and Exo1-independent pathways. We found that the unstructured C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exo1 contains two MutS homolog 2 (Msh2)-interacting peptide (SHIP) boxes downstream from the MutL homolog 1 (Mlh1)-interacting peptide (MIP) box. These three sites were redundant in Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo and could be replaced by a fusion protein between an N-terminal fragment of Exo1 and Msh6. The SHIP-Msh2 interactions were eliminated by the msh2M470I mutation, and wild-type but not mutant SHIP peptides eliminated Exo1-dependent MMR in vitro. We identified two S. cerevisiae SHIP-box-containing proteins and three candidate human SHIP-box-containing proteins. One of these, Fun30, had a small role in Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo. The Remodeling of the Structure of Chromatin (Rsc) complex also functioned in both Exo1-dependent and Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. Our results identified two modes of Exo1 recruitment and a peptide module that mediates interactions between Msh2 and other proteins, and they support a model in which Exo1 functions in MMR by being tethered to the Msh2-Msh6 complex.
Project description:Genetic evidence has implicated multiple pathways in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) downstream of mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment, including Exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and -independent pathways. We identified 14 mutations in POL30, which encodes PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specific to Exo1-independent MMR. The mutations identified affected amino acids at three distinct sites on the PCNA structure. Multiple mutant PCNA proteins had defects either in trimerization and Msh2-Msh6 binding or in activation of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease that initiates excision during MMR. The latter class of mutations led to hyperaccumulation of repair intermediate Mlh1-Pms1 foci and were enhanced by an msh6 mutation that disrupted the Msh2-Msh6 interaction with PCNA. These results reveal a central role for PCNA in the Exo1-independent MMR pathway and suggest that Msh2-Msh6 localizes PCNA to repair sites after mispair recognition to activate the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease for initiating Exo1-dependent repair or for driving progressive excision in Exo1-independent repair.
Project description:S(N)1 DNA methylating agents are genotoxic agents that methylate numerous nucleophilic centers within DNA including the O(6) position of guanine (O(6)meG). Methylation of this extracyclic oxygen forces mispairing with thymine during DNA replication. The mismatch repair (MMR) system recognizes these O(6)meG:T mispairs and is required to activate DNA damage response (DDR). Exonuclease I (EXO1) is a key component of MMR by resecting the damaged strand; however, whether EXO1 is required to activate MMR-dependent DDR remains unknown. Here we show that knockdown of the mouse ortholog (mExo1) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results in decreased G2/M checkpoint response, limited effects on cell proliferation, and increased cell viability following exposure to the S(N)1 methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), establishing a phenotype paralleling MMR deficiency. MNNG treatment induced formation of ?-H2AX foci with which EXO1 co-localized in MEFs, but mExo1-depleted MEFs displayed a significant diminishment of ?-H2AX foci formation. mExo1 depletion also reduced MSH2 association with DNA duplexes containing G:T mismatches in vitro, decreased MSH2 association with alkylated chromatin in vivo, and abrogated MNNG-induced MSH2/CHK1 interaction. To determine if nuclease activity is required to activate DDR we stably overexpressed a nuclease defective form of human EXO1 (hEXO1) in mExo1-depleted MEFs. These experiments indicated that expression of wildtype and catalytically null hEXO1 was able to restore normal response to MNNG. This study indicates that EXO1 is required to activate MMR-dependent DDR in response to S(N)1 methylating agents; however, this function of EXO1 is independent of its nucleolytic activity.
Project description:Rad27/FEN1 nuclease that plays important roles in the maintenance of DNA stability in the nucleus has recently been shown to reside in mitochondria. Accordingly, it has been established that Rad27 deficiency causes increased mutagenesis, but decreased microsatellite instability and homologous recombination in mitochondria. Our current analysis of mutations leading to erythromycin resistance indicates that only some of them arise in mitochondrial DNA and that the GC?AT transition is a hallmark of the mitochondrial mutagenesis in rad27 null background. We also show that the mitochondrial mutator phenotype resulting from Rad27 deficiency entirely depends on the DNA damage checkpoint kinase Dun1. DUN1 inactivation suppresses the mitochondrial mutator phenotype caused by Rad27 deficiency and this suppression is eliminated at least in part by subsequent deletion of SML1 encoding a repressor of ribonucleotide reductase. We conclude that Rad27 deficiency causes a mitochondrial mutator phenotype via activation of DNA damage checkpoint kinase Dun1 and that a Dun1-mediated increase of dNTP pools contributes to this phenomenon. These results point to the nuclear DNA instability as the source of mitochondrial mutagenesis. Consistently, we show that mitochondrial mutations occurring more frequently in yeast devoid of Rrm3, a DNA helicase involved in rDNA replication, are also dependent on Dun1. In addition, we have established that overproduction of Exo1, which suppresses DNA damage sensitivity and replication stress in nuclei of Rad27 deficient cells, but does not enter mitochondria, suppresses the mitochondrial mutagenesis. Exo1 overproduction restores also a great part of allelic recombination and microsatellite instability in mitochondria of Rad27 deficient cells. In contrast, the overproduction of Exo1 does not influence mitochondrial direct-repeat mediated deletions in rad27 null background, pointing to this homologous recombination pathway as the direct target of Rad27 activity in mitochondria.
Project description:The Msh2 mismatch repair (MMR) protein is critical for class switch recombination (CSR) events that occur in mice that lack the Smu tandem repeat (SmuTR) region (SmuTR(-/-) mice). The pattern of microhomology among switch junction sites in Msh2-deficient mice is also dependent on the presence or absence of SmuTR sequences. It is not known whether these CSR effects reflect an individual function of Msh2 or the function of Msh2 within the MMR machinery. In the absence of the SmuTR sequences, Msh2 deficiency nearly ablates CSR. We now show that Mlh1 or Exo1 deficiencies also eliminate CSR in the absence of the SmuTR. Furthermore, in SmuTR(-/-) mice, deficiencies of Mlh1 or Exo1 result in increased switch junction microhomology as has also been seen with Msh2 deficiency. These results are consistent with a CSR model in which the MMR machinery is important in processing DNA nicks to produce double-stranded breaks, particularly in sequences where nicks are infrequent. We propose that double-stranded break paucity in MMR-deficient mice leads to increased use of an alternative joining pathway where microhomologies are important for CSR break ligation. Interestingly, when the SmuTR region is present, deficiency of Msh2 does not lead to the increased microhomology seen with Mlh1 or Exo1 deficiencies, suggesting that Msh2 might have an additional function in CSR. It is also possible that the inability to initiate MMR in the absence of Msh2 results in CSR junctions with less microhomology than joinings that occur when MMR is initiated but then proceeds abnormally due to Mlh1 or Exo1 deficiencies.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved mutation avoidance mechanism that corrects DNA polymerase misincorporation errors. In initial steps in MMR, Msh2-Msh6 binds mispairs and small insertion/deletion loops, and Msh2-Msh3 binds larger insertion/deletion loops. The msh2?1 mutation, which deletes the conserved DNA-binding domain I of Msh2, does not dramatically affect Msh2-Msh6-dependent repair. In contrast, msh2?1 mutants show strong defects in Msh2-Msh3 functions. Interestingly, several mutations identified in patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer map to domain I of Msh2; none have been found in MSH3. To understand the role of Msh2 domain I in MMR, we examined the consequences of combining the msh2?1 mutation with mutations in two distinct regions of MSH6 and those that increase cellular mutational load (pol3-01 and rad27). These experiments reveal msh2?1-specific phenotypes in Msh2-Msh6 repair, with significant effects on mutation rates. In vitro assays demonstrate that msh2?1-Msh6 DNA binding is less specific for DNA mismatches and produces an altered footprint on a mismatch DNA substrate. Together, these results provide evidence that, in vivo, multiple factors insulate MMR from defects in domain I of Msh2 and provide insights into how mutations in Msh2 domain I may cause hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.
Project description:Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansions are the underlying cause of more than 40 neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases, including myotonic dystrophy and Huntington's disease. Although genetic evidence points to errors in DNA replication and/or repair as the cause of these diseases, clear molecular mechanisms have not been described. Here, we focused on the role of the mismatch repair complex Msh2-Msh3 in promoting TNR expansions. We demonstrate that Msh2-Msh3 promotes CTG and CAG repeat expansions in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that Msh2-Msh3 directly interferes with normal Okazaki fragment processing by flap endonuclease1 (Rad27) and DNA ligase I (Cdc9) in the presence of TNR sequences, thereby producing small, incremental expansion events. We believe that this is the first mechanistic evidence showing the interplay of replication and repair proteins in the expansion of sequences during lagging-strand DNA replication.
Project description:The acquisition of mutations is relevant to every aspect of genetics, including cancer and evolution of species on Darwinian selection. Genome variations arise from rare stochastic imperfections of cellular metabolism and deficiencies in maintenance genes. Here, we established the genome-wide spectrum of mutations that accumulate in a WT and in nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutator strains deficient for distinct genome maintenance processes: pol32? and rad27? (replication), msh2? (mismatch repair), tsa1? (oxidative stress), mre11? (recombination), mec1? tel1? (DNA damage/S-phase checkpoints), pif1? (maintenance of mitochondrial genome and telomere length), cac1? cac3? (nucleosome deposition), and clb5? (cell cycle progression). This study reveals the diversity, complexity, and ultimate unique nature of each mutational spectrum, composed of punctual mutations, chromosomal structural variations, and/or aneuploidies. The mutations produced in clb5?/CCNB1, mec1?/ATR, tel1?/ATM, and rad27?/FEN1 strains extensively reshape the genome, following a trajectory dependent on previous events. It comprises the transmission of unstable genomes that lead to colony mosaicisms. This comprehensive analytical approach of mutator defects provides a model to understand how genome variations might accumulate during clonal evolution of somatic cell populations, including tumor cells.
Project description:The S phase checkpoint is crucial to maintain genome stability under conditions that threaten DNA replication. One of its critical functions is to prevent Exo1-dependent fork degradation, and Exo1 is phosphorylated in response to different genotoxic agents. Exo1 seemed to be regulated by several post-translational modifications in the presence of replicative stress, but the specific contribution of checkpoint-dependent phosphorylation to Exo1 control and fork stability is not clear. We show here that Exo1 phosphorylation is Dun1-independent and Rad53-dependent in response to DNA damage or dNTP depletion, and in both situations Exo1 is similarly phosphorylated at multiple sites. To investigate the correlation between Exo1 phosphorylation and fork stability, we have generated phospho-mimic exo1 alleles that rescue fork collapse in rad53 mutants as efficiently as exo1-nuclease dead mutants or the absence of Exo1, arguing that Rad53-dependent phosphorylation is the mayor requirement to preserve fork stability. We have also shown that this rescue is Bmh1-2 independent, arguing that the 14-3-3 proteins are dispensable for fork stabilization, at least when Exo1 is downregulated. Importantly, our results indicated that phosphorylation specifically inhibits the 5' to 3'exo-nuclease activity, suggesting that this activity of Exo1 and not the flap-endonuclease, is the enzymatic activity responsible of the collapse of stalled replication forks in checkpoint mutants.
Project description:In the absence of core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors, Ab gene class-switch recombination (CSR) uses an alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathway to recombine switch (S) region DNA breaks. Previous reports showing decreased S-junction microhomologies in MSH2-deficient mice and an exonuclease 1 (EXO1) role in yeast microhomology-mediated end joining suggest that mismatch repair (MMR) proteins might influence A-EJ-mediated CSR. We have directly investigated whether MMR proteins collectively or differentially influence the A-EJ mechanism of CSR by analyzing CSR in mice deficient in both XRCC4 and individual MMR proteins. We find CSR is reduced and that Igh locus chromosome breaks are reduced in the MMR/XRCC4 double-deficient B cells compared with B cells deficient in XRCC4 alone, suggesting MMR proteins function upstream of double-strand break formation to influence CSR efficiency in these cells. Our results show that MLH1, EXO1, and MSH2 are all important for efficient A-EJ-mediated CSR, and we propose that MMR proteins convert DNA nicks and point mutations into dsDNA breaks for both C-NHEJ and A-EJ pathways of CSR. We also find Mlh1-XRCC4(-) B cells have an increased frequency of direct S junctions, suggesting that MLH1 proteins may have additional functions that influence A-EJ-mediated CSR.