Synthesis of barbiturate-based methionine aminopeptidase-1 inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: The syntheses of a new class of barbiturate-based inhibitors for human and Escherichia Coli methionine aminopeptidase-1 (MetAP-1) are described. Some of the synthesized inhibitors show selective inhibition of the human enzyme with high potency.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out the cotranslational N-terminal methionine excision and is essential for bacterial survival. Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses two MetAPs, MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c, at different levels in growing and stationary phases, and both are potential targets to develop novel antitubercular therapeutics. Recombinant MtMetAP1a was purified as an apoenzyme, and metal binding and activation were characterized with an activity assay using a fluorogenic substrate. Ni(II), Co(II) and Fe(II) bound tightly at micromolar concentrations, and Ni(II) was the most efficient activator for the MetAP-catalyzed substrate hydrolysis. Although the characteristics of metal binding and activation are similar to MtMetAP1c we characterized before, MtMetAP1a was significantly more active, and more importantly, a set of inhibitors displayed completely different inhibitory profiles on the two mycobacterial MetAPs in both potency and metalloform selectivity. The differences in catalysis and inhibition predicted the significant differences in active site structure.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. However, many potent inhibitors of the purified enzyme failed to show significant antibacterial activity. It is uncertain which divalent metal MetAP uses as its native cofactor in bacterial cells. Herein, we describe a cell-based assay that monitors the hydrolysis of a fluorogenic substrate by overexpressed MetAP in permeabilized Escherichia coli cells and its validation with a set of MetAP inhibitors. This cell-based assay is applicable to those cellular targets with poorly defined native cofactor, increasing the chances of identifying inhibitors that can inhibit the cellular target.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) plays an essential role for cell survival. Hence, MetAP is a promising target for developing broad spectrum antibacterial agents. MetAP can be activated in vitro by a number of divalent metals, and X-ray structures show that the active site can accommodate two cations. Herein, we demonstrate bacterial growth inhibition by a compound that targets MetAP by recruitment of a third auxiliary metal. Contrary to previous beliefs, this shows that metal-mediated inhibition is a viable approach for discovering MetAP inhibitors that are effective for therapeutic application.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a promising target to develop novel antibiotics, because all bacteria express MetAP from a single gene that carries out the essential function of removing N-terminal methionine from nascent proteins. Divalent metal ions play a critical role in the catalysis, and there is an urgent need to define the actual metal used by MetAP in bacterial cells. By high throughput screening, we identified a novel class of catechol-containing MetAP inhibitors that display selectivity for the Fe(II)-form of MetAP. X-ray structure revealed that the inhibitor binds to MetAP at the active site with the catechol coordinating to the metal ions. Importantly, some of the inhibitors showed antibacterial activity at low micromolar concentration on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our data indicate that Fe(II) is the likely metal used by MetAP in the cellular environment, and MetAP inhibitors need to inhibit this metalloform of MetAP effectively to be therapeutically useful.
Project description:Cellular protein synthesis is initiated with methionine in eukaryotes with few exceptions. Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) which catalyze the process of N-terminal methionine excision are essential for all organisms. In mammals, type 2 MetAP (MetAP2) is known to be important for angiogenesis, while type 1 MetAP (MetAP1) has been shown to play a pivotal role in cell proliferation. Our previous high-throughput screening of a commercial compound library uncovered a novel class of inhibitors for both human MetAP1 (HsMetAP1) and human MetAP2 (HsMetAP2). This class of inhibitors contains a pyridinylpyrimidine core. To understand the structure-activity relationship (SAR) and to search for analogues of 2 with greater potency and higher HsMetAP1-selectivity, a total of 58 analogues were acquired through either commercial source or by in-house synthesis and their inhibitory activities against HsMetAP1 and HsMetAP2 were determined. Through this systematic medicinal chemistry analysis, we have identified (1) 5-chloro-6-methyl-2-pyridin-2-ylpyrimidine as the minimum element for the inhibition of HsMetAP1; (2) 5'-chloro as the favored substituent on the pyridine ring for the enhanced potency against HsMetAP1; and (3) long C4 side chains as the essentials for higher HsMetAP1-selectivity. At the end of our SAR campaign, 25b, 25c, 26d and 30a-30c are among the most selective and potent inhibitors of purified HsMetAP1 reported to date. In addition, we also performed crystallographic analysis of one representative inhibitor (26d) in complex with N-terminally truncated HsMetAP1.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out an important cotranslational N-terminal methionine excision of nascent proteins and represents a potential target to develop antibacterial and antitubercular drugs. We cloned one of the two MetAPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c from the mapB gene) and purified it to homogeneity as an apoenzyme. Its activity required a divalent metal ion, and Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Fe(II) were among activators of the enzyme. Co(II) and Fe(II) had the tightest binding, while Ni(II) was the most efficient cofactor for the catalysis. MtMetAP1c was also functional in E. coli cells because a plasmid-expressed MtMetAP1c complemented the essential function of MetAP in E. coli and supported the cell growth. A set of potent MtMetAP1c inhibitors were identified, and they showed high selectivity toward the Fe(II)-form, the Mn(II)-form, or the Co(II) and Ni(II) forms of the enzyme, respectively. These metalloform selective inhibitors were used to assign the metalloform of the cellular MtMetAP1c. The fact that only the Fe(II)-form selective inhibitors inhibited the cellular MtMetAP1c activity and inhibited the MtMetAP1c-complemented cell growth suggests that Fe(II) is the native metal used by MtMetAP1c in an E. coli cellular environment. Finally, X-ray structures of MtMetAP1c in complex with three metalloform-selective inhibitors were analyzed, which showed different binding modes and different interactions with metal ions and active site residues.
Project description:Drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, is emerging as a significant healthcare problem. New antibiotics with a novel mechanism of action are urgently needed to overcome the drug resistance. Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out an essential cotranslational methionine excision in many bacteria and is a potential target to develop such novel antibiotics. Two putative MetAP genes were identified in A. baumannii genome, but whether they actually function as MetAP enzymes was not known. Therefore, we established an efficient E. coli expression system for their production as soluble and metal-free proteins for biochemical characterization. We demonstrated that both could carry out the metal-dependent catalysis and could be activated by divalent metal ions with the order Fe(II) ? Ni(II) > Co(II) > Mn(II) for both. By using a set of metalloform-selective inhibitors discovered on other MetAP enzymes, potency and metalloform selectivity on the A. baumannii MetAP proteins were observed. The similarity of their catalysis and inhibition to other MetAP enzymes confirmed that both may function as competent MetAP enzymes in A. baumannii and either or both may serve as the potential drug target.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-terminal methionine from newly synthesized peptides and proteins. These MetAP enzymes are present in bacteria, and knockout experiments have shown that MetAP activity is essential for cell life, suggesting that MetAPs are good antibacterial drug targets. MetAP enzymes are also present in the human host and selectivity is essential. There have been significant structural biology efforts and over 65 protein crystal structures of bacterial MetAPs are deposited into the PDB. This review highlights the available crystallographic data for bacterial MetAPs. Structural comparison of bacterial MetAPs with human MetAPs highlights differences that can lead to selectivity. In addition, this review includes the chemical diversity of molecules that bind and inhibit the bacterial MetAP enzymes. Analysis of the structural biology and chemical space of known bacterial MetAP inhibitors leads to a greater understanding of this antibacterial target and the likely development of potential antibacterial agents.
Project description:With >1 million deaths annually, mostly among children in sub-Saharan Africa, malaria poses one of the most critical challenges in medicine today. Although introduction of the artemisinin class of antimalarial drugs has offered a temporary solution to the problem of drug resistance, new antimalarial drugs are needed to ensure effective control of the disease in the future. Herein, we have investigated members of the methionine aminopeptidase family as potential antimalarial targets. The Plasmodium falciparum methionine aminopeptidase 1b (PfMetAP1b), one of four MetAP proteins encoded in the P. falciparum genome, was cloned, overexpressed, purified, and used to screen a 175,000-compound library for inhibitors. A family of structurally related inhibitors containing a 2-(2-pyridinyl)-pyrimidine core was identified. Structure/activity studies led to the identification of a potent PfMetAP1b inhibitor, XC11, with an IC(50) of 112 nM. XC11 was highly selective for PfMetAP1b and did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity against primary human fibroblasts. Most importantly, XC11 inhibited the proliferation of P. falciparum strains 3D7 [chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive] and Dd2 (multidrug-resistant) in vitro and is active in mouse malaria models for both CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains. These results suggest that PfMetAP1b is a promising target and XC11 is an important lead compound for the development of novel antimalarial drugs.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) removes the amino-terminal methionine residue from newly synthesized proteins, and it is a target for the development of antibacterial and anticancer agents. Available x-ray structures of MetAP, as well as other metalloaminopeptidases, show an active site containing two adjacent divalent metal ions bridged by a water molecule or hydroxide ion. The predominance of dimetalated structures leads naturally to proposed mechanisms of catalysis involving both metal ions. However, kinetic studies indicate that in many cases, only a single metal ion is required for full activity. By limiting the amount of metal ion present during crystal growth, we have now obtained a crystal structure for a complex of Escherichia coli MetAP with norleucine phosphonate, a transition-state analog, and only a single Mn(II) ion bound at the active site in the position designated M1, and three related structures of the same complex that show the transition from the mono-Mn(II) form to the di-Mn(II) form. An unliganded structure was also solved. In view of the full kinetic competence of the monometalated MetAP, the much weaker binding constant for occupancy of the M2 site compared with the M1 site, and the newly determined structures, we propose a revised mechanism of peptide bond hydrolysis by E. coli MetAP. We also suggest that the crystallization of dimetalated forms of metallohydrolases may, in some cases, be a misleading experimental artifact, and caution must be taken when structures are generated to aid in elucidation of reaction mechanisms or to support structure-aided drug design efforts.