Transcriptional profiling of the rat frontal cortex following administration of the mGlu5 receptor antagonists MPEP and MTEP.
ABSTRACT: The development of selective type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu5) antagonists, such as 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]-pyridine (MTEP), has revealed an important role for these receptors in various disorders of the nervous system including depression, anxiety, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and alcoholism. In this study, we used microarray technology to examine changes in gene expression induced by repeated administration of the mGlu5 antagonists MPEP and MTEP. Male Wistar rats (n=5 per treatment group) were administered MPEP (10 mg/kg), MTEP (10 mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days. Approximately 30 min following the final drug administration, rats were sacrificed and frontal cortices were then dissected and examined for changes in gene expression by cDNA microarray analysis. Changes in gene expression with p-values less than 0.01 were considered to be statistically significant. The expression of 63 genes was changed by both MPEP and MTEP, with 58 genes down-regulated and 5 genes up-regulated. Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of 9 of these genes (r2=0.556, p=0.017). Pathway analysis revealed that many of the biological processes altered by repeated MPEP and MTEP treatment were related to ATP synthesis, hydrolase activity, and signaling pathways associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our results demonstrate diverse effects of MPEP and MTEP gene expression in the frontal cortex, and these results may help elucidate the mechanisms by which these compounds produce beneficial effects in animal models of various disorders of the central nervous system.
Project description:We have demonstrated that blocking CXCR4 may be a potent anti-metastatic therapy for CXCR4-related oral cancer. However, as CXCR4 antagonists are currently in clinical use to induce the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, continuous administration as an inhibitor for the metastasis may lead to persistent leukocytosis. In this study, we investigated the novel therapeutic downstream target(s) of the SDF-1/CXCR4 system, using B88-SDF-1 cells, which have an autocrine SDF-1/CXCR4 system and exhibit distant metastatic potential in vivo. Microarray analysis revealed that 418 genes were upregulated in B88-SDF-1 cells. We identified a gene that is highly upregulated in B88-SDF-1 cells, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), which was downregulated following treatment with 1,1' -[1,4-Phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane octahydrochloride (AMD3100), a CXCR4 antagonist. The upregulation of mGluR5 mRNA in the SDF-1/CXCR4 system was predominately regulated by the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway. Additionally, the growth of B88-SDF-1 cells was not affected by the mGluR5 agonist (S)-3,5-DHPG (DHPG) or the mGluR5 antagonists 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and 3-((2-Methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP). However, we observed that DHPG promoted B88-SDF-1 cell migration, whereas both MPEP and MTEP inhibited B88-SDF-1 cell migration. To assess drug toxicity, the antagonists were intraperitoneally injected into immunocompetent mice for 4 weeks. Mice injected with MPEP (5 mg/kg) and MTEP (5 mg/kg) did not exhibit any side effects, such as hematotoxicity, allergic reactions or weight loss. The administration of antagonists significantly inhibited the metastasis of B88-SDF-1 cells to the lungs of nude mice. These results suggest that blocking mGluR5 with antagonists such as MPEP and MTEP could prevent metastasis in CXCR4-related oral cancer without causing side effects.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important drug targets because of their involvement in several neurological diseases. Among mGluRs, mGlu5 is a particularly high-profile target because its positive or negative allosteric modulation can potentially treat schizophrenia or anxiety and chronic pain, respectively. Here, we computationally and experimentally probe the functional binding of a novel photoswitchable mGlu5 NAM, termed alloswitch-1, which loses its NAM functionality under violet light. We show alloswitch-1 binds deep in the allosteric pocket in a similar fashion to mavoglurant, the co-crystallized NAM in the mGlu5 transmembrane domain crystal structure. Alloswitch-1, like NAM 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), is significantly affected by P655M mutation deep in the allosteric pocket, eradicating its functionality. In MD simulations, we show alloswitch-1 and MPEP stabilize the co-crystallized water molecule located at the bottom of the allosteric site that is seemingly characteristic of the inactive receptor state. Furthermore, both NAMs form H-bonds with S809 on helix 7, which may constitute an important stabilizing interaction for NAM-induced mGlu5 inactivation. Alloswitch-1, through isomerization of its amide group from trans to cis is able to form an additional interaction with N747 on helix 5. This may be an important interaction for amide-containing mGlu5 NAMs, helping to stabilize their binding in a potentially unusual cis-amide state. Simulated conformational switching of alloswitch-1 in silico suggests photoisomerization of its azo group from trans to cis may be possible within the allosteric pocket. However, photoexcited alloswitch-1 binds in an unstable fashion, breaking H-bonds with the protein and destabilizing the co-crystallized water molecule. This suggests photoswitching may have destabilizing effects on mGlu5 binding and functionality.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a target for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, mGlu5 has been shown to play an important role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, specifically in long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP), which is thought to be involved in cognition. Multiple mGlu5-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been developed from a variety of different scaffolds. Previous work has extensively characterized a common allosteric site on mGlu5, termed the MPEP (2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine) binding site. However, one mGlu5 PAM, CPPHA (N-(4-chloro-2-[(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)methyl]phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide), interacts with a separate allosteric site on mGlu5. Using cell-based assays and brain slice preparations, we characterized the interaction of a potent and efficacious mGlu5 PAM from the CPPHA series termed NCFP (N-(4-chloro-2-((4-fluoro-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)methyl)phenyl)picolinamide). NCFP binds to the CPPHA site on mGlu5 and potentiates mGlu5-mediated responses in both recombinant and native systems. However, NCFP provides greater mGlu5 subtype selectivity than does CPPHA, making it more suitable for studies of effects on mGlu5 in CNS preparations. Of interest, NCFP does not potentiate responses involved in hippocampal synaptic plasticity (LTD/LTP), setting it apart from other previously characterized MPEP site PAMs. This suggests that although mGlu5 PAMs may have similar responses in some systems, they can induce differential effects on mGlu5-mediated physiologic responses in the CNS. Such stimulus bias by mGlu5 PAMs may complicate drug discovery efforts but would also allow for specifically tailored therapies, if pharmacological biases can be attributed to different therapeutic outcomes.
Project description:Amongst the many neurotransmitter systems causally linked to the expression of social behavior, glutamate appears to play a pivotal role. In particular, metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors have received much attention as its altered function has been reported in several mouse models of autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Inhibition of the activity of mGlu5 receptors by means of genetic or pharmacological manipulations improved social deficits in some of these animal models. However, in normal wild-type (WT) mice, pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors yielded inconsistent results. The aim of our study was to investigate the actual contribution of decreased or absent mGlu5 receptor function in sociability and anxiety-like behavior as well as to explore the impact of mGlu5 receptor ablation on the pattern of brain activation upon social exposure. Here we show that Grm5-/- mice display higher social preference indexes compared to age-matched WT mice in the three-chambered social task. However, this effect was accompanied by a decreased exploratory activity during the test and increased anxiety-like behavior. Contrary to mGlu5 receptor ablation, the mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator 3-((2-methyl-1,4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) induced anxiolytic effects without affecting social preference in WT mice. By mapping c-Fos expression in 21 different brain regions known to be involved in social interaction, we detected a specific activation of the prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral septum in Grm5-/- mice following social interaction. C-Fos expression correlation-based network and graph theoretical analyses further suggested dysfunctional connectivity and disruption of the functional brain network generated during social interaction in Grm5-/- mice. The lack of mGlu5 receptors resulted in profound rearrangements of the functional impact of prefrontal and hippocampal regions in the social interaction network. In conclusion, this work reveals a complex contribution of mGlu5 receptors in sociability and anxiety and points to the importance of these receptors in regulating brain functional connectivity during social interaction.
Project description:The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are critically involved in enabling the persistency of forms of synaptic plasticity that are believed to underlie hippocampus-dependent memory. These receptors and in particular, mGlu5, are also required for hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In the hippocampus, synaptic plasticity is one of the mechanisms by which spatial information may be represented. Another mechanism involves increased firing of place cells. Place cells increase their firing activity when an animal is in a specific spatial location. Inhibition of factors that are essential for synaptic plasticity, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors or protein synthesis, also impair place cell activity. This raises the question as to whether mGlu receptors, that are so important for synaptic plasticity and spatial memory, are also important for place cell encoding. We examined location-dependent place cell firing i.e. place fields. We observed that antagonism of mGlu5, using 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP) had no effect on place field profiles in a familiar environment. However, in a novel environment mGlu5-antagonism affected long-term place field stability, reduced place cell firing and spatial information. These data strongly suggest a role for mGlu5 in the mechanisms underlying informational content and long-term stability of place fields, and add to evidence supporting the importance of these receptors for hippocampal function.
Project description:We have applied subtype-selective antagonists of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mGlu1 or mGlu5 [7-(hydroxy-imino) cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) or 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP)] to mixed rat cerebellar cultures containing both Purkinje and granule cells. The action of these two drugs on neuronal survival was cell specific. Although CPCCOEt (1, 10, 30 microm) reduced the survival of Purkinje cells, MPEP (3 or 30 microm) selectively reduced the survival of granule cells. Both effects required an early exposure of cultures to antagonists [from 3 to 6 d in vitro (DIV) for CPCCOEt, and from 3 to 6 or 6 to 9 DIV for MPEP]. Addition of MPEP from 6 to 9, 9 to 13, or 13 to 17 DIV also induced profound morphological changes in the dendritic tree and dendritic spines of Purkinje cells, suggesting that endogenous activation of mGlu5 receptors is required for the age-dependent refinement of Purkinje cell phenotype. In in vivo studies, an early blockade of mGlu1 receptors induced in rats by local injections of LY367385 (20 nmol/2 microl), local injections of mGlu1 antisense oligonucleotides (12 nmol/2 microl), or systemic administration of CPCCOEt (5 mg/kg, s.c.) from postnatal day (P) 3 to P9 reduced the number and dramatically altered the morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells. In contrast, mGlu5 receptor blockade induced by local injections of antisense oligonucleotides reduced the number of granule cells but also produced substantial morphological changes in the dendritic tree of Purkinje cells. These results provide the first evidence that the development of cerebellar neurons is under the control of mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors, i.e., the two mGlu receptor subtypes coupled to polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis.
Project description:Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have potential applications in the treatment of fragile X syndrome, levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, addiction, and anxiety; however, clinical and preclinical studies raise concerns that complete blockade of mGlu5 and inverse agonist activity of current mGlu5 NAMs contribute to adverse effects that limit the therapeutic use of these compounds. We report the discovery and characterization of a novel mGlu5 NAM, N,N-diethyl-5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)picolinamide (VU0477573) that binds to the same allosteric site as the prototypical mGlu5 NAM MPEP but displays weak negative cooperativity. Because of this weak cooperativity, VU0477573 acts as a "partial NAM" so that full occupancy of the MPEP site does not completely inhibit maximal effects of mGlu5 agonists on intracellular calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, or inhibition of synaptic transmission at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. Unlike previous mGlu5 NAMs, VU0477573 displays no inverse agonist activity assessed using measures of effects on basal [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. VU0477573 acts as a full NAM when measuring effects on mGlu5-mediated extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, which may indicate functional bias. VU0477573 exhibits an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and good brain penetration in rodents and provides dose-dependent full mGlu5 occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS) with systemic administration. Interestingly, VU0477573 shows robust efficacy, comparable to the mGlu5 NAM MTEP, in models of anxiolytic activity at doses that provide full CNS occupancy of mGlu5 and demonstrate an excellent CNS occupancy-efficacy relationship. VU0477573 provides an exciting new tool to investigate the efficacy of partial NAMs in animal models.
Project description:As class C GPCRs and regulators of synaptic activity, human metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) 4 and 5 are prime targets for allosteric modulation, with mGlu5 inhibition or mGlu4 stimulation potentially treating conditions like chronic pain and Parkinson's disease. As an allosteric modulator that can bind both receptors, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) is able to negatively modulate mGlu5 or positively modulate mGlu4. At a structural level, how it elicits these responses and how mGluRs undergo activation is unclear. Here, we employ homology modelling and 30 µs of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to probe allosteric conformational change in mGlu4 and mGlu5, with and without docked MPEP. Our results identify several structural differences between mGlu4 and mGlu5, as well as key differences responsible for MPEP-mediated positive and negative allosteric modulation, respectively. A novel mechanism of mGlu4 activation is revealed, which may apply to all mGluRs in general. This involves conformational changes in TM3, TM4 and TM5, separation of intracellular loop 2 (ICL2) from ICL1/ICL3, and destabilization of the ionic-lock. On the other hand, mGlu5 experiences little disturbance when MPEP binds, maintaining its inactive state with reduced conformational fluctuation. In addition, when MPEP is absent, a lipid molecule can enter the mGlu5 allosteric pocket.
Project description:Investigation of a series of heterobicyclic compounds with essential pharmacophoric features of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonists MPEP and MTEP provided novel structural templates with sub-micromolar affinities at the mGluR5.
Project description:Allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have been proposed as potential therapies for various CNS disorders. These ligands bind to sites distinct from the orthosteric (or endogenous) ligand, often with improved subtype selectivity and spatio-temporal control over receptor responses. We recently revealed that mGlu5 allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators exhibit biased agonism and/or modulation. To establish whether negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) engender similar bias, we rigorously characterized the pharmacology of eight diverse mGlu5 NAMs. Radioligand inhibition binding studies revealed novel modes of interaction with mGlu5 for select NAMs, with biphasic or incomplete inhibition of the radiolabeled NAM, [3H]methoxy-PEPy. We assessed mGlu5-mediated intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) mobilization and inositol phosphate (IP1) accumulation in HEK293A cells stably expressing low levels of mGlu5 (HEK293A-rat mGlu5-low) and mouse embryonic cortical neurons. The apparent affinity of acetylenic NAMs, MPEP, MTEP and dipraglurant, was dependent on the signaling pathway measured, agonist used, and cell type (HEK293A-rat mGlu5-low versus mouse cortical neurons). In contrast, the acetylenic partial NAM, M-5MPEP, and structurally distinct NAMs (VU0366248, VU0366058, fenobam), had similar affinity estimates irrespective of the assay or cellular background. Biased modulation was evident for VU0366248 in mouse cortical neurons where it was a NAM for DHPG-mediated iCa2+ mobilization, but neutral with DHPG in IP1 accumulation assays. Overall, this study highlights the inherent complexity in mGlu5 NAM pharmacology that we hypothesize may influence interpretation when translating into preclinical models and beyond in the design and development of novel therapeutics for neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders.