TLR4 signaling mediates inflammation and tissue injury in nephrotoxicity.
ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms of acute kidney injury (AKI) remain unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), widely expressed on leukocytes and kidney epithelial cells, regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. The present study examined the role of TLR signaling in cisplatin-induced AKI. Cisplatin-treated wild-type mice had significantly more renal dysfunction, histologic damage, and leukocytes infiltrating the kidney than similarly treated mice with a targeted deletion of TLR4 [Tlr4(-/-)]. Levels of cytokines in serum, kidney, and urine were increased significantly in cisplatin-treated wild-type mice compared with saline-treated wild-type mice and cisplatin-treated Tlr4(-/-) mice. Activation of JNK and p38, which was associated with cisplatin-induced renal injury in wild-type mice, was significantly blunted in Tlr4(-/-) mice. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, it was determined that renal parenchymal TLR4, rather than myeloid TLR4, mediated the nephrotoxic effects of cisplatin. Therefore, activation of TLR4 on renal parenchymal cells may activate p38 MAPK pathways, leading to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and subsequent kidney injury. Targeting the TLR4 signaling pathways may be a feasible therapeutic strategy to prevent cisplatin-induced AKI in humans.
Project description:Although leukocytes infiltrate the kidney during ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) and release interleukin 6 (IL6), their mechanism of activation is unknown. Here, we tested whether Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on leukocytes mediated this activation by interacting with high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) released by renal cells as a consequence of ischemic kidney injury. We constructed radiation-induced bone marrow chimeras using C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScNJ strains of TLR4 (-/-) mice and their respective TLR4 (+/+) wild-type counterparts and studied them at 4?h after an ischemic insult. Leukocytes adopted from TLR4 (+/+) mice infiltrated the kidneys of TLR4 (-/-) mice, and TLR4 (-/-) leukocytes infiltrated the kidneys of TLR4 (+/+) mice but caused little functional renal impairment in each case. Maximal ischemic AKI required both radiosensitive leukocytes and radioresistant renal parenchymal and endothelial cells from TLR4 (+/+) mice. Only TLR4 (+/+) leukocytes produced IL6 in vivo and in response to HMGB1 in vitro. Thus, following infiltration of the injured kidney, leukocytes produce IL6 when their TLR4 receptors interact with HMGB1 released by injured renal cells. This underscores the importance of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of ischemic AKI.
Project description:Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO). Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3) and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cancer patients. Kidney function is closely related to patients' quality of life and tumor prognosis. Cisplatin is a highly effective anti-tumor drug. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its nephrotoxicity. It has been reported that FGF21 has a renal-protective function, but the mechanisms by which it does so remain unclear. In this study, we show that the expression of FGF21 is significantly upregulated in both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> cisplatin-induced AKI models. Administration of recombinant FGF21 to cisplatin-induced AKI mice resulted in significantly decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels, as well as significantly reduced protein levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (TIM-1), C-caspase 3, and Bax. H&E-stained kidney sections from cisplatin-induced AKI mice treated with recombinant FGF21 showed a relatively normal renal tissue structure, a reduced number of necrotic sites and vacuolar changes, and decreased casts, suggesting alleviated renal tubular injury. Experiments with an AKI cell model (cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells) yielded similar results as the mouse model; recombinant FGF21 significantly downregulated protein expression levels of TIM-1, C-caspase 3, and Bax. Furthermore, administration of recombinant FGF21 to cisplatin-treated AKI models significantly increased SIRT1 expression, and the beneficial effects of FGF21 on kidney injury were reversed by <i>SIRT1</i> knockdown. Collectively, our results suggest that SIRT1 mediates the protective effect of FGF21 on cisplatin-induced kidney injury.
Project description:Sirt1, a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase, is reported to regulate intracellular metabolism and attenuate reactive oxidative species (ROS)-induced apoptosis leading to longevity and acute stress resistance. We created transgenic (TG) mice with kidney-specific overexpression of Sirt1 using the promoter sodium-phosphate cotransporter IIa (Npt2) driven specifically in proximal tubules and investigated the kidney-specific role of Sirt1 in the protection against acute kidney injury (AKI). We also elucidated the role of number or function of peroxisome and mitochondria in mediating the mechanisms for renal protective effects of Sirt1 in AKI. Cisplatin-induced AKI decreased the number and function of peroxisomes as well as mitochondria and led to increased local levels of ROS production and renal tubular apoptotic cells. TG mice treated with cisplatin mitigated AKI, local ROS, and renal tubular apoptotic tubular cells. Consistent with these results, TG mice treated with cisplatin also exhibited recovery of peroxisome number and function, as well as rescued mitochondrial function; however, mitochondrial number was not recovered. Immunoelectron microscopic findings consistently demonstrated that the decrease in peroxisome number by cisplatin in wild type mice was restored in transgenic mice. In HK-2 cells, a cultured proximal tubule cell line, overexpression of Sirt1 rescued the cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis through the restoration of peroxisome number, although the mitochondria number was not restored. These results indicate that Sirt1 overexpression in proximal tubules rescues cisplatin-induced AKI by maintaining peroxisomes number and function, concomitant up-regulation of catalase, and elimination of renal ROS levels. Renal Sirt1 can be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AKI.
Project description:Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory state in response to infection, and concomitant acute kidney injury (AKI) increases mortality significantly. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is activated in many cell types upon microbial infection and modulates inflammation. The role of endoplasmic reticulum signaling in the kidney during septic AKI is unknown. Here we tested the role of the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated pathways, in the renal response to sepsis in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model. Xbp1s was increased in the kidneys of mice treated with LPS but not in other models of AKI, or several chronic kidney disease models. The functional significance of Xbp1s induction was examined by genetic manipulation in renal tubules. Renal tubule-specific overexpression of Xbp1s caused severe tubule dilation and vacuolation with expression of the injury markers Kim1 and Ngal, the pro-inflammatory molecules interleukin-6 (Il6) and Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), decreased kidney function and 50% mortality in five days. Renal tubule-specific genetic ablation of Xbp1 had no phenotype at baseline. However, after LPS, Xbp1 knockdown mice displayed lower renal NGAL, pro-apoptotic factor CHOP, serum creatinine levels, and a tendency towards lower Tlr4 compared to LPS-treated mice with intact Xbp1s. LPS treatment in Xbp1s-overexpressing mice caused a mild increase in NGAL and CHOP compared to LPS-treated mice without genetic Xbp1s overexpression. Thus, increased Xbp1s signaling in renal tubules is unique to sepsis-induced AKI and contributes to renal inflammation and injury. Inhibition of this pathway may be a potential portal to alleviate injury.
Project description:Overexpression of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), a proximal tubular enzyme, exacerbates cellular redox injury in acute kidney injury (AKI). Ferroptosis, a newly coined term associated with lipid hydroperoxidation, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AKI. Whether or not MIOX exacerbates tubular damage by accelerating ferroptosis in cisplatin-induced AKI remains elusive. Cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells exhibited notable cell death, which was reduced by ferroptosis inhibitors. Also, alterations in various ferroptosis metabolic sensors, including lipid hydroperoxidation, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) activity, NADPH and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and ferritinophagy, were observed. These perturbations were accentuated by MIOX overexpression, while ameliorated by MIOX knockdown. Likewise, cisplatin-treated CD1 mice exhibited tubular damage and derangement of renal physiological parameters, which were alleviated by ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor. To investigate the relevance of MIOX to ferroptosis, WT mice, MIOX-overexpressing transgenic (MIOX-Tg) mice, and MIOX-KO mice were subjected to cisplatin treatment. In comparison with cisplatin-treated WT mice, cisplatin-treated MIOX-Tg mice had more severe renal pathological changes and perturbations in ferroptosis metabolic sensors, which were minimal in cisplatin-treated MIOX-KO mice. In conclusion, these findings indicate that ferroptosis, an integral process in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced AKI, is modulated by the expression profile of MIOX.
Project description:Although there is significant progress in understanding the structure and function of NLRC5, a member of the NOD like receptor (NLR) family, in the context of MHC class I gene expression, the functions of NLRC5 in innate and adaptive immune responses beyond the regulation of MHC class I genes remain controversial and unresolved. In particular, the role of NLRC5 in the kidney keeps unknown. In this study, we found that NLRC5 was significantly upregulated in the kidney from mice with renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). NLRC5 deficient (NLRC5-/-) mice significantly ameliorated renal injury as evidenced by decreased serum creatinine levels, improved morphological injuries, and reduced inflammatory responses versus wild type mice. Similar protective effects were also observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Mechanistically, NLRC5 contributed to renal injury by promoting tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and reducing inflammatory responses which is associated with, at least in part, the negative regulation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1). To determine the relative contribution of NLRC5 expression by parenchymal cells or leukocytes to renal damage during IRI, we generated bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice. NLRC5-/- mice engrafted with WT hematopoietic cells had significantly lower serum creatinine and less tubular damage than WT mice reconstituted with NLRC5-/- BM, suggesting that NLRC5 signaling in renal parenchymal cells plays the dominant role in mediating renal damage. Collectively, modulation of NLRC5-mediated pathway may have important therapeutic implications for patients with AKI. Overall design: NLRC5-/- mice and age-matched C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice were used in this study, We established a bilateral renal ischemia model for 30min and mice were sacrificed after reperfusion at 48h.
Project description:Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers an inflammatory response which exacerbates injury that requires increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. To study this further, we used in situ hybridization, immunohistology, and isolated endothelial cells, and found increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on endothelial cells of the vasa rectae of the inner stripe of the outer medulla of the kidney 4?h after reperfusion. This increase was probably due to reactive oxygen species, known to be generated early during ischemic AKI, because the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased TLR4 expression in MS1 microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Endothelial TLR4 may regulate adhesion molecule (CD54 and CD62E) expression as they were increased on endothelia of wild-type but not TLR4 knockout mice in vivo. Further, the addition of high-mobility group protein B1, a TLR4 ligand released by injured cells, increased adhesion molecule expression on endothelia isolated from wild-type but not TLR4 knockout mice. TLR4 was localized to proximal tubules in the cortex and outer medulla after 24?h of reperfusion. Thus, at least two different cell types express TLR4, each of which contributes to renal injury by temporally different mechanisms during ischemic AKI.
Project description:Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) is a common clinical critical care syndrome. It has received increasing attention due to its high morbidity and mortality; however, its pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. LIGHT, the 14th member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and a bidirectional immunoregulatory molecule that regulates inflammation, plays a pivotal role in disease pathogenesis. In this study, mice with an intraperitoneal injection of LPS and HK-2 cells challenged with LPS were employed as a model of SA-AKI in vivo and in vitro, respectively. LIGHT deficiency notably attenuated kidney injury in pathological damage and renal function and markedly mitigated the inflammatory reaction by decreasing inflammatory mediator production and inflammatory cell infiltration in vivo. The TLR4-Myd88-NF-?B signalling pathway in the kidney of LIGHT knockout mice was dramatically down-regulated compared to the controls. Recombinant human LIGHT aggravated LPS-treated HK-2 cell injury by up-regulating the expression of the TLR4-Myd88-NF-?B signalling pathway and inflammation levels. TAK 242 (a selective TLR4 inhibitor) reduced this trend to some extent. In addition, blocking LIGHT with soluble receptor fusion proteins HVEM-Fc or LT?R-Fc in mice attenuated renal dysfunction and pathological damage in SA-AKI. Our findings indicate that LIGHT aggravates inflammation and promotes kidney damage in LPS-induced SA-AKI via the TLR4-Myd88-NF-?B signalling pathway, which provide potential strategies for the treatment of SA-AKI.
Project description:Injury to the renal proximal tubular epithelium (PTE) represents the underlying consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after exposure to various stressors, including nephrotoxins and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although the kidney has the ability to repair itself after mild injury, insufficient repair of PTE cells may trigger inflammatory and fibrotic responses, leading to chronic renal failure. We report that MG53, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, participates in repair of injured PTE cells and protects against the development of AKI. We show that MG53 translocates to acute injury sites on PTE cells and forms a repair patch. Ablation of MG53 leads to defective membrane repair. MG53-deficient mice develop pronounced tubulointerstitial injury and increased susceptibility to I/R-induced AKI compared to wild-type mice. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein can target injury sites on PTE cells to facilitate repair after I/R injury or nephrotoxin exposure. Moreover, in animal studies, intravenous delivery of rhMG53 ameliorates cisplatin-induced AKI without affecting the tumor suppressor efficacy of cisplatin. These findings identify MG53 as a vital component of reno-protection, and targeting MG53-mediated repair of PTE cells represents a potential approach to prevention and treatment of AKI.